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For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation).
The Lincoln Memorial, Washington Monument, and US Capitol. The planned US capital Washington D.C. is built around monuments commemorating founding fathers of the United States.
The Great Pyramid of Giza built almost 5000 years ago as pharaoh's tomb, one of the Seven Wonders and enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization since antiquity.
The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, the Athenian democracy, as well as the symbol of Western Civilization.
The Eiffel Tower, in Paris (France), a monument commemorating the French Revolution for its centenary
The Dome of the Rock, a shrine on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, covering the Foundation Stone which bears great significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims.

A monument is a type of structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event, or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or as an example of historic architecture. The term 'monument' is often applied to buildings or structures that are considered examples of important architectural and/or cultural heritage.[1]

Etymology[edit]

In English the word "monumental" is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but also to mean simply anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art. The word comes from the Latin "monere," which means 'to remind', 'to advise' or 'to warn.'[2]

Creation and functions[edit]

Monuments have been created for thousands of years, and they are often the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric tumuli, dolmens, and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, and the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are often the source of much of our information and art from those cultures.[3] As societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy and the Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Islamic Indian Taj Mahal or the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states. The term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument.

Monuments are frequently used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as Washington D.C., New Delhi and Brasília are often built around monuments. For example, the Washington Monument's location was conceived by L'Enfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are already important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one. As Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias" ("Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!"), the purpose of monuments is very often to impress or awe.

Structures created for others purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may also be regarded as monuments. This can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of Oradour-sur-Glane in France. Many countries use Ancient monument or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or archeological sites which may originally have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings.

Monuments are also often designed to convey historical or political information. They can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the column of Trajan or the numerous statues of Lenin in the Soviet Union. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building (James Farley Post Office), after former Postmaster General James Farley.[4]

The social meanings of monuments are rarely fixed and certain and are frequently 'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of 'protection' from the ideological impurity of the west, dissidents and others would often argue that it was symbolic of the inherent repression and paranoia of that state. This contention of meaning is a central theme of modern 'post processual' archaeological discourse.

Protection and preservation[edit]

The term is often used to describe any structure that is a significant and legally protected historic work, and many countries have equivalents of what is called in United Kingdom legislation a Scheduled Monument, which often include relatively recent buildings constructed for residential or industrial purposes, with no thought at the time that they would come to be regarded as "monuments".

Until recently, it was customary for archaeologists to study large monuments and pay less attention to the everyday lives of the societies that created them. New ideas about what constitutes the archaeological record have revealed that certain legislative and theoretical approaches to the subject are too focused on earlier definitions of monuments. An example has been the United Kingdom's Scheduled Ancient Monument laws.

Other than municipal or national government that protecting the monuments in their jurisdiction, there are institutions dedicated on the efforts to protect and preserve monuments that considered to possess special natural or cultural significance for the world, such as and UNESCO's World Heritage Site programme[5] and World Monuments Fund.[1]

Recently, more and more monuments are being preserved digitally (in 3D models) through organisations as CyArk.[6]

Types[edit]

Examples of notable monuments[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Preserving Cultural Heritages". wmf.org. World Monument Fund. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  2. ^ "Monument - definition of". thefreedictionary.com. The Free Dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  3. ^ Patton, Mark (1993) Statements in Stone: Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany. Routledge, London, ISBN 0415067294, pp. 1–7
  4. ^ David Gardner Chardavoyne (2012), United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan: People, Law, and Politics, Wayne State University Press, p. 194
  5. ^ "World Heritage". 
  6. ^ CyArk preserving monuments digitally

Further reading[edit]

  • Cynthia Phillips and Shana Priwer, Ancient Monuments, M E Sharpe Reference, 2008
  • Françoise Choay, The invention of the historic monument, Cambridge University Press, 2001
  • Henri Stierlin, Great monuments of the ancient world, Thames & Hudson, 2005
  • Subinoy Gangopadhyay, Testimony of Stone : Monuments of India, Dasgupta & Co., 2002

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monument — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

94180 news items

Wall Street Journal

Wall Street Journal
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 09:30:54 -0700

BUDAPEST—The Hungarian sculptor whose monument commemorating the victims of the German Nazi occupation of Hungary has caused controversy said the work was intended to serve as a reconciliation between Jewish and non-Jewish Hungarians.

Deseret News

Deseret News
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 15:13:11 -0700

Chief ranger Lee Buschkowsky said the monument's staff is "stepping up" its cougar safety education program due to a recent increase in sightings. Hikers, boaters and campers are encouraged to be alert for the presence of cougars and report sightings ...
 
The Oregonian
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 14:30:19 -0700

To the north, resting in Montana in between Yellowstone and Badlands National Parks, lies Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument. It sits near I-90 east and south of Billings. Some will remember it by its older, hagiographic name of Custer's ...

Deseret News

Salt Lake Tribune
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 15:37:55 -0700

Fourteen liberal senators sent a letter to President Barack Obama on Wednesday urging him to create a new national monument in southeastern Utah forever protecting redrock mesas, ancient cliff dwellings and a hunting site that's 12,000 years old. The ...
 
Lincoln Journal Star
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 12:05:02 -0700

Selecting a design for the monument was a difficult and controversial process. An advisory committee of experts in history, sculpture and coin collecting and members of the public looked at 12 designs, many with a plowing theme. Homesteaders, horses ...
 
WCSH-TV
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 05:19:33 -0700

LePage's office said Thursday that the New Gloucester Veterans Monument will have the names of more than 1,140 local veterans engraved on granite tablets. The American flag, state of Maine flag and flag honoring prisoners of war and those missing in ...

RT

RT
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 09:19:52 -0700

One of the individuals, former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard Tom Metzger, “says he's considering at some point building a monument to the white race,” the AP reported, “or perhaps erecting a sign imploring oil companies to not destroy the environment.”.
 
Los Angeles Times
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 06:05:50 -0700

Simpson, 47, owner of a Navajo tour company, stands in the center of an internecine tribal development controversy within a park whose timeless 1,000-foot-tall monoliths have become a symbol of the untamed West. The Monument Valley Navajo Tribal Park ...
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