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For other uses, see Middle Ages (disambiguation).

Middle age is the period of age beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. Various attempts have been made to define this age, which is around the third quarter of the average life span of human beings.

Definitions[edit]

According to Collins Dictionary, this is "... usually considered to occur approximately between the ages of 40 and 60".[1] The current edition of the Oxford English Dictionary gives a similar definition but with a shorter span: "The period of life between young adulthood and old age, now usually regarded as between about forty-five and sixty." The US Census lists middle age as including both the age categories 35 to 44 and 45 to 54, while prominent psychologist Erik Erikson saw it ending a little later and defines middle adulthood as between 40 and 65. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the standard diagnostic manual of the American Psychiatric Association, used to define middle age as 40–60, but as of Edition IV (1994) revised the definition upwards to 45–65.

Aging[edit]

Middle-aged adults often show visible signs of aging such as loss of skin elasticity and graying of the hair. Physical fitness usually wanes, with a 5–10 kg (10–20 lb) accumulation of body fat, reduction in aerobic performance and a decrease in maximal heart rate. Strength and flexibility also decrease throughout middle age. However, people age at different rates and there can be significant differences between individuals of the same age.[2]

Both male and female fertility declines with advancing age.[3][4] Advanced maternal age increases the risk of a child being born with some disorders such as Down syndrome. Advanced paternal age significantly increases the risk of miscarriage, as well as possibly slightly increasing the risk of Down syndrome, schizophrenia, autism, decreased intellectual capacity, and bipolar disorder.[5][6][7][8] Most women will experience menopause, which ends natural fertility, in their mid 40s or early 50s.[9][10] However, fertility in women starts to decline in the 20s. Ten years before menopause, fertility is already very low.

In developed countries, yearly mortality begins to increase more noticeably from age 41 onwards, mainly due to age-related health problems such as heart disease and cancer.[11][12] However, the majority of middle-age people in industrialized nations can expect to live into old age. Life expectancy in developing countries is much lower and the risk of death at all ages is higher.[11]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ middle age. CollinsDictionary.com. "Collins English Dictionary" - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved December 05, 2012.
  2. ^ Shephard, Roy J. (7 March 1998). "Aging and Exercise". Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science (T.D.Fahey). Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  3. ^ Rabin, Roni (2007-02-27). "It Seems the Fertility Clock Ticks for Men, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  4. ^ Fertility Treatment Less Successful After 35: In Vitro Fertilization Doesn't Compensate for Decreased Fertility With Age
  5. ^ Heubeck, MA, Elizabeth; Reviewed By Brunilda Nazario, MD (2005-06-29). "Age Raises Infertility Risk in Men, Too: Risks associated with men's biological clocks may be similar to women's.". WebMD. MedicineNet. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  6. ^ "Miscarriage significantly associated with increasing paternal age". Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health. 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  7. ^ Raeburn, Paul (February–March 2009). "The Father Factor: Could becoming a father after age 40 raise the risks that your children will have a mental illness? (PDF)". Scientific American Mind: 30–33. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  8. ^ Cannon, Mary (2009-03-10). "Contrasting Effects of Maternal and Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence". Public Library of Science. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  9. ^ BBC - Health: Menopause
  10. ^ Cannon, Mary (2003-06-26). "Male Biological Clock is Ticking, Too". WebMD Health News. Retrieved 2009-10-16. 
  11. ^ a b "Life Expectancy Profiles". BBC. 6 June 2005. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 
  12. ^ "UK cancer mortality statistics by age". Cancer Research UK. May 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-26. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Young Adult
Stages of human development
Middle age
Succeeded by
Old age

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_age — Please support Wikipedia.
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Design & Trend

Design & Trend
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 13:56:15 -0800

Law's middle-age has also seen him come to terms with fame. The two-time Oscar nominee and 2004's Sexiest Man Alive said of the tabloids, "I no longer let that stuff in. I honestly don't know and don't care what's being written about me. If people want ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Sun, 23 Nov 2014 15:45:21 -0800

Last year, for my 54th birthday, I acquired an invisibility cloak. It wasn't on my wishlist, it didn't come wrapped in a parcel, and no one bought it for me. To be honest, I didn't even know I had it, until a conversation in the office with two of my ...

Mirror.co.uk

Mirror.co.uk
Sun, 09 Nov 2014 10:36:33 -0800

... your daily routine, you'll reduce the levels of cortisol released. Also, consider taking up yoga. Research from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in the US found that the popular exercise helps prevent middle-age spread and assists weight ...

CTV News

CTV News
Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:37:30 -0800

CHICAGO -- Taking a cholesterol-lowering drug for five years in middle age can lower heart and death risks for decades afterward, and the benefits seem to grow over time, a landmark study finds. Doctors say it's the first evidence that early use of a ...

Care2.com

Care2.com
Mon, 03 Nov 2014 14:02:26 -0800

I embrace middle age. In fact, I love it. I'm comfortable in my own skin. Sure, I have a few more facial lines than I used to, but so what? I don't look 21…or 31…and I wouldn't even pass for 41. I don't need to. I look my age. More importantly I feel ...

Express.co.uk

Express.co.uk
Mon, 17 Nov 2014 16:22:30 -0800

STICKING to a low-calorie diet from middle age is the key to living a long and healthy life, experts say. By: Jo Willey. Published: Tue, November 18, 2014. Low calorie diet dementia, dementia advice, dementia cure, dementia help, dementia diet GETTY/ ...
 
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Wed, 19 Nov 2014 10:05:53 -0800

Of course, just as they did after the 2012 elections, House Republicans decided to staff these committee leadership spots with middle-age (or just plain old) white guys. Of the 17 new assignments announced earlier this week, all of them are white males.
 
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Thu, 13 Nov 2014 06:03:45 -0800

And while Gurwitch acknowledged that some invisibility can be liberating – when no one's paying attention to you, it's easier to dismiss worries about how you look or what you're saying – she also confesses annoyance at middle age clothing options.
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