digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the 19th-century composer. For other uses, see Glinka (disambiguation).
Glinka in the 1840s, portrait by Yanenko
Mikhail Glinka in 1856

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка; June 1 [O.S. May 20] 1804 – February 15 [O.S. February 3] 1857) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.[1] Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of The Five, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctive Russian style of music.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Mikhail Glinka was born in the village of Novospasskoye, not far from the Desna River in the Smolensk Governorate of the Russian Empire (later in the Yelninsky District of the Smolensk Oblast). His wealthy father had retired as an army captain, and the family had a strong tradition of loyalty and service to the tsars, while several members of his extended family had also developed a lively interest in culture. His great-great-grandfather was a Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth nobleman, Wiktoryn Władysław Glinka of the Trzaska coat of arms.

As a small child, Mikhail was reared by his over-protective and pampering paternal grandmother, who fed him sweets, wrapped him in furs, and confined him to her room, which was always to be kept at 25 °C (77 °F); accordingly, he developed a sickly disposition, later in his life retaining the services of numerous physicians, and often falling victim to a number of quacks. The only music he heard in his youthful confinement was the sounds of the village church bells and the folk songs of passing peasant choirs. The church bells were tuned to a dissonant chord and so his ears became used to strident harmony. While his nurse would sometimes sing folksongs, the peasant choirs who sang using the podgolosnaya technique (an improvised style — literally under the voice – which uses improvised dissonant harmonies below the melody) influenced the way he later felt free to emancipate himself from the smooth progressions of Western harmony. After his grandmother's death, Glinka moved to his maternal uncle's estate some 10 km away, and was able to hear his uncle's orchestra, whose repertoire included pieces by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. At the age of about ten he heard them play a clarinet quartet by the Finnish composer Bernhard Henrik Crusell. It had a profound effect upon him. "Music is my soul", he wrote many years later, recalling this experience. While his governess taught him Russian, German, French, and geography, he also received instruction on the piano and the violin.

At the age of 13 Glinka went to the capital, Saint Petersburg, to study at a school for children of the nobility. Here he learned Latin, English, and Persian, studied mathematics and zoology, and considerably widened his musical experience. He had three piano lessons from John Field, the Irish composer of nocturnes, who spent some time in Saint Petersburg. He then continued his piano lessons with Charles Meyer, and began composing.

When he left school his father wanted him to join the Foreign Office, and he was appointed assistant secretary of the Department of Public Highways. The work was light, which allowed Mikhail to settle into the life of a musical dilettante, frequenting the drawing rooms and social gatherings of the city. He was already composing a large amount of music, such as melancholy romances which amused the rich amateurs. His songs are among the most interesting part of his output from this period.

In 1830, at the recommendation of a physician, Glinka decided to travel to Italy with the tenor Nikolay Ivanov. The journey took a leisurely pace, ambling uneventfully through Germany and Switzerland, before they settled in Milan. There, Glinka took lessons at the conservatory with Francesco Basili, although he struggled with counterpoint, which he found irksome. Although he spent his three years in Italy listening to singers of the day, romancing women with his music, and meeting many famous people including Mendelssohn and Berlioz, he became disenchanted with Italy. He realized that his mission in life was to return to Russia, write in a Russian manner, and do for Russian music what Donizetti and Bellini had done for Italian music. His return route took him through the Alps, and he stopped for a while in Vienna, where he heard the music of Franz Liszt. He stayed for another five months in Berlin, during which time he studied composition under the distinguished teacher Siegfried Dehn. A Capriccio on Russian themes for piano duet and an unfinished Symphony on two Russian themes were important products of this period.

When word reached Mikhail Glinka of his father's death in 1834, he left Berlin and returned to Novospasskoye.

Middle years[edit]

While in Berlin, Glinka had become enamored with a beautiful and talented singer, for whom he composed Six Studies for Contralto. He contrived a plan to return to her, but when his sister's German maid turned up without the necessary paperwork to cross to the border with him, he abandoned his plan as well as his love and turned north for Saint Petersburg. There he reunited with his mother, and made the acquaintance of Maria Petrovna Ivanova. After he courted her for a brief period, the two married. The marriage was short-lived, as Maria proved to be utterly without tact and uninterested in his music. Although his initial fondness for her was said to have inspired the trio in the first act of opera A Life for the Tsar (1836), his naturally sweet disposition coarsened under the constant nagging of his wife and her mother. After separating, she would remarry, while Glinka moved in with his mother, and later his sister (Lyudmila Shestakova).

A Life for the Tsar was the first of Glinka's two great operas. It was originally entitled Ivan Susanin. Set in 1612, it tells the story of the Russian peasant and patriotic hero Ivan Susanin who sacrifices his life for the Tsar by leading astray a group of marauding Poles who were hunting him. The Tsar himself followed the work's progress with interest and suggested the change in the title. It was a great success at its premiere on December 9, 1836, under the direction of Catterino Cavos, who had written an opera on the same subject in Italy. Although the music is still more Italianate than Russian, Glinka shows superb handling of the recitative which binds the whole work, and the orchestration is masterly, foreshadowing the orchestral writing of later Russian composers. The Tsar rewarded Glinka for his work with a ring valued at 4000 rubles. (During the Soviet era, the opera was staged under its original title Ivan Susanin).

Ilya Repin's portrait of Glinka was painted thirty years after the composer's death

In 1837, Glinka was installed as the instructor of the Imperial Chapel Choir, with a yearly salary of 25,000 rubles, and lodging at the court. In 1838, at the suggestion of the Tsar, he went off to Ukraine to gather new voices for the choir; the 19 new boys he found earned him another 1,500 roubles from the Tsar.

He soon embarked on his second opera: Ruslan and Lyudmila. The plot, based on the tale by Alexander Pushkin, was concocted in 15 minutes by Konstantin Bakhturin, a poet who was drunk at the time. Consequently the opera is a dramatic muddle, yet the quality of Glinka's music is higher than in A Life for the Tsar. He uses a descending whole-tone-scale in the famous overture. This is associated with the villainous dwarf Chernomor who has abducted Lyudmila, daughter of the Prince of Kiev. There is much Italianate coloratura, and Act 3 contains several routine ballet numbers, but his great achievement in this opera lies in his use of folk melody which becomes thoroughly infused into the musical argument. Much of the borrowed folk material is oriental in origin. When it was first produced on 9 December 1842 it met with a cool reception, although subsequently it gained popularity.

Later years[edit]

Grave of Mikhail Glinka in Tikhvin Cemetery in Saint Petersburg
Statue near Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg

Glinka went through a dejected year after the poor reception of Ruslan and Lyudmila. His spirits rose when he travelled to Paris and Spain. In Spain, Glinka met Don Pedro Fernandez, who remained his secretary and companion for the last nine years of his life.[2] In Paris, Hector Berlioz conducted some excerpts from Glinka’s operas and wrote an appreciative article about him. Glinka in turn admired Berlioz’s music and resolved to compose some fantasies pittoresques for orchestra. Another visit to Paris followed in 1852 where he spent two years, living quietly and making frequent visits to the botanical and zoological gardens. From there he moved to Berlin where, after five months, he died suddenly on 15 February 1857, following a cold. He was buried in Berlin but a few months later his body was taken to Saint Petersburg and reinterred in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.

The value of creativity[edit]

Glinka was the beginning of a new direction in the development of music in Russia.[3][4] Musical culture arrived in Russia from Europe, and for the first time specifically Russian music began to appear, based on the European music culture, in the operas of the composer Mikhail Glinka. It was the nation and historicism. Different historical events are often used in the music, but for the first time they were shown in a realistic veracity.[4][5]

The first has noted this new musical direction was Alexander Serov.[6] Then he was supported by his friend Vladimir Stasov (they were so long and with such thoroughness solved influence creativity of Glinka, that quarreled forever[6]), who became the theorist of this musical direction.[5] This direction is developed later composers of The Five (composers).[3][4]

The modern Russian music critic Viktor Korshikov thus summed up: "There is not the development of Russian musical culture without...three operas – Ivan Soussanine, Ruslan and Ludmila and the Stone Guest have created Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov and Borodin. Soussanine is an opera, where the main character is the people, Ruslan is the mythical, deeply Russian intrigue, and in Guest, the drama dominates over the softness of the beauty of sound."[7]

Two of these operas – Ivan Soussanine and Ruslan and Ludmila – were composed by Glinka.

Since this time, the Russian culture began to occupy an increasingly prominent place in world culture.

Legacy[edit]

After Glinka's death the relative merits of his two operas became a source of heated debate in the musical press, especially between Vladimir Stasov and his former friend Alexander Serov.

In 1884 Mitrofan Belyayev founded the "Glinka Prize", which was awarded annually. In the first years the winners included Alexander Borodin, Mily Balakirev, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Cesar Cui and Anatoly Lyadov.

Outside Russia several of Glinka's orchestral works have been fairly popular in concerts and recordings. Besides the well-known overtures to the operas (especially the brilliantly energetic overture to Ruslan), his major orchestral works include the symphonic poem Kamarinskaya (1848), based on Russian folk tunes, and two Spanish works, A Night in Madrid (1848, 1851) and Jota Aragonesa (1845).

Glinka also composed many art songs, many piano pieces, and some chamber music.

A much lesser work that received some attention in the last decade was Glinka's "The Patriotic Song", supposedly written for a contest for a national anthem in 1833; the music was adopted as the national anthem of Russia during 1990–2000.

Three Russian conservatories are named after Glinka:

  • Nizhny Novgorod State Conservatory (Russian: Нижегородская государственная консерватория им. М.И.Глинки)[8]
  • Novosibirsk State Conservatory (Russian: Новосибирская государственная консерватория (академия) им. М.И.Глинки)[9]
  • Magnitogorsk State Conservatory (Russian: Магнитогорская государственная консерватория)[10]

Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Chernykh named a minor planet 2205 Glinka in his honor. It was discovered in 1973.[11] A crater on Mercury is also named after him.

Works[edit]

See: List of compositions by Mikhail Glinka.

Media[edit]

Performed by Adam Cuerden

Performed by William McColl (clarinet), Arthur Grossman (bassoon) and Stanley Chapple (piano)

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "...regarded by his compatriots as the source and fountainhead of Russian Music," in "Russian Symphony Orchestra", New York Times, 1904-11-13, p. 10.
  2. ^ Grove Music Online "Glinka"
  3. ^ a b Mikhail Glinka
  4. ^ a b c Creativity M.I. Glinka // ru: Творчество М.И. Глинки (лекция)
  5. ^ a b Culture: The Works of Glinka // ru: Творчество Глинки
  6. ^ a b "Александр Серов (Alexander Serov)" (in Russian). Классическая музыка. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  7. ^ Victor Korshikov. Do you want, I'll teach you to love the opera. About the music, and not only. The publishing house. Moscow, 2007 // ru: Виктор Коршиков. Хотите, я научу вас любить оперу. О музыке и не только. Издательство ЯТЬ. Москва, 2007
  8. ^ http://www.uic.nnov.ru/abiturient/ngk/
  9. ^ conservatoire.ru
  10. ^ magkmusic.com
  11. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 179. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Glinka — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
68228 videos foundNext > 

14 pieces by Michail Ivanovič Glinka (Mazurkas, Valses, Variations etc.)

00:00 - 3 Mazurkas. As-dur, F-dur, F-dur 03:16 - Mazurka in c-moll 05:03 - Mazurka in G-dur 05:48 - Mazurka in C-dur 06:56 - Valse melodique 08:57 - Fugue in...

Mikhail Glinka - Symphony on Two Russian Themes in D minor

Symphony on Two Russian Themes in D minor (1834) An orchestral work by Russian composer Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857). Glinka never completed this piece; a cent...

Mikhail Glinka: Selected Orchestral Works (Evgeny Svetlanov - 1969 vinyl LP)

MIKHAIL GLINKA (1804-1857) Selected Orchestral Works (MELODIYA 33C 01681-82 vinyl LP) 1. Jota Aragonesa (Spanish Overture no. 1) (at 0:07) 2. Recollections o...

Mikhail Glinka - The Lark - Evgeny Kissin

Beautiful recording of Glinka's "The Lark" By Evgeny Kissin.

Mikhail Glinka - A Life for the Tsar, "Overture"

Title of Opera: A Life for the Tsar Composer: Mikhail Glinka Created in: 1836 ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Choir...

Glinka - Russian and Ludmilla (Ruslan and Ludmilla ) Overture

Title : Mikhail Glinka - Russian and Ludmilla (Ruslan and Lyudmila) Overture Date : 1842 From Wikipedia , Ruslan and Lyudmila (Russian: Руслан и Людмила, Rus...

Mikhail Glinka - A Life for the Tsar - II. Mazurka

A Life for the Tsar is a "patriotic-heroic tragic opera" in four acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka. The original Russian libretto, based on historical ...

Mikhail Glinka - Kamarinskaya / Камаринская

Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857), Россия Камаринская / Kamarinskaya (1848): Fantasy on Russian Folk Songs for Orchestra Brno State Philharmonic Orchestra (Filharmo...

Mikhail Glinka - Jota aragonesa - Igor Moiseyev ballet

Mikhail Glinka - Jota aragonesa - Igor Moiseyev ballet. Centenary of the great russian ballet master. 2006, Moscow/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igor_Moiseyev.

Mikhail Glinka Trio Pathetique in D minor 1/2

Mikhail Glinka Trio Pathetique in D minor (1st mov. Allegro moderato, 2nd mov. Scherzo) Dmitri Vinnik (piano) Natalia Gutman (cello), Kari Kriikku (clarinet)...

68228 videos foundNext > 

7 news items

 
Waterloo Record
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 14:45:00 -0700

KITCHENER — Hydro outages usually lead to frustration, but in at least one case the blackness was a launching pad to a new career for three classically-trained musicians. "At the time we weren't a serious group," said violinist Nick Kendall of the day ...
 
San Francisco Classical Voice
Mon, 11 Aug 2014 10:26:15 -0700

It is not entirely clear what (or who) exactly defines what the Golden Age of Russian Vocal Music is, but judging from the concert it starts with the music of Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) and ends with Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), although there ...
 
Winter Park/Maitland Observer
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 10:15:00 -0700

Next came Mikhail Glinka, whose Piano Trio “Pathetique,” was a treat of splashy, tuneful instrumental fabric, easy to listen to and enjoy. Bassoon soloist Gabriel Bergeron-Langlois played with a beautiful virtuoso sound that, alas, was often hard to ...
 
Exchange Morning Post (press release)
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 05:11:15 -0700

Audiences will also be introduced to the new Assistant Conductor, Daniel Bartholomew-Poyser, who will make his KWS debut conducting a piece by Mikhail Glinka. Self-titled as the “world's first classically-trained garage band,” Time for Three defies ...
 
Pathfinder
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 20:45:14 -0700

H θλιβερή μουσική μπορεί να προκαλέσει πραγματικά θετικά συναισθήματα σύμφωνα με μία μελέτη η οποία πραγματοποιήθηκε από Ιάπωνες επιστήμονες. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας βοηθούν να καταλάβουμε γιατί οι άνθρωποι απολαμβάνουν τις θλιβερές ...

Merkur Online

Merkur Online
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:41:15 -0700

... Kontrabassistin Alexandra Hengstebeck und Schlagzeuger Adriaan Feyaerts Stücke von Carl Maria von Weber, Mikhail Glinka, Camille Saint-Saëns, Georges Bizet („Carmen“-Suite), George Gershwin („Porgy an Bess“-Suite) und Michael Dilitsky spielen.

PLO

PLO
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 02:45:00 -0700

Những Opera “Russlan and Ludmilla” của nhà soạn nhạc Nga - Mikhail Glinka, đến màn độc tấu Cello ấn tượng của nghệ sĩ ưu tú Trần Thị Mơ, rồi bản concerto giọng Mi thứ Op.85.. dưới sự chỉ huy của nhạc trưởng người Nhật Bản - Honna Tetsuji đã đem ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Mikhail Glinka

You can talk about Mikhail Glinka with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!