|Native name||मुंबई मेट्रो|
|Owner||Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)|
|Locale||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||1 (operational)
|Number of stations||12 (operational)
|Daily ridership||2.77 lakh (Line 1 average)|
|Began operation||8 June 2014 (Line 1)|
|Operator(s)||Mumbai Metro One Private Limited (Line 1)
Mumbai Metro Rail Corporation Limited (Line 3)
|Train length||4–6 coach trainsets|
|System length||11.4 km (7.1 mi) (operational)
160.9 km (100.0 mi) (planned)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard gauge)|
|Electrification||25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary|
|Average speed||33 km/h (21 mph)|
|Top speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
The Mumbai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Mumbai, Maharashtra. The system is designed to reduce traffic congestion in the city, and supplement the overcrowded Mumbai Suburban Railway network. It will be built in three phases over a 15-year period, with overall completion expected in 2021. When complete, the core system will comprise three high-capacity metro railway lines, spanning a total of 63 kilometres (39 mi). Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company formed by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).
In June 2006, then-Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone for the first phase of the Mumbai Metro project. Construction work began in February 2008. A successful trial run was conducted in May 2013, and the system's first line entered operation on 8 June 2014, though some aspects of the project were afflicted by delays and cost issues.
Mumbai is the financial and commercial capital of India. It is among the largest cities in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of over 20 million as of 2011, and a population growth rate of around 2% per annum. Mumbai has the advantage of a high modal share of the public (88%) in favour of a public mass transport system. The existing Mumbai Suburban Railway carries over 7 million passengers per day, and is supplemented by the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) bus system, which provides feeder services to station-going passengers to allow them to complete their journeys. However, due to the city's geographical constraints and rapid population growth, road and rail infrastructure development has not been able to keep pace with growing demand over the last 4-5 decades. Moreover, the Mumbai Suburban Railway, though extensive, is not built to rapid transit specifications. The main objective of the Mumbai Metro is to provide mass rapid transit services to people within an approach distance of between 1 and 2 kilometres, and to serve the areas not connected by the existing Suburban Rail network.
|Phase||Line||Name of the corridor||Length (km)|
|1||Versova - Andheri – Ghatkopar||11.07|
|2||Colaba - Bandra – Charkop||38.24|
|3||Bandra - Kurla – Mankhurd||13.37|
|4||Charkop - Dahisar||7.5|
|5||Ghatkopar – Mulund||12.4|
|6||BKC - Kanjur Marg via Airport||9.5|
|7||Andheri(E) - Dahisar(E)||18|
|8||Hutatma Chowk – Ghatkopar||21.8|
|9||Sewri – Prabhadevi||3.5|
The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to TEWET in association with DE-Consult and TCS, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA). The master plan unveiled by the MMRDA in 2004 encompassed a total of 146.5 kilometres (91.0 mi) of track, of which 32 kilometres (20 mi) would be underground. The Mumbai Metro was proposed to be built in three phases, at an estimated cost of 19,525 crore. In 2010, the MMRDA revised the estimated cost of constructing the nine lines to 36000 crore (US$5.7 billion).
In 2011, the MMRDA unveiled plans for an extended Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ metro line. According to its earlier plans, a 20-km Colaba-to-Bandra metro line was to be constructed, running underground for 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from Colaba to Mahalaxmi, and then on an elevated track from Mahalaxmi to Bandra. However, the MMRDA decided to increase ridership on the line by running it out past Bandra to Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport. The 33.5-kilometre (20.8 mi) Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ line will be built at a cost of 21000 crore (US$3.3 billion), and will be the city's first underground metro line. It will have 27 stations.
On 27 February 2012, India's central government gave in-principle approval to the plan for Line 3. Money for the project is being borrowed from Japanese International Cooperation Agency (50%), the state government (16%), the central government (14%), and others. In April 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to grant the Mumbai Metro Rail Company increased management autonomy, in an effort to enhance the project's operational efficiency. In July 2012, the MMRDA announced plans to add more metro lines to its existing plan, including a line parallel to the Western Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. This line is expected to reduce the passenger load on the Western Line and vehicle traffic on the highway. Another proposed route, the 30-kilometre (19 mi), 28-station Wadala–Kasarvadvali line, received in-principle approval from the state government in 2013. The MMRDA also intends to convert the proposed Lokhandwala–SEEPZ–Kanjurmarg monorail route into a metro line.
The Mumbai Metro master plan was revised by the MMRDA in 2012, increasing the total length of the proposed network to 160.90 km. The following table shows the updated master plan unveiled by the MMRDA:
|Line||Name of Corridor||Length (km)||Estimated cost (2012)||Status|
|2||Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd||32||7660||Merged with Charkop–Dahisar route|
|4||Charkop–Dahisar||7.8||4680||Merged with Charkop–Bandra–Mankhurd route|
|5||Wadala–Ghatkopar-Mulund–Teen Hath Naka (Thane)–Kasarvadavali||30.7||8757||Planning as Line 4|
|8||Andheri (E)–Dahisar (E)||18||10,800|
|Total||160.90||67618 crore (US$11 billion)|
On 18 February 2013, the MMRDA signed a memorandum of understanding with Transport for London, the transit authority in Greater London. The arrangement will facilitate the exchange of information, personnel and technology in the transportation sector.
The original Mumbai Metro master plan proposed a line along the Thane-Teen Haath Naka-Kaapurbavdi-Ghodbunder Road route. The feasibility report concluded that the line was not feasible as most residents of Thane and its neighbouring areas travelled to Mumbai for work daily. On 14 June 2014, Chavan announced that the MMRDA was instead examining a proposal for a metro line along the new proposal of Wadala-Ghatkopar-Teen Haat Naka route. RITES will prepare the detailed project report and is expected to submit it by August 2014. The preliminary report proposed a 32 km line with 29 stations, to be built at an estimated cost of 22,000 crore. This would be the fourth line of the metro, after the previously proposed Charkop-Dahisar route was merged with the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route to form Line 2.
Following the opening of Line 1, MMRDA metropolitan commissioner UPS Madan statetd that the authority would focus on constructing the Colaba-Bandra-SEEPZ, Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd, and Wadala-Thane-Kasarvadavali lines. He also stated that the other proposed lines had not been cancelled and that they may be implemented in the future.
|Line||Termini||Opening Date||System Length||Grade||Gauge||Power||Notes|
|UG||Elevated||At grade||UG||Elevated||At grade|
|Line 1||Versova||Ghatkopar||8 June 2014||0 km||11.4 km||0 km||0||12||0||Standard||25 kV AC OHE||Completely elevated|
|Line 2||Dahisar||Mankhurd||Planning||40.2 km||0 km||0 km||36||0||0||Standard||25 kV AC OHE||Completely underground (Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd section merged with Charkop-Dahisar spur)|
|Line 3||Colaba||SEEPZ||Tendering (2014-15)||33 km||0 km||0 km||26||0||1||Standard||25 kV AC OHE||Completely underground (except Aarey Depot, which is at grade); 3 stations (CSIA T1, Sahar Road, CSIA T2) are to be constructed by MIAL|
|Line 4||Wadala||Kasarvadavali||Planning||32 km||0 km||0 km||24||6||0||Standard||25 kV AC OHE||Completely underground within Mumbai City limits, Elevated within Thane City limits|
Line 1 connects Versova, Andheri in the Western Suburbs to Ghatkopar in the Eastern Suburbs, covering a distance of 11.4 kilometres (7.1 mi). It is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations. Work on the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor, a part of Phase I, began on 8 February 2008. A crucial bridge on the project was completed at the end of 2012. The line opened for service on 8 June 2014. Line 1 of Mumbai Metro has 12 stations in the V-A-G corridor, Versova, D.N.Nagar, Azad Nagar, Andheri, W. E. H., Chakala, Airport Road, Marol Naka, Saki Naka, Asalpha, Jagruti Nagar and Ghatkopar.
The second corridor that was planned to be built in the first phase was the 32 km Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd route, which was planned to have 27 stations. Like Line 1, Line 2 was proposed to be constructed on a public private partnership (PPP) model. Then President Pratibha Patil launched the project in August 2009. The MMRDA appointed a consortium of Reliance Infrastructure (RInfra), SNC Lavolin Inc Canada, and Reliance Communication, to carry out this phase of the project, and the concession agreement was signed in January 2010. The MMRDA estimated the project would cost 8250 crore (US$1.3 billion), while Reliance Infrastructure estimated it would cost 11,000 crore. Construction was planned to begin in August 2010 and be completed by mid-2013. However, construction work had yet to begin by December 2012, leading to calls for Line 2 to be cancelled outright.
The line's construction was handicapped by the lack of available land for carsheds at Charkop and Mankhurd; coastal regulation zone (CRZ) laws forbade construction on the land that had been selected by the MMRDA. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) refused to give clearance for the depots. MMRDA officials plan to solve the problem by shifting the location of the proposed rake depot to Malwani near Malad.
On 6 September 2012, the MMRDA sent a letter to Reliance Infrastructure asking them to start work on the metro immediately or face legal action. In response to the letter, RInfra blamed the government and MMRDA for the delayed construction work. They said that the government had failed to fulfill its contractual obligation to provide the necessary land, right of way permits and clearances. On 8 February 2013, then RInfra CEO Sumit Banerjee claimed that the project had not advanced because the MMRDA had failed to fulfill its obligations. On 9 August 2013, DNA reported that an MMRDA official had informed them that a 27-acre plot that was to be used as the casting yard for Line 2, was planned to be marked for use as a casting yard for Line 3. The paper called the move "a clear indication" that Line 2 "will not take off in the near future." Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan told the media on 30 August 2013 that "it is now clear that Mumbai's Metro II project will now not happen."
RITES submitted its final report to the MMRDA in the last week of May 2014, concluding that constructing the metro elevated-underground and extending it up to Dahisar was feasible. The merged Dahisar-Bandra-Mankhurd line would be 40.2 km long and have 37 underground stations. The estimated cost of construction of this line is 28,900 crore, 134% higher than the originally estimated costs of 7,660 crore for the Charkop-Bandra-Mankhurd line and 4,680 crore for the Charkop-Dahisar corridor.
The second line to be constructed will be the 33.50 kilometre long Line 3. It will be the first underground metro line in Mumbai, and will consist of 27 stations. The metro line will connect Cuffe Parade business district to SEEPZ. The cost of this corridor is estimated at 23136 crore (US$3.7 billion). The original deadline for the project was 2016, but it is currently expected to be completed in 2020.
RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing of China was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock for Rs 6 billion. In May 2008, CSR Nanjing completed the first 16 trains, each comprising four cars. The first ten trains were reported to be ready for operation in January 2013.
The coaches are fire retardant, air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations. The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.
Unlike 97% of metro corridors worldwide which run on direct current (DC), the Mumbai Metro runs on alternating current (AC) which is more labour and cost intensive. MMRDA joint project director Dilip Kawathkar stated that AC power was chosen "after a proper study by a team of experts" which found that the AC model was "a better option". Bidders for Line 3 were reportedly in favour of the DC model. Experts believe that the decision to use AC will escalate the project cost of underground lines by 15%, since more digging is required for the rail to work on AC.
Signaling and communications
The Mumbai Metro will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements on the 11-kilometre (6.8 mi) Line 1. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.
Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the Metro's communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
Capacity and frequency
A study in 2012 by Metro One and consultant MVA Systra estimated the daily ridership at 1.5 million. The average ridership is 2.77 lakh. Travel time from Versova to Ghatkopar is expected to be approximately 21 minutes.
- Public transport in Mumbai
- Rapid transit in India
- Rail transport in India
- List of rapid transit systems
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mumbai Metro.|
- Mumbai Metro Rail Project - MMRDA site
- Mumbai Metro blog site
- Mumbai Metro map with proposed lines
- Mumbai Metro Google Mashup
- Mumbai Metro unofficial magazine