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For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation).
The Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, and US Capitol. The planned US capital Washington D.C. is built around monuments commemorating founding fathers of the United States.
The Great Pyramid of Giza built almost 5000 years ago as pharaoh's tomb, one of the Seven Wonders and enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization since antiquity.
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy, as well as the symbol of Western Civilization.
The Eiffel Tower, in Paris (France), a monument commemorating the French Revolution for its centenary
The Dome of the Rock, a shrine on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, covering the Foundation Stone which bears great significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims.

A monument is a type of structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event, or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or as an example of historic architecture. The term 'monument' is often applied to buildings or structures that are considered examples of important architectural and/or cultural heritage.[1]

Etymology[edit]

In English the word "monumental" is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but also to mean simply anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art. The word comes from the Latin "monere," which means 'to remind', 'to advise' or 'to warn.'[2]

Creation and functions[edit]

Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric tumuli, dolmens, and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, and the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are often the source of much of our information and art from those cultures.[3] As societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy and the Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Islamic Indian Taj Mahal or the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states. The term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument.

Monuments are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as Washington D.C., New Delhi and Brasília are often built around monuments. For example, the Washington Monument's location was conceived by L'Enfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias" ("Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe.

Structures created for others purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may also be regarded as monuments. This can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of Oradour-sur-Glane in France. Many countries use Ancient monument or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or archeological sites which may originally have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings.

Monuments are also often designed to convey historical or political information. They can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the column of Trajan or the numerous statues of Lenin in the Soviet Union. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building (James Farley Post Office), after former Postmaster General James Farley.[4]

The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are frequently 'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of 'protection' from the ideological impurity of the west, dissidents and others would often argue that it was symbolic of the inherent repression and paranoia of that state. This contention of meaning is a central theme of modern 'post processual' archaeological discourse.

Protection and preservation[edit]

The term is often used to describe any structure that is a significant and legally protected historic work, and many countries have equivalents of what is called in United Kingdom legislation a Scheduled Monument, which often include relatively recent buildings constructed for residential or industrial purposes, with no thought at the time that they would come to be regarded as "monuments".

Until recently, it was customary for archaeologists to study large monuments and pay less attention to the everyday lives of the societies that created them. New ideas about what constitutes the archaeological record have revealed that certain legislative and theoretical approaches to the subject are too focused on earlier definitions of monuments. An example has been the United Kingdom's Scheduled Ancient Monument laws.

Other than municipal or national government that protecting the monuments in their jurisdiction, there are institutions dedicated on the efforts to protect and preserve monuments that considered to possess special natural or cultural significance for the world, such as and UNESCO's World Heritage Site programme[5] and World Monuments Fund.[1]

Recently, more and more monuments are being preserved digitally (in 3D models) through organisations as CyArk.[6]

Types[edit]

Examples of notable monuments[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Preserving Cultural Heritages". wmf.org. World Monument Fund. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  2. ^ "Monument - definition of". thefreedictionary.com. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  3. ^ Patton, Mark (1993) Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany. Routledge, London, ISBN 0415067294, pp. 1–7
  4. ^ David Gardner Chardavoyne (2012), United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan: People, Law, and Politics, Wayne State University Press, p. 194
  5. ^ "World Heritage". 
  6. ^ CyArk preserving monuments digitally

Further reading[edit]

  • Cynthia Phillips and Shana Priwer, Ancient Monuments, M E Sharpe Reference, 2008
  • Françoise Choay, The invention of the historic monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001
  • Henri Stierlin, Great monuments of the ancient world, Thames & Hudson, 2005
  • Subinoy Gangopadhyay, Testimony of Stone : Monuments of India, Dasgupta & Co., 2002

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monument — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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Sun, 31 Aug 2014 20:33:45 -0700

The St. Louis area is home to the second-largest Bosnian population in the world. Many Bosnians in the area fled war in their home country to seek refuge here. Now that community has created a permanent monument of gratitude to the city of St. Louis.

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Mon, 01 Sep 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Minnesota's 8th Circuit court has ruled that a monument featuring the Ten Commandments in Fargo's Civic Plaza does not violate separation of church and state laws, Courthouse News reports. The statue, which was donated by civic group the Fraternal ...
 
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Sun, 31 Aug 2014 13:17:50 -0700

By golly, it's a monument to celebrate an important and overlooked segment of Durango society. We're talking about the tubers. Tubing on the Animas River has an economic impact of at least several hundred dollars, mostly in the form of quarters spent ...

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Mon, 01 Sep 2014 13:24:03 -0700

LILLY BOROUGH, CAMBRIA COUNTY - After more than a decade of fundraising and planning, people n Lilly had a special Labor Day celebration, getting a chance to honor the industry and the people behind it that helped this area grow. “My buddy said ...

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Wed, 27 Aug 2014 06:07:30 -0700

Hundreds gathered at a community meeting Tuesday night and called on the Obama Administration to designate the San Gabriel Mountains a national monument. The designation would increase protections for the area, bring additional funding and improve ...

Chicago Sun-Times

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Fri, 29 Aug 2014 16:54:38 -0700

The late Emmett Till's cousin Ollie Gordon nearly choked up Friday as she stood on the grounds of Burr Oak Cemetery where Till's remains are buried and where a grave reselling scandal had brought many to tears. But on this day, she felt some peace ...

The Idaho Statesman

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Sat, 30 Aug 2014 10:15:00 -0700

The Fremont County Commission decided to add the advisory initiative to the ballot after Tea Party members successfully killed a county backed futures study that included consideration of the monument Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne studied in 2008.
 
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Mon, 01 Sep 2014 15:18:45 -0700

The group, formed in 1997 to support the SNRA said it does not oppose a national monument outside the SNRA nor does it support it. But it reiterated its support for Republican Rep. Mike Simpson's Central Idaho Economic Development and Recreation Act.
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