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Military coups in Pakistan began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts. There have also been numerous unsuccessful attempts since 1949. Since its independence in 1947, Pakistan has spent several decades under military rule (1958 – 1971, 1977 – 1988, 1999 – 2008).

1958 coup[edit]

In 1958, the first Pakistani President Major General Iskander Mirza dismissed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the government of Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon, appointing army commander-in-chief Gen. Ayub Khan as the Chief martial law administrator. Thirteen days later, Mirza himself was deposed by Ayub Khan, who appointed himself president.[1]

1977 coup (Operation Fair Play)[edit]

Main article: Operation Fair Play

Operation Fair Play was the code-name for the coup d'etat conducted at midnight on July 4, 1977 by the Pakistani military led by army chief Gen. Zia-ul-Haq against the government of then-Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[2][3] Near midnight on July 4, 1977 the army chief General Zia ordered the arrest of Bhutto, his ministers and other leaders of both the Pakistan People's Party and the Pakistan National Alliance.[2] In a nationally televised address, General Zia announced that the National Assembly of Pakistan and all provincial assemblies were dissolved, and that the Constitution of Pakistan was suspended.[2]

1999 coup[edit]

In October, 1999 senior officers loyal to army chief Gen. Pervez Musharraf arrested prime minister Nawaz Sharif and his ministers after thwarting the Sharif regime's attempt to dismiss Musharraf and prevent his plane from landing in Pakistan as he returned from a visit to Sri Lanka.[4]

Indirect intervention[edit]

The death of Zia-ul-Haq led to the appointment of Ghulam Ishaq Khan as President. Khan had vast, unchecked Presidential powers. And was known to be close to the Pakistani military, Khan had dismissed both Benazir Bhutto in 1990 and Nawaz Sharif as Prime Minister in 1993, the latter resulted in his own resignation and is known in Pakistan as the Waheed Kakar formula.

Unsuccessful coup attempts[edit]

There have been numerous unsuccessful coup attempts in Pakistani history. The first noted attempt was the Rawalpindi conspiracy in 1949 led by Maj. Gen. Akbar Khan along with left-wing activists and sympathetic officers against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan's first prime minister.[1] Prominent poet-intellectual Faiz Ahmed Faiz was suspected of involvement.[5] In 1980, a plot by Maj. Gen. Tajammul Hussain Malik to assassinate Zia-ul-Haq on Pakistan Day on March 23, 1980 was exposed and thwarted.[6][2] In 1995, a coup attempt against the government of Benazir Bhutto led by Maj. Gen. Zahirul Islam Abbasi with the support of Islamic extremists was foiled.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hassan Abbas (2005). Pakistan's drift into extremism: Allah, the army, and America's war on terror. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 16–40. ISBN 978-0-7656-1496-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Pakistan, Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. 1989. pp. 20–35. ISBN 978-81-7017-253-6. 
  3. ^ Rafiq Dossani (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 46–50. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1. 
  4. ^ "World: South Asia : Pakistan army seizes power". BBC NEWS. 1999-10-12. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  5. ^ Muhammad Yusuf Abbasi (1992). Pakistani culture: a profile. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. ISBN 978-969-415-023-9. 
  6. ^ World Focus, Volume 2. H.S. Chhabra. 1981. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_coups_in_Pakistan — Please support Wikipedia.
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4 news items

 
Asian Human Rights Commission News
Mon, 22 Sep 2014 20:00:00 -0700

Subsequent years witnessed several military coups in Pakistan. In the Philippines, the elected President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and established an authoritarian regime. Indira Gandhi, the then Indian Prime Minister, swayed in the same ...

Toronto Sun

Toronto Sun
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 20:57:29 -0700

Once upon a time, military coups in Pakistan were bloodless. If the generals were not pleased with the elected or appointed prime minister, they would simply send in the infamous 111 Brigade headquartered in the capital to the prime minister's ...
 
The Nation
Sat, 20 Sep 2014 18:52:30 -0700

... and elsewhere can hardly be accused of making good political choices; large segments of this section of the populace have had a history of endorsing military coups in Pakistan, and many of them still call for the dissolution of the country's ...
 
Asian Human Rights Commission News (press release)
Thu, 11 Sep 2014 02:22:30 -0700

Subsequent years witnessed several military coups in Pakistan. In the Philippines, the elected President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and established an authoritarian regime. Indira Gandhi, the then Indian Prime Minister, swayed in the same ...
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