digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















The multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix is an approach to examining construct validity developed by Campbell and Fiske(1959).[1] It organizes convergent and discriminant validity evidence for comparison of how a measure relates to other measures.

Definitions and Key Components[edit]

Multiple traits are used in this approach to examine (a) similar or (b) dissimilar traits ( constructs), as to establish convergent and discriminant validity between traits. Similarly, multiple methods are used in this approach to examine the differential effects (or lack thereof) caused by method specific variance.

There are six major considerations when examining a construct's validity through the MTMM matrix, which are as follows:

1. Evaluation of convergent validity — Tests designed to measure the same construct should correlate highly amongst themselves.

2. Evaluation of discriminant (divergent) validity — The construct being measured by a test should not correlate highly with different constructs.

3. Trait-method unit- Each task or test used in measuring a construct is considered a trait-method unit; in that the variance contained in the measure is part trait, and part method. Generally, researchers desire low method specific variance and high trait variance.

4. Multitrait-multimethod — More than one trait and more than one method must be used to establish (a) discriminant validity and (b) the relative contributions of the trait or method specific variance. This tenet is consistent with the ideas proposed in Platt's concept of Strong inference (1964).[2]

5. Truly different methodology — When using multiple methods, one must consider how different the actual measures are. For instance, delivering two self-report measures are not truly different measures; whereas using an interview scale or a psychosomatic reading would be.

6. Trait characteristics — Traits should be different enough to be distinct, but similar enough to be worth examining in the MTMM.


The example below provides a prototypical matrix and what the correlations between measures mean. The diagonal line is typically filled in with a reliability coefficient of the measure (e.g. alpha coefficient). Descriptions in brackets [] indicate what is expected when the validity of the construct (e.g., depression or anxiety) and the validities of the measures are all high.

Test Beck Depression Inv Hepner Depression Interview Beck Anxiety Inv Hepner Anxiety Interview
BDI (Reliability Coefficient) [close to 1.00]
HDIv Heteromethod-monotrait [highest of all except reliability] (Reliability Coefficient) [close to 1.00]
BAI Monomethod-heterotrait

[low, less than monotrait]

Heteromethod-heterotrait [lowest of all] (Reliability Coefficient) [close to 1.00]
HAIv Heteromethod-heterotrait [lowest of all] Monomethod-heterotrait [low, less than monotrait] Heteromethod-monotrait [highest of all except reliability] (Reliability Coefficient) [close to 1.00]

In this example the first row and the first column display the trait being assessed (i.e. anxiety or depression) as well as the method of assessing this trait (i.e. interview or survey as measured by fictitious measures). The term heteromethod indicates that in this cell the correlation between two separate methods is being reported. Monomethod indicates the opposite, in that the same method is being used (e.g. interview, interview). Heterotrait indicates that the cell is reporting two supposedly different traits. Monotrait indicates the opposite- that the same trait is being used.

In evaluating an actual matrix one wishes to examine the proportion of variance shared amongst traits and methods as to establish a sense of how much method specific variance is induced by the measurement method, as well as provide a look at how unique the trait is, as compared to another trait.

That is, for example, the trait should matter more than the specific method of measuring. For example, if a person is measured as being highly depressed by one measure, then another type of measure should also indicate that the person is highly depressed. On the other hand, people who appear highly depressed on the Beck Depression Inventory should not necessarily get high anxiety scores on Beck's Anxiety Inventory. Since the inventories were written by the same person, and are similar in style, there might be some correlation, but this similarity in method should not affect the scores much, so the correlations between these measures of different traits should be low.

Analysis of the MTMM Matrix[edit]

A variety of statistical approaches have been used to analyze the data from the MTMM matrix. The standard method from Campbell and Fiske can be implemented using the MTMM.EXE program available at: http://gim.med.ucla.edu/FacultyPages/Hays/utils/ One can also use confirmatory factor analysis[3] due to the complexities in considering all of the data in the matrix. The Sawilowsky I test,[4][5] however, considers all of the data in the matrix with a distribution-free statistical test for trend.

The test is conducted by reducing the heterotrait-heteromethod and heterotrait-monomethod triangles, and the validity and reliability diagonals, into a matrix of four levels. Each level consists of the minimum, median, and maximum value. The null hypothesis is these values are unordered, which is tested against the alternative hypothesis of an increasing ordered trend. The test statistic is found by counting the number of inversions (I). The critical value for alpha = 0.05 is 10, and for alpha = .01 is 14.


  1. ^ Campbell, D.T., & FiskeD.W. (1959) Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105 "
  2. ^ John R. Platt (1964). "Strong inference". Science 146 (3642). 
  3. ^ Figueredo, A., Ferketich, S., Knapp, T. (1991). Focus on psychometrics: More on MTMM: The Role of Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Nursing & Health, 14, 387-391
  4. ^ Sawilowsky, S. (2002). A quick distribution-free test for trend that contributes evidence of construct validity. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35, 78-88.
  5. ^ Cuzzocrea, J., & Sawilowsky, S. (2009). Robustness to non-independence and power of the I test for trend in construct validity. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 8(1), 215-225.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multitrait-multimethod_matrix — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
71 videos foundNext > 

Diagnostics: Multitrait Multimethod Analyses (Psychology, Research Methods)

Whenever a new instrument (e.g. questionnaire, test, etc.) for detecting a psychological construct (e.g. intelligence, creativity, depression, etc.) is devel...


http://www.taylorstudymethod.com New! Exciting! Crushing from the shores of Hawaii! The latest in EPPP test preparation technology! It's The Taylor Study Met...

Konstruktvalidität in der Diagnostik: Multitrait- Multimethod- Analyse

Wann immer ein neues Instrument (z.B. Fragebogen, Test, etc.) zur Erfassung eines psychologischen Konstrukts (z.B. Intelligenz, Kreativität, Depressivität, e...

Streamlined Correlation Matrix - SPSS

I demonstrate how to create a streamlined correlation matrix. That is, a correlation matrix in SPSS does not have to be totally square with the same number o...

Validity - Does your measuring instrument measure, what it is supposed to measure? (Psychology)

Using bad measuring instruments can have disastrous consequences. Therefore newly developed tests, questionaires, etc. have to meet the highest standards. Al...

11 - 6 - Optional Multimethods (636)

11 - 6 - Optional Multimethods (636)

Forschungsmethodik - Lektion 5: Prüfung der Gütekriterien in der quantitativen Forschung

Herzlich willkommen bei den Vodcasts des IUBH Fernstudiums (http://www.iubh-fernstudium.de). In diesem Vodcast beschäftigt sich Axel Borschbach mit Gütekrite...

Psychology: Poverty and Intelligence (The poors' poor mental performance and self-control)

People living in poverty often show counterproductive behaviors. On average, poor people use less preventive health care (Katz & Hofer, 1994), are less atten...


http://insiderwissen-ihk-pruefung.spasslerndenk.de/, Schnell-Lernmethode für Betriebswirtschaft: Spaßlerndenk-Methode für Betriebswirt/in IHK, Technischer Be...

EPPP Study Video - SLEEP

http://www.taylorstudymethod.com New! Exciting! Crushing from the shores of Hawaii! The latest in EPPP test preparation technology! It's The Taylor Study Met...

71 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Multitrait-multimethod matrix" right now.


Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight