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Mohenjodaro Priest

History of Pakistan
also see History of
AJK · Balochistan · G-B · KP · Punjab · Sindh
Timeline of Pakistan

BC
Soanian People ~500,000
Mehrgarh Culture 7000–2500
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700
Vedic Civilization 2000–500
Achaemenid Empire 550–330
Maurya Empire 322–252
Seleucid Empire 312–63
Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 252–125
Indo-Scythian Kingdom 200 BC–400 AD
Gandhara Civilization 200 BC–1021 AD
Indo-Greek Kingdom 180 BC–10 AD
AD
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 21–130
Kushan Empire 30–375
Sassanid Empire 224–641
Indo-Sassanids 240–410
Gupta Empire 320–600
Hephthalite Empire 420–567
Rai Dynasty 489–632
Kabul Shahi Dynasty 500–1100
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Pala Empire 770–850
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1187
Mamluk dynasty 1206–1290
Khilji dynasty 1290–1320
Tughlaq dynasty 1320–1413
Sayyid dynasty 1414–1451
Lodhi dynasty 1451–1526
Mughal Empire 1526–1858
Durrani Empire 1747–1823
Sikh Confederacy 1733–1805
Maratha Empire 1758–1760
Sikh Empire 1799–1849
British Indian Empire 1849–1947
Dominion of Pakistan 1947–1956
Islamic Republic since 1956

Pakistan Pakistan portal

Military coups in Pakistan began in 1958 and there have been three successful attempts. There have also been numerous unsuccessful attempts since 1949. Since its independence in 1947, Pakistan has spent several decades under military rule (1958 – 1971, 1977 – 1988, 1999 – 2008).

1958 coup[edit]

In 1958, the first Pakistani President Major General Iskander Mirza dismissed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the government of Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon, appointing army commander-in-chief Gen. Ayub Khan as the Chief martial law administrator. Thirteen days later, Mirza himself was deposed by Ayub Khan, who appointed himself president.[1]

Operation Fair Play[edit]

Operation Fair Play was the code-name for the coup d'etat conducted at midnight on July 4, 1977 by the Pakistani military led by army chief Gen. Zia-ul-Haq against the government of then-Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.[2][3] Near midnight on July 4, 1977 the army chief General Zia ordered the arrest of Bhutto, his ministers and other leaders of both the Pakistan People's Party and the Pakistan National Alliance.[2] In a nationally televised address, General Zia announced that the National Assembly of Pakistan and all provincial assemblies were dissolved, and that the Constitution of Pakistan was suspended.[2]

1999 coup[edit]

In October, 1999 senior officers loyal to army chief Gen. Pervez Musharraf arrested prime minister Nawaz Sharif and his ministers after thwarting the Sharif regime's attempt to dismiss Musharraf and prevent his plane from landing in Pakistan as he returned from a visit to Sri Lanka.[4]

Unsuccessful coup attempts[edit]

There have been numerous unsuccessful coup attempts in Pakistani history. The first noted attempt was the Rawalpindi conspiracy in 1949 led by Maj. Gen. Akbar Khan along with left-wing activists and sympathetic officers against the government of Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan's first prime minister.[1] Prominent poet-intellectual Faiz Ahmed Faiz was suspected of involvement.[5] In 1980, a plot by Maj. Gen. Tajammul Hussain Malik to assassinate Zia-ul-Haq on Pakistan Day on March 23, 1980 was exposed and thwarted.[6][2] In 1995, a coup attempt against the government of Benazir Bhutto led by Maj. Gen. Zahirul Islam Abbasi with the support of Islamic extremists was foiled.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hassan Abbas (2005). Pakistan's drift into extremism: Allah, the army, and America's war on terror. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 16–40. ISBN 978-0-7656-1496-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Pakistan, Zia and after. Abhinav Publications. 1989. pp. 20–35. ISBN 978-81-7017-253-6. 
  3. ^ Rafiq Dossani (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 46–50. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1. 
  4. ^ "World: South Asia : Pakistan army seizes power". BBC NEWS. 1999-10-12. Retrieved 2009-04-22. 
  5. ^ Muhammad Yusuf Abbasi (1992). Pakistani culture: a profile. National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research. ISBN 978-969-415-023-9. 
  6. ^ World Focus, Volume 2. H.S. Chhabra. 1981. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_coups_in_Pakistan — Please support Wikipedia.
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