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Mumbai Metro
मुंबई मेट्रो
Mumbai metro.png
Overview
Native name मुंबई मेट्रो
Owner Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 1 (operational)[1]
3 (planned)
Number of stations 12
Daily ridership 1.5 lakh (Line 1 estimate)
Website reliancemumbaimetro.com
Operation
Began operation 8 June 2014
Train length 4–6 coach trainsets[2]
Headway 4–8 minutes
Technical
System length 11.4 km (7.1 mi) (operational)[1]
160.9 km (100.0 mi) (planned)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification 25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary[3]
Average speed 33 km/h (21 mph)[2]
Top speed 80 km/h (50 mph)[2]

The Mumbai Metro (Marathi: मुंबई मेट्रो) is a Metro system serving the Maharashtra capital city of Mumbai. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the existing, but severely overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. It will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres (39 mi). Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).

In June 2006, the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh inaugurated the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008.[4][5][6] A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013,[7][8][9] and the system's first line entered operation on 8 June 2014, as some aspects of the project were afflicted by delays and cost issues.[5][10][11][12]

History[edit]

Mumbai is the financial and commercial capital of India. It is also among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011,[13] and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum.[14] Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day,[15] and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades.[16] Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network.

Original Mumbai Metro master plan[16]
Phase Line Name of the corridor Length (km)
Phase I
(2006–2011)
1 Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar 11.07
2 Colaba - Bandra – Charkop 38.24
3 Bandra - Kurla – Mankhurd 13.37
Phase II
(2011–2016)
4 Charkop - Dahisar 7.5
5 Ghatkopar – Mulund 12.4
Phase III
(2016–2021)
6 BKC - Kanjur Marg via Airport 9.5
7 Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E) 18
8 Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar 21.8
9 Sewri – Prabhadevi 3.5

The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult and TCS, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA).[16] The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground.[17] The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of INR19,525 crore.[16] In 2010, the MMRDA revised the estimated cost of constructing the nine lines to INR36000 crore (US$5.8 billion).[17]

In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided to increase ridership on the line by running it out past Bandra to Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of INR21000 crore (US$3.4 billion),[18] and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations.[19]

On 27 February 2012, India's central government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. Money for the project is being borrowed from Japanese International Cooperation Agency (50%), the state government (16%), the central government (14%), and others.[20] In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency.[21] In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013.[22] The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.[23]

The Mumbai Metro master plan was revised by the MMRDA in 2012, increasing the total length of the proposed network to 160.90 km.[24] The following table shows the updated master plan unveiled by the MMRDA:

Line Name of Corridor[25] Length (km) Estimated cost (2012) Status
1 Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar 11.40 INR2356 Opened
2 Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd 32 INR7660 Merged with Charkop–Dahisar route
3 Colaba–Bandra–SEEPZ 33.5 INR24,430 Planning
4 Charkop–Dahisar 7.8 INR4680 Merged with Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd route
5 Wadala–Ghatkopar–Teen Hath Naka (Thane)–Kasarvadavali 30.7 INR8757 Planning as Line 4
6 Wadala–Carnac Bunder 13.5 INR2635 Cancelled[26]
7 SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg 10.5 INR4200
8 Andheri (E)–Dahisar (E) 18 INR10,800
9 Sewri–Prabhadevi 3.50 INR2100
Total 160.90 INR67618 crore (US$11 billion)

On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.[27][28][29][30]

The original Mumbai Metro master plan proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. The feasibility report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposal of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of INR22,000 crore.[31] This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.[32]

Following the opening of Line 1, MMRDA metropolitan commissioner UPS Madan statetd that the authority would focus on constructing the Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ, Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd, and Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines. He also stated that the other proposed lines had not been cancelled and that they may be implemented in the future.[33]

Network[edit]

Map showing all of the railway services in Mumbai, including the Metro, Monorail and Suburban services
A metro station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.
Line Terminals Opening date Length (km) Stations
Line 1 Versova Ghatkopar 8 June 2014 11.40 12
Line 2 Dahisar Mankhurd Planning[34] 40.2 37
Line 3 Colaba SEEPZ 2020 33 27
Line 4 Wadala Kasarvadavali Planning[35] 32 29

Line 1[edit]

Main article: Line 1 (Mumbai Metro)
A metro train arriving at the DN Nagar station during the Line 1 trial run in May 2013.

Line 1 connects Versova, Andheri in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Eastern Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi).[1] It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations.[1] Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012.[36] The line opened for service on 8 June 2014.[37] Line 1 of Mumbai Metro has 12 stations in the V-A-G corridor, Versova, D.N.Nagar, Azad Nagar, Andheri, W. E. H., Chakala, Airport Road, Marol Naka, Saki Naka, Asalpha, Jagruti Nagar and Ghatkopar.

Line 2[edit]

The second corridor that was planned to be built in the first phase was the 32 km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which was planned to have 27 stations. Like Line 1, Line 2 was proposed to be constructed on a public private partnership (PPP) model.[38] Then President Pratibha Patil launched the project in August 2009. The MMRDA appointed a consortium of Reliance Infrastructure (RInfra), SNC Lavolin Inc Canada, and Reliance Communication,[39] to carry out this phase of the project, and the concession agreement was signed in January 2010.[40] The MMRDA estimated the project would cost INR8250 crore (US$1.3 billion), while Reliance Infrastructure estimated it would cost INR11,000 crore.[41] Construction was planned to begin in August 2010 and be completed by mid-2013.[42] However, construction work had yet to begin by December 2012, leading to calls for Line 2 to be cancelled outright.[40]

The line's construction was handicapped by the lack of available land for carsheds at Charkop and Mankhurd; coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws forbade construction on the land that had been selected by the MMRDA. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) refused to give clearance for the depots.[43] MMRDA officials plan to solve the problem by shifting the location of the proposed rake depot to Malwani near Malad.[44]

On 6 September 2012, the MMRDA sent a letter to Reliance Infrastructure asking them to start work on the metro immediately or face legal action.[45][46] In response to the letter, RInfra blamed the government and MMRDA for the delayed construction work. They said that the government had failed to fulfill its contractual obligation to provide the necessary land, right of way permits and clearances.[47][48][49][50] On 8 February 2013, then RInfra CEO Sumit Banerjee claimed that the project had not advanced because the MMRDA had failed to fulfill its obligations.[51][52] On 9 August 2013, DNA reported that an MMRDA official had informed them that a 27-acre plot that was to be used as the casting yard for Line 2, was planned to be marked for use as a casting yard for Line 3. The paper called the move "a clear indication" that Line 2 "will not take off in the near future."[53] Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan told the media on 30 August 2013 that "it is now clear that Mumbai's Metro II project will now not happen."[54]

RITES submitted its final report to the MMRDA in the last week of May 2014, concluding that constructing the metro underground and extending it up to Dahisar was feasible.[55][56][57] The merged Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd line would be 40.2 km long and have 37 underground stations. The estimated cost of construction of this line is INR28,900 crore, 134% higher than the originally estimated costs of INR7,660 crore for the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd line and INR4,680 crore for the Charkop-Dahisar corridor.

Line 3[edit]

Main article: Line 3 (Mumbai Metro)

The second line to be constructed will be the 33.50 kilometre long Line 3. It will be the first underground metro line in Mumbai, and will consist of 27 stations.[58] The metro line will connect Cuffe Parade business district to SEEPZ.[59] The cost of this corridor is estimated at INR23136 crore (US$3.7 billion).[60][61] The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed in 2020.[62]

Infrastructure[edit]

Railcars of the Mumbai Metro in 2010.

Rolling stock[edit]

RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion.[63][64] In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars.[65] The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.[66]

The coaches are fire retardant,[67] air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations.[68] The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.[69]

Power[edit]

Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.[70]

Signaling and communications[edit]

The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.[2]

Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[71]

Operations[edit]

Capacity and frequency[edit]

A study in 2012 by Metro One and consultant MVA Systra estimated the daily ridership at 1.5 million.[72] Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.[68]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Know Your Metro - Features". Reliance Mumbai Metro. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Mumbai Metro project". MMRDA. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  3. ^ "Overhead Metro wires to be charged". Hindustan Times. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "Mumbai monorail to be ready by Dec, Metro by March". Business Standard. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  5. ^ a b "Mumbai's first metro may chug in 2013". DNA India. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  6. ^ "Metro, Monorail projects could miss deadline". The Indian Express. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011. 
  7. ^ "Mumbai: The connected city". Livemint. 20 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  8. ^ "Mumbai Metro trial run successful". The Times Of India. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "Mumbai Metro: trial run with train draped in flowers". NDTV. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "MMTPL to CM: Metro II will take more time, money". Mid-Day. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2012. 
  11. ^ "Metro likely to miss its August deadline". DNA India. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "Indian Bank rejigs Mumbai Metro loan account". The Financial Express. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012. 
  13. ^ United Nations Population Division - City Population. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  14. ^ Average Annual Rate of Change. United Nations Population Division. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  15. ^ Mumbai Suburban Railway Network. Western Railway – Indian Railways. Updated 9 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d "Mmrda – Projects – Mumbai Metro Rail Project". Mmrdamumbai.org. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Metro Rail-I to be operational in Mumbai in 2012". The Economic Times. 5 September 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011. 
  18. ^ "Development body in talks with CSIA". The Indian Express. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  19. ^ "Views on Colaba-Seepz underground metro sought". DNA India. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  20. ^ "Centre paves way for 3rd Metro line". Times of India. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  21. ^ "Mumbai Metro likely to get autonomy status: MMRDA". DNA India. 27 April 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  22. ^ "Soon, take a metro from south Mumbai to Thane". Hindustan Times. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  23. ^ "MMRDA to add more lines to Mumbai Metro railway project". DNA India. 8 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  24. ^ http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-and-economy/logistics/mumbai-metro3-launched-today/article6353788.ece
  25. ^ "MMRDA - Mumbai Metro Master Plan". mmrda.maharashtra.gov.in. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  26. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/mmrda-changes-decade-old-mumbai-metro-master-plan/
  27. ^ "Mumbai transport body, London counterpart ink MoU". Business Line. 2 March 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  28. ^ "MMRDA inks pact with UK transport authority". Indian Express. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  29. ^ "MMRDA, Transport for London ink MoU for under ground metro in Mumbai". Business Standard. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  30. ^ "Mumbai metro to run 150 km". Deccan Herald. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  31. ^ http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/transportation/railways/mumbai-metro-services-to-be-extended-till-thane-prithviraj-chavan/articleshow/36547492.cms
  32. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/City/Mumbai/First-Metro-line-to-be-extended-to-Wadala-and-Thane/articleshow/36565838.cms
  33. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/mmrda-changes-decade-old-mumbai-metro-master-plan/
  34. ^ Tembhekar, Chittaranjan (14 January 2014). "Tenders for Metro-II to be reinvited soon". The Times of India (Mumbai). Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  35. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/mmrda-changes-decade-old-mumbai-metro-master-plan/
  36. ^ "Metro ride in June '13? Work on crucial bridge completed". The Times of India. 26 December 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  37. ^ "Maharashtra CM Prithivraj Chavan flags off Mumbai Metro". The Times of India. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  38. ^ "MMRDA in talks for foreign funding". Indian Express. 
  39. ^ "Reliance Infra wins Rs 11,000-cr Mumbai Metro-II project - Economic Times". India Times. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  40. ^ a b "Another R-Infra project heads for termination". Business Standard. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  41. ^ "Reliance Infra's Mumbai metro phase II faces cancellation". Business Standard. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  42. ^ Jadhav, Ranjeet (9 January 2012). "MMTPL to CM: Metro II will take more time, money". Mumbai: Mid Day. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  43. ^ Siddhaye, Ninad (5 December 2009). "CRZ rules may stop Metro II in its tracks". Mumbai: DNA. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  44. ^ "MMRDA finds land for Metro II rake depot in Malwani". Mumbai Mirror. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  45. ^ "Metro II delay: Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority warns of action". Times of India. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  46. ^ "MMRDA warns RInfra over delay in second Metro line". Hindustan Times. 15 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  47. ^ "Metro’s second line project may get derailed". Times of India. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  48. ^ "Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, Reliance Infrastructure on clash course over second Metro rail". Times of India. 4 October 2012.
  49. ^ "‘No work unless state follows contract’". The Indian Express. 4 October 2012.
  50. ^ "Developer sticks to his guns, won’t start work on Metro-II". Hindustan Times. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  51. ^ "Rs 65cr spent on Metro II, work still to take off". Times of India. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  52. ^ "Metro 2 stuck in RInfra-MMRDA blame game". DNA India. 9 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  53. ^ "Mumbai's second Metro line on the verge of derailment - Mumbai - DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  54. ^ Rohit Chandavarkar, ET Bureau Aug 31, 2013, 02.58AM IST (2013-08-31). "Mumbai’s Metro II project cancelled; Metro I and other Infra projects in deep trouble - Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-09-28. 
  55. ^ "Underground Metro technically feasible: Study | The Indian Express". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  56. ^ http://www.mid-day.com/articles/metro-ii-gets-nod-for-underground-line/15288160
  57. ^ http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/mmrda-in-talks-for-foreign-funding/
  58. ^ "Cabinet clears Mumbai Metro's third line". Times of India. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  59. ^ "Further delay in Colaba-Seepz metro as govt tweaks bid norms | Business Standard". business-standard.com. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  60. ^ "Mumbai Metro Line 3 plan kicks off". Mumbai Mirror. 29 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  61. ^ "Cabinet approves Mumbai Metro Line 3: FM". Zee News. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  62. ^ "Japan’s Rs 4K crore push for Mumbai Metro". Times of India. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013. 
  63. ^ Mumbai's beautiful butterfly emerges. Railway Gazette. Retrieved on 2013-12-06.
  64. ^ "Mumbai Metro One Project updates". mumbai-metro.com. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  65. ^ "Mumbai's beautiful butterfly emerges". Railway Gazette. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  66. ^ "Mumbai metro trains raring to run, but where are tracks?". DNAIndia. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013. 
  67. ^ "A Mumbai Metro train every three minutes". DNA India. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  68. ^ a b "Metro first line hinges on Andheri bridge". Times of India. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  69. ^ Katkurwar, Saurabh (26 February 2012). "CIDCO opts for wider metro coaches". MiD DAY. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  70. ^ http://www.mid-day.com/articles/mumbais-metro-3-will-be-one-of-the-few-in-the-world-to-run-on-ac/15298168
  71. ^ "MMOPL awards contract to ABB, Siemens, SEW". Projects Today. 8 January 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2010. 
  72. ^ "Mumbai Metro may get 44 extra coaches from China". The Times Of India. 31 March 2012. 

External links[edit]


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Wed, 01 Oct 2014 10:15:00 -0700

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Mon, 29 Sep 2014 11:36:22 -0700

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Mon, 22 Sep 2014 12:14:01 -0700

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