digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















"The Kremlin" redirects here. For other uses, see Kremlin (disambiguation).
Moscow Kremlin
Native name
Russian: Моско́вский Кремль
Moscow Kremlin from Kamenny bridge.jpg
View of the Kremlin from the Moscow River.
Location Moscow, Russia
Area 27.7 hectares (0.277 km2)
Built 1482–1495
Official name: Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iv, vi
Designated 1990 (14th session)
Reference No. 545
State Party Russian Federation
Region Europe

The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Моско́вский Кремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml; IPA: [mɐˈskofskʲɪj krʲemlʲ]), sometimes referred to as simply the Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation.

The name Kremlin means "fortress inside a city",[1] and is often used as a metonym to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in a similar sense to how the White House is used to refer to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Indeed, even the Russian President's official website is Kremlin.ru. It had previously been used to refer to the government of the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and its highest members (such as general secretaries, premiers, presidents, ministers, and commissars). "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Soviet and Russian politics.



Plan of the Moscow Kremlin, 1917.

The site has been continuously inhabited since the 2nd century BC, and originates from a Vyatich fortified structure (or "grad") on Borovitsky Hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. The Slavs occupied the south-western portion of the hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s, which was unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area.

Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the 'grad of Moscow'. The word "kremlin" was first recorded in 1331 disputed (see Max Vasmer online (Russian)). The grad was greatly extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339.[2]

Seat of grand dukes[edit]

The Church of St. John Climacus (1328), the Transfiguration Monastery's Katholikon (1330), and the Archangel Cathedral (1333) — all built of limestone and decorated with elaborate carving, each crowned by a single dome. Of these churches, the reconstructed Saviour Cathedral alone survived into the 20th century, only to be pulled down at the urging of Stalin in 1933.

Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls;[3] this fortification withstood a siege by Khan Tokhtamysh. Dmitri's son Vasily I resumed construction of churches and cloisters in the Kremlin. The newly built Annunciation Cathedral was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, and Prokhor in 1405. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Dmitri's tutor, Metropolitan Alexis; while his widow, Eudoxia, established the Ascension Convent in 1397.

Residence of the tsars[edit]

"Kremlenagrad": the first detailed map of the Kremlin (1663).
The Assumption Cathedral was the site of coronation of Russian tsars.

Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, like Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, and Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince. It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, and the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600. The Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495.[4] Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design.

After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel. The Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town (Kitay-gorod) by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which Saint Basil's Cathedral was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar also renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, and endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin. The metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and boasted the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, which was described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.

During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis, the Kremlin witnessed the Moscow Uprising of 1682, from which czar Peter barely escaped. As a result both of them disliked the Kremlin. Three decades later, Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg.

Imperial period[edit]

View from across the Moskva River in the 1820s.
A 17th-century hall in the Terem Palace, as painted in the 1840s.
A panoramic view of the Moscow Kremlin in 1908.
Reception of the Tsar of Russia in the Moscow Kremlin.

Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasili Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall. After the preparations were over, construction halted due to lack of funds. Several years later, the architect Matvey Kazakov supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, and constructed the spacious and luxurious offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia.

During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with the time's fashion.[5]

Following the French invasion of Russia in 1812, the French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October. When Napoleon retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and fires damaged the Faceted Chamber and churches. Explosions continued for three days, from 21 to 23 October. Fortunately, the rain damaged the fuses, and the damage was less severe than intended. Restoration works were held in 1816–19, supervised by Osip Bove. During the remainder of Alexander I's reign, several ancient structures were renovated in a fanciful neo-Gothic style, but many others were condemned as "disused" or "dilapidated" (including all the buildings of the Trinity metochion) and simply torn down.

On visiting Moscow for his coronation festivities, Nicholas I was not satisfied with the Grand, or Winter, Palace, which had been erected to Rastrelli's design in the 1750s. The elaborate Baroque structure was demolished, as was the nearby church of St. John the Precursor, built by Aloisio the New in 1508 in place of the first church constructed in Moscow. The architect Konstantin Thon was commissioned to replace them with the Grand Kremlin Palace, which was to rival the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in its dimensions and the opulence of its interiors. The palace was constructed in 1839–49, followed by the new building of the Kremlin Armoury in 1851.

After 1851, the Kremlin changed little until the Russian Revolution of 1917; the only new features added during this period were the Monument to Alexander II and a stone cross marking the spot where Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was assassinated by Ivan Kalyayev in 1905. These monuments were destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

Soviet period and beyond[edit]

The famous Spasskaya tower, with its ruby star added in 1937. The Kremlin Wall Necropolis is in the foreground.

The Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow on 12 March 1918. Vladimir Lenin selected the Kremlin Senate as his residence. Joseph Stalin also had his personal rooms in the Kremlin. He was eager to remove from his headquarters all the "relics of the tsarist regime". Golden eagles on the towers were replaced by shining Kremlin stars, while the wall near Lenin's Mausoleum was turned into the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

The Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent, with their 16th-century cathedrals, were dismantled to make room for the military school and Palace of Congresses. The Little Nicholas Palace and the old Saviour Cathedral were pulled down as well. The residence of the Soviet government was closed to tourists until 1955. It was not until the Khrushchev Thaw that the Kremlin was reopened to foreign visitors. The Kremlin Museums were established in 1961 and the complex was among the first Soviet patrimonies inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1990.

Although the current director of the Kremlin Museums, Elena Gagarina (Yuri Gagarin's daughter) advocates a full-scale restoration of the destroyed cloisters, recent developments have been confined to expensive restoration of the original interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace, which were altered during Stalin's rule. The Patriarch of Moscow has a suite of rooms in the Kremlin, but divine service in the Kremlin cathedrals is held irregularly, because they are still administered as museums.


Bird's-eye drawing of the Kremlin. The Red Square is indicated with a circle.
Five double-headed Russian coat-of-arms eagles (below) substituting the former state emblem of the Soviet Union and the “СССР” letters (above) in the facade of the Grand Kremlin Palace after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

The existing Kremlin walls and towers were built by Italian masters over the years 1485 to 1495. The irregular triangle of the Kremlin wall encloses an area of 275,000 square metres (68 acres). Its overall length is 2,235 metres (2,444 yards), but the height ranges from 5 to 19 metres, depending on the terrain. The wall's thickness is between 3.5 and 6.5 metres.

Originally there were eighteen Kremlin towers, but their number increased to twenty in the 17th century. All but three of the towers are square in plan. The highest tower is the Troizkaya, which was built up to its present height of 73,9 metres in 1495. Most towers were originally crowned with wooden tents; the extant brick tents with strips of colored tiles go back to the 1680s.

Cathedral Square is the heart of the Kremlin. It is surrounded by six buildings, including three cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Dormition was completed in 1479 to be the main church of Moscow and where all the Tsars were crowned. The massive limestone facade, capped with its five golden cupolas was the design of Aristotele Fioravanti. Several important metropolitans and patriarchs are buried there, including Peter and Makarii. The gilded, three-domed Cathedral of the Annunciation was completed next in 1489, only to be reconstructed to a nine-domed design a century later. On the south-east of the square is the much larger Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (1508), where almost all the Muscovite monarchs from Ivan Kalita to Alexis I of Russia are interred. (Boris Godunov was originally buried there, but was moved to the Trinity Monastery.)

There are two domestic churches of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Church of the Twelve Apostles (1653–56) and the exquisite one-domed Church of the Deposition of the Virgin's Robe, built by Pskov artisans over the years 1484–88 and featuring superb icons and frescoes from 1627 and 1644.

The other notable structure is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower on the north-east corner of the square, which is said to mark the exact centre of Moscow and resemble a burning candle. Completed in 1600, it is 81 metres (266 feet) high. Until the Russian Revolution, it was the tallest structure in the city, as construction of buildings taller than that was forbidden. Its 21 bells would sound the alarm if any enemy was approaching. The upper part of the structure was destroyed by the French during the Napoleonic Invasion and has, of course, been rebuilt. The Tsar bell, the largest bell in the world, stands on a pedestal next to the tower.

Inside the Terem Palace.

The oldest secular structure still standing is Ivan III's Palace of Facets (1491), which holds the imperial thrones. The next oldest is the first home of the royal family, the Terem Palace. The original Terem Palace was also commissioned by Ivan III, but most of the existing palace was built in the 17th century. The Terem Palace and the Palace of Facets are linked by the Grand Kremlin Palace. This was commissioned by Nicholas I in 1838. The largest structure in the Kremlin, it cost an exorbitant sum of eleven million rubles to build and more than one billion dollars to renovate in the 1990s. It contains dazzling reception halls, a ceremonial red staircase, private apartments of the tsars, and the lower storey of the Resurrection of Lazarus church (1393), which is the oldest extant structure in the Kremlin and the whole of Moscow.

The northern corner of the Kremlin is occupied by the Arsenal, which was originally built for Peter the Great in 1701. The southwestern section of the Kremlin holds the Armoury building. Built in 1851 to a Renaissance Revival design, it is currently a museum housing Russian state regalia and Diamond fund.

The haloalkaliphilic methylotrophic bacterium Methylophaga murata was first isolated from deteriorating marble in the Kremlin [6]


In order to stop the disruptions to Moscow traffic caused by motorcades, President Vladimir Putin authorized the construction of the Kremlin helipad. The helipad was completed in May 2013. The President will now commute back and forth to the Kremlin using a Soviet-designed Mi-8 helicopter. Careful consideration was taken in choosing the location of the helipad, the location chosen is said to be of no threat to the architecture of the Kremlin. Chairman of the Government Dmitry Medvedev has been using a helicopter for his commute in St. Petersburg since 2012.

Moscow Metro[edit]

The nearest stations to the Moscow Kremlin are: Biblioteka Imeni Lenina (Sokolnicheskaya Line), Arbatskaya (Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line), Alexandrovsky Sad (Filyovskaya Line) and Borovitskaya (Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line).



  • Ivanov V. N. Московский Кремль. Moscow, 1971.
  • Nenakormova I. S. Государственные музеи Московского Кремля. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1987.frt


  1. ^ "Кремль". Vasmer Etymological dictionary. 
  2. ^ Michael C. Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia 1550–1682", The Journal of Military History 68, No. 1 (January 2004), 31.
  3. ^ Paul, "Military Revolution in Russia," 31.
  4. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 31.
  5. ^ Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Почему кремлевские стены красили в белый цвет
  6. ^ Doronina NV; Li TsD; Ivanova EG; Trotsenko IuA. (2005). "Methylophaga murata sp. nov.: a haloalkaliphilic aerobic methylotroph from deteriorating marble]". Mikrobiologiia 74. PMID 16211855. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 55°45′6″N 37°37′4″E / 55.75167°N 37.61778°E / 55.75167; 37.61778

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moscow_Kremlin — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
291750 videos foundNext > 

Inside Kremlin: What's hidden from public eye? (RT Documentary)

Take a trip to the heart of Russia! With the help of RT's correspondent Sophie Shevardnadze, you'll see parts of the Moscow Kremlin hidden from public view; ...

The Kremlin and Red Square

Recorded August 30-31, 2013 This is an excerpt from my complete Moscow video found at http://youtu.be/q05EFU4eUhc. From: http://timvp.com.

Moscow Tour: Red Square, Kremlin, Sapsan - HD

Moscow Russia: subways, Red Square, Kremlin, Sapsan bullet train. Московский метрополитен.

Kremlin Inside - Part 1

From a bird's-eye view the oddly-shaped triangle formed by Moscow's Kremlin could be seen as the heart of Russia. A small state withing a state: those red wa...

The Kremlin 1/4

The Kremlin a Documentary film Part 1/4 Once the heart of Soviet Russian and the center of the communist world, The Kremlin embodies the rich and fascinating...

Moscow Kremlin-Red Square 2012

Moscow Kremlin, Red Square 2012 music used: Rondo Veneziano - Pulcinella, Lordan - Atlantis, Karunesh - Back Home.

Peal of the bells of Spasskaya Tower's chiming clock in Moscow Kremlin

Moscow Kremlin clock strikes the small musical phrase each 15 minutes. In the first quarter of hour the phrase executes once, in the second — two times, in t...

Kremlin, Moscow

Moscow Out: Kremlin inside the walls

Kremlin programme number two! In this week's exciting programme, Martyn Andrews and the team take their TV cameras inside the Kremlin. What new and revealing...

Moscow Kremlin Church Bells

Moscow Kremlin Cathedral Square, Noon-time bells.

291750 videos foundNext > 

433 news items

Wed, 02 Jul 2014 06:39:31 -0700

BEIJING, July 02. /ITAR-TASS/. The Kremlin Museums and the Beijing National Museum will exchange exhibitions in 2016-2017. Moscow Kremlin Museum Director-General Yelena Gagarina said this on Wednesday, July 1. She has arrived in Beijing for talks ...

The Moscow Times

International Business Times AU
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 20:11:15 -0700

Five days after the downing of Malaysia Airlines MH17 over eastern Ukraine, leaders of the European Union finally met on Tuesday to deliberate sanctions against Russia. They agreed imposing travel bans against high-ranking Russian government officials ...

International Business Times AU

International Business Times AU
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 21:41:15 -0700

Russian President Vladimir Putin heads a meeting of the Security Council in Moscow's Kremlin July 22, 2014. REUTERS/Mikhail Klimentyev/RIA Novosti/Kremlin (RUSSIA - Tags: POLITICS) ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A ...

The Moscow Times

The Moscow Times
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 00:30:00 -0700

A member of the Kremlin's human rights council suffered first-degree burns after attackers in Voronezh threw antiseptic in his face — the latest in a spate of attacks against rights groups in the city, local activists said. Andrei Yurov, a member of ...

The Moscow Times

The Moscow Times
Thu, 03 Jul 2014 10:37:30 -0700

Maxim Stulov / VedomostiAfter Ukraine's Orange Revolution 10 years ago, in which young people emerged as a driving force for change through mass public protests, Moscow decided to create its own loyal youth movement. President Vladimir Putin signaled ...

Kyiv Post

Kyiv Post
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 00:58:02 -0700

A member of the Kremlin's human rights council suffered first-degree burns after attackers in Voronezh threw antiseptic in his face - the latest in a spate of attacks against rights groups in the city, local activists said. Read the story here. READ ...
Huffington Post UK
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 04:45:01 -0700

It was made in the Soviet Union, although in a display of local one-upmanship, the architects had it constructed to be three times the size of the star adorning the tower of Moscow's Kremlin. The monument was abandoned in 1989 and gifted to the state ...

Deseret News

Deseret News
Tue, 08 Jul 2014 02:33:45 -0700

Russian President Vladimir Putin listens Russia's economic development minister Alexei Ulyukayev, right, in Moscow's Kremlin on Monday, July 7, 2014. RIA Novosti, Alexei Nikolsky, Presidential Press Service, Associated Press. Enlarge photo». Summary.

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Moscow Kremlin

You can talk about Moscow Kremlin with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!