digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Mosul Dam
MosulDam-July2012-01.JPG
Mosul Dam is located in Iraq
Mosul Dam
Location of Mosul Dam
Location 45 mi north of Mosul, Ninawa Governorate, Iraq
Coordinates 36°37′49″N 42°49′23″E / 36.63028°N 42.82306°E / 36.63028; 42.82306Coordinates: 36°37′49″N 42°49′23″E / 36.63028°N 42.82306°E / 36.63028; 42.82306
Construction began 1980
Opening date 1986
Construction cost US$1.5 billion
Operator(s) Ministry of Water Resources (17 August 2014)[1]
Dam and spillways
Impounds Tigris River
Height 113 m (371 ft)[2]
Length 3.4 km (2.1 mi)
Spillways 2
Spillway type Service: Controlled chute
Emergency: Fuse-plug ogee
Spillway capacity Service: 13,000 m3/s (460,000 cu ft/s)
Emergency: 4,000 m3/s (140,000 cu ft/s)
Reservoir
Total capacity 11,100,000,000 m3 (8,998,916 acre·ft)
Active capacity 8,100,000,000 m3 (6,566,777 acre·ft)
Normal elevation 300 m (980 ft)
Power station
Commission date Mosul 1: 1986
Mosul 2: 1985
Mosul 3: 1989
Turbines Mosul 1: 4 x 187.5 MW (251,400 hp) Francis-type
Mosul 2: 4 x 15.5 MW (20,800 hp) Kaplan-type
Mosul 3: 2 x 120 MW (160,000 hp) Francis pump-turbine[3][4]
Installed capacity 1,052 MW (1,411,000 hp)
Annual generation 3,420 gigawatt-hours (12,300 TJ)

Mosul Dam (Arabic: سد الموصل‎, Kurdish: Bêndawi Mûsil) or Chambarakat Dam, formerly known as Saddam Dam (سد صدام), is the largest dam in Iraq. It is located on the Tigris River in the western governorate of Ninawa, upstream of the city of Mosul. At full capacity, the hydroelectric dam holds about 11.1 cubic kilometres (2.7 cu mi) of water and provides electricity to the 1.7 million residents of Mosul. The dam's main 750 megawatts (1,010,000 hp) power station contains four 187.5 megawatts (251,400 hp) Francis turbine-generators. A pumped-storage hydroelectricity power plant with a capacity of 250 megawatts (340,000 hp) and a run-of-the-river dam downstream with a 62-megawatt (83,000 hp) capacity also belong to the Mosul Dam scheme. It is ranked as the fourth largest dam in the Middle East, measured by reserve capacity, capturing snowmelt from Turkey, some 70 miles (110 km) north.[5] Built on a karst foundation, concerns over the dam's instability have led to major remediation and rehabilitation efforts since the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Construction[edit]

Historical Castle of Aski Mosul before being submerged by the dam's reservoir

In order to bolster Saddam Hussein's regime during the Iran-Iraq War and promote Saddam's Arabization efforts in Northern Iraq, the construction of the Mosul Dam was important. Construction on the Mosul Dam began in 1980 by a German-Italian consortium that was led by Hochtief Aktiengesellschaft. Because the dam was constructed on a foundation of soluble gypsum, the engineers installed a grouting gallery that would allow continuous grouting of the dam's foundation in order to promote stability. Construction was complete in 1984 and in the spring of 1985, the Mosul Dam began to inundate the Tigris River, filling the reservoir which submerged many archaeological sites in the region. Because of significant structural stability issues associated with the Mosul Dam, grouting and additional construction and repairs are constant.[6][7]

Instability and remediation[edit]

The earthen embankment dam is located on top of gypsum, a soft mineral which dissolves in contact with water. Continuous maintenance is required to plug, or "grout", new leaks with a liquefied slurry of cement and other additives.[8] More than 50,000 tonnes (49,000 long tons; 55,000 short tons) of material have been injected into the dam since leaks began forming shortly after the reservoir was filled in 1986, and 24 machines currently continuously pump grout into the dam base. A September 2006 report by the United States Army Corps of Engineers noted, "In terms of internal erosion potential of the foundation, Mosul Dam is the most dangerous dam in the world." The report further outlined a worst-case scenario, in which a sudden collapse of the dam would flood Mosul under 65 feet (20 m) of water and Baghdad, a city of 7 million, to 15 feet (4.6 m), with an estimated death toll of 500,000.[9] A report on 30 October 2007 by the US Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) said that the dam's foundations could give way at any moment.[10]

In 2004, dam manager Abdulkhalik Thanoon Ayoub ordered the dam's water level, which can reach 330 feet (101 m) above sea level, to have a maximum of 319 feet (97 m), thus reducing the pressure on the structure. Nevertheless, Iraqi officials maintain that the U.S. government is overstating the risk. The Army Corps of Engineers has proposed that the Badush Dam under construction downstream be expanded to obstruct the large wave which would result if the Mosul Dam collapsed. This has been resisted by Iraqi officials, who note that the current plan for the Badush Dam is US$300 million to provide hydroelectric power and help irrigation while the proposed expansion would cost $10 billion.[9]

In 2007, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers developed and executed a US$27 million plan to help continue maintenance and repairs on the dam in the short-term. The Iraq Government is implementing a long-term solution which includes the construction of 67 m (220 ft) deep walls around the dam foundation. The ongoing project is expected to cost $4 billion and last four to five years.[6]

Demolition concerns during the 2003 invasion[edit]

Chute spillway with ski jump section to dissipate the energy of the rushing water

In early April 2003, following the invasion of Iraq by a U.S.-led coalition, military intelligence had developed several scenarios, including one in which Iraqi forces had wired the dam for detonation. This would, like a dam collapse, release the 110-metre (360 ft) high waterline of the lake reservoir, to reach Mosul in about two hours. Subsequent investigation found nearly 500 dam workers to still be at work nearly a month after pay had stopped being distributed, with security being provided by militia under the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.[5]

Richard A. Muller, a physicist and JASON Defense Advisory Group consultant on U.S. national security, wrote:

2014 takeover of dam by ISIL[edit]

Main article: Battle for Mosul Dam

For several weeks in July and August Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) held Mosul Dam.[12] On August 7, 2014, the movement captured the complex from the Peshmerga. ISIL control of the dam created fears that its power supply could be restricted or its water flows to downstream areas greatly inhibited. In a less likely scenario, there were worries the dam could be breached, causing widespread flooding and destruction downstream.[13][14]

On August 17, 2014, Peshmerga and the Iraqi Army launched a successful operation to retake control of the dam from ISIL militants. United States air strikes assisted the Kurdish and Iraqi military, damaging or destroying 19 vehicles belonging to ISIL, as well as a checkpoint near the dam.[15]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Kurdish forces 'retake Mosul dam' from IS militants". BBC News. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  2. ^ "Iraqi Dam Assessments" (PDF). Iraq: United States Army, Corps of Engineers. 6 June 2003. Retrieved 27 February 2012. 
  3. ^ "Mosul Multipurpose Development Iraq" (PDF). Poyry. Retrieved 27 February 2012. 
  4. ^ "Electrical Power Stations in Iraq" (PDF). Arab Union of Electricity. Retrieved 27 February 2012. 
  5. ^ a b "Iraqi Dam Has Experts On Edge Until Inspection Eases Fears" by Andrew G. Wright, Engineering News-Record, 5 May 2003
  6. ^ a b Daniel Pipes. "Saddam's Damn Dam". Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  7. ^ "Worries grow over Mosul Dam". 
  8. ^ "Mosul Dam Repairs Benefit Tigris Basins", defendamerica.mil, September 2005
  9. ^ a b "Iraqi Dam Seen In Danger of Deadly Collapse" by Amit R. Paley, The Washington Post, October 30, 2007
  10. ^ "Iraq dismisses Mosul Dam warnings" BBC news article BBC, October 31, 2007
  11. ^ Technology Review Online (MIT)
  12. ^ Tilghman, Andrew (2 September 2014). "Islamic State still threat to Mosul Dam, Pentagon says". Army Times. Retrieved 16 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Rubin, Alissa J. (7 August 2014). "Rebels Captured Iraq's Largest Dam". New York Times. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Ferran, Lee (7 August 2014). "Why Control of a Terrifying Dam in Iraq Is Life or Death for Half Million People". ABC News. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  15. ^ "Kurdish forces 'retake Mosul dam' from IS militants". BBC News. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosul_Dam — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
55164 videos foundNext > 

Peshmerga forces take Mosul dam in Iraq

Beyond Mosul, which is under control of the Islamic State group, Peshmerga forces are pushing in from the northeast. They have retaken control of the country's ...

Why is Iraq's Mosul dam so important? BBC News

There are conflicting reports about whether Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and Iraqi troops have fully retaken Mosul dam from Islamic State (IS) militants.

Iraq-Mosul Dam

CNN talks to a Middle East expert about the implications of ISIS controlling the Mosul Dam, Iraq's largest dam.

Mosul Dam,Tigris River,Aerial,Iraq,HD,2011 سد الموصل

Mosul Dam,Tel Afar District,Ninawa,Iraq from 34000ft,HD,2011,is the largest dam in Iraq,located on the Tigris River and built in the 1980's.Upstream from the city ...

How US airstrikes turned tide against IS at Mosul dam

Ruth Sherlock reports on the devastation caused by US airstrikes on IS forces that were holding Mosul dam in northern Iraq Get the latest headlines ...

Kurdish forces fight for Mosul Dam against ISIS - LoneWolf Sager

CNN's Nick Paton Walsh talks to the family of a man whose death at the hands of ISIS was captured on video. - LoneWolf & The Three Muskadoggies Please.

ISIS loses control of Mosul Dam

Mosul Dam is recaptured from ISIS, but the militants remain nearby. CNN's Anna Coren reports. The Islamic State (ISIS) has lost control of the Mosul Dam as ...

Mosul Dam victory strikes a blow against IS militants

Subscribe to ITV News: http://bit.ly/1yqmkCg​ Kurdish Peshmerga fighters retook Mosul Dam today, striking a blow against Islamic State militants in the country.

Airstrikes Drive ISIS From Mosul Dam | NBC Nightly News

After renewed U.S. airstrikes in Iraq, ISIS militants retreat from Mosul dam. » Subscribe to NBC News: http://nbcnews.to/SubscribeToNBC » Watch more NBC ...

Exclusive Video: ISIS in Control of the Mosul Dam!

The Islamic State of Iraq and Levant has gained control of Iraq's largest dam in Mosul. A possible explosion of the Mosul Dam by ISIS will flood half of Iraq ...

55164 videos foundNext > 

4441 news items

Rudaw

Rudaw
Thu, 02 Jul 2015 02:56:15 -0700

“ISIS launched the assault with two Humvees in two different prongs on Peshmerga on the Mosul Dam front. Peshmerga with the help of US-led coalition air strikes were able to defeat them and two ISIS fighters were incinerated inside their vehicles ...

Rudaw

Rudaw
Tue, 28 Jul 2015 06:41:15 -0700

A convoy of Kurdish Peshmerga forces near the Mosul dam at the north of Iraq. Photo: Rudaw. By Hallo Muhammad GOLALA, Diyala Province — At least seven Peshmerga have been killed by roadside explosives in the abandoned city of Golala in recent ...

Newsweek

Newsweek
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 08:56:15 -0700

The third mortar attack, near Mosul Dam, which has been the scene of intense fighting between Kurdish forces, backed by the US-led anti-Isis coalition, and Isis militants, saw a projectile fired at Peshmerga positions fail to explode on 21st or 22nd June.

Jerusalem Post Israel News (blog)

Jerusalem Post Israel News (blog)
Mon, 27 Jul 2015 07:39:28 -0700

And when ISIL captured the Mosul Dam feeding Iraq 's main reservoir again the Kurds forced ISIL to retreat. More recently it was the combined Kurdish force of PKK and Peshmerga troops that retook the strategic town of Kobane which, in the hands of ISIL ...

HydroWorld

HydroWorld
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 08:04:33 -0700

The Corps concluded in 2006 that "in terms of internal erosion potential of the foundation, Mosul Dam is the most dangerous dam in the world... If a small problem at Mosul Dam occurs, failure is likely." A University of Arkansas civil engineering ...

New York Times

New York Times
Fri, 17 Jul 2015 15:48:41 -0700

In the clearest recent incident, a 120-millimeter chemical mortar shell struck sandbag fortifications at a Kurdish military position near Mosul Dam on June 21 or 22, the investigators said, and caused several Kurdish fighters near where it landed to ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Tue, 21 Jul 2015 12:25:25 -0700

Most notably, they held off an ISIS assault on the city of Kobane during a bloody four-month long battle, and reclaimed the strategically crucial Mosul Dam soon after it fell to the militants. The Kurdish ethnic group to which they belong have also ...

Daily Caller

Daily Caller
Wed, 22 Jul 2015 11:22:30 -0700

Islamic State captured Mosul Dam, Iraq's largest, last August. By controlling electricity, militants were able cut off the supply to opponents, while local tribes were given access in exchange for their allegiance to the jihadi group, Business Insider ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight