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Mothers' rights movements have formed in various areas, focusing on workplace issues (labor rights), breast-feeding, and rights in family law. A number of organisations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), are working to improve mother's rights and lower maternal (and infant) mortality around the world.[citation needed]

Infant formula[edit]

The WHO and UNICEF produced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (Marketing Code), the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative, and the Innocenti Declaration (of 1990). These three actions are the international standards that many countries (over 65% of the 192 WHO member states) have enacted into their national laws. There are only nine countries in the WHO that have not taken action on the Marketing Code to give it effect. The U.S. is one of those nine. The Marketing Code is used to combat false and aggressive advertising tactics infant formula companies use to sell formula, including giving away just enough free formula that the breastmilk of new mothers dry up, falsely telling mothers they will not be able to produce enough breast milk to breastfeed their children, and falsely advertising that formula-fed children are smarter than breastfed children.[citation needed] The WHO has compared the current tactics by these companies, mostly U.S. based, to the tactics that led to the Nestlé boycott in 1977.[citation needed]

The year 2007 marks the 30th anniversary of the Nestlé boycott and the 20th anniversary of the Global Safe Motherhood Conference. In October 2007, the third decennial (occurring every ten years) conference was held, entitled "Women Deliver."[citation needed]

In the United States[edit]

In the United States, unpaid family leave for 12 weeks is guaranteed for most employees of major companies by the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). Flexible working hours may be arranged by individuals with no assistance from the government. Childcare can cost more than tuition at a public university.[1] In some states (notably Pennsylvania) a woman can be turned down for a job because she is a mother.[2] There is currently a movement towards improving this situation which is focusing on improving the situation state by state.

The National Partnership for Women & Families and other organizations have advocated for longer maternity leave and fairness in the workplace for mothers. The United States lags behind most other nations in granting paid maternity leave. Most countries guarantee paid leave, with many offering more than 3 months paid leave, the U.S. doesn't guarantee a single day of paid leave.

The U.S. has very high rates of Caesarean section,[3] epidural,[4] and induction.[5] In addition, the U.S. has large numbers of formula-fed infants (and thus lower numbers of breastfed children).[citation needed] The combination of these statistics has unfortunately resulted in relatively high infant and maternal mortality rates for an industrialized nation.[citation needed] The United States is currently rated below 35 other countries in the world in terms of infant mortality.[citation needed] The U.S. has a higher infant mortality rate than the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Portugal, Cuba, Taiwan, Aruba, and many others, including most of Europe.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Totah, Paul (2008). Parents and the High Price of Child Care: 2008 Update. National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. p. 1. "In 44 states and the District of Columbia, the average annual price for child care for an infant in a child care center is higher than a year’s tuition at a four-year public college." 
  2. ^ Pennsylvania in Action! | Moms Rising
  3. ^ Rubin, Rita (January 7, 2008). "Answers prove elusive as C-section rate rises". usatoday.com. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  4. ^ Tillett, Jackie (July–September 2005). "Epidural Anesthesia: A Resource to Use Judiciously". Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing 9 (3): 207–209. 
  5. ^ Kirby, R. S. "Trends in labor induction in the United States: is it true that what goes up must come down?". Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care 31 (2): 148–151. 

Publications and External Links[edit]

  • The Motherhood Manifesto: What America's Moms Want and What to do About It, by Joan Blades and Kristin Rowe-Finkbeiner, National Books, NY 2006.
  • "Getting a Job: is there a motherhood penalty" by Shelley Correll [1]
  • "Expecting Better: A State by State Analysis of Parental Leave Programs" by Jodi Grant et al. [2]
  • "The Work, Family and Equity Index: Where does the United States Stand Globally?" by Jody Heymann et al. [www.mcgill.ca/files/ihsp/WFEI2007FEB.pdf] [Global Working Families http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/globalworkingfamilies/]
  • "Family Friendly Work Schedules" AFL-CIO [3]
  • "The High Cost of Childcare puts Quality Care Out of Reach for Many Families" by Karen Schulman (Washington DC, Children's Defence Fund, 2000) [4]
  • Battered Mothers Custody Conference
  • Mothers for Justice
  • 'Why can't I use my mother's name?' http://www.rediff.com/money/2003/aug/01spec2.htm

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mothers'_rights — Please support Wikipedia.
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Herald & Review
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 22:04:00 -0700

The Illinois Nursing Mothers in the Workplace Act establishes break times for nursing mothers. An employer is required to “provide reasonable unpaid break time each day to an employee who needs to express breast milk.” Pumping breaks must be at the ...
 
The Nation
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 10:03:45 -0700

Suchada Thaweesit, a lecturer at Mahidol University's Institute for Population and Social Research, warned that amid high demand among couples with reproduction issues or homosexual couples wishing to create their own family, surrogate mothers' rights ...
 
IrishCentral
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 01:26:15 -0700

Ireland remains as ruthless as in de Valera's times when it comes to mothers' rights. Cahir O'Doherty @randomirish September 01,2014 01:00 AM. \"Ireland's. Ireland's latest failure over abortion rights of raped women shows modern time are just as callous.
 
RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 06:07:30 -0700

Russia's Justice Ministry has placed the Saint Petersburg branch of the Soldiers' Mothers rights group on a blacklist of NGO's acting as "foreign agents." The moves comes a day after Ella Polyakova and Sergei Krivenko, two members of the Russian ...
 
The Register-Guard
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 15:44:27 -0700

“Because we hear all these stories in the news” about women being kicked out of businesses for breastfeeding, “that becomes part of our psyche,” Mahoney said. “We're pushing back and raising awareness about mothers' rights.” Follow Saul on Twitter ...
 
Huffington Post
Fri, 08 Aug 2014 06:52:30 -0700

Our fearless leader has long been a supporter of breastfeeding and mothers' rights to do so in public. Back in 1997, Arianna wrote a piece called "Breast-feeding: Sense and sensibilities," in which she expressed her disbelief at the decision of several ...

Fort Worth Star Telegram

Fort Worth Star Telegram
Sat, 09 Aug 2014 14:45:00 -0700

“The action was inconsistent with the official policy at the @ GWBLibrary which supports federal law defining a mothers rights to feed,” one tweet said. “The security guard has been disciplined and @GWBLibrary staff, contractors, and security guards ...
 
TheTyee.ca
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 21:27:34 -0700

What are mothers' rights in the workplace and how do organizations play a role in supporting them? The Tyee speaks with UBC sociology associate professor Sylvia Fuller about motherhood career penalties, as part of our three-part inequality ideas series.
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