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Michael M. Fried (born April 12, 1939 in New York City) is a modernist art critic and art historian. He studied at Princeton University and Harvard University and was a Rhodes Scholar at Merton College, Oxford University. He is currently the J.R. Herbert Boone Professor of Humanities and Art History at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Fried's contribution to art historical discourse involved the debate over the origins and development of modernism. Along with Fried, this debate's interlocutors include other theorists and critics such as Clement Greenberg, T. J. Clark, and Rosalind Krauss. Since the early 1960s, he has also been close to philosopher Stanley Cavell.

Early career[edit]

Fried describes his early career in the introduction to Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews (1998), an anthology of his art criticism in the 60s and 70s. Although he majored in English at Princeton it was there that he became interested in writing art criticism. While at Princeton he met the artist Frank Stella and through him Walter Darby Bannard. In 1958, he wrote a letter to Clement Greenberg expressing his admiration for his writing and first met him in the Spring of that year. In September 1958, he moved to Oxford, Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art, and then to London in 1961–62, where he studied philosophy part-time at University College, London (UCL), under Stuart Hampshire and Richard Wollheim. In 1961 Hilton Kramer offered him the post of London correspondent for the journal Arts. In the fall of 1961, Fried began his friendship with the sculptor Anthony Caro; Caro had invited him to write the introduction to his Whitechapel Art Gallery exhibition in 1963.

In the late summer of 1962, Fried returned to the U.S, where he combined studying for a Ph.D in art history at Harvard with writing art criticism, initially for Art International, and curating the exhibition Three American painters: Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Frank Stella at Harvard's Fogg Art Museum.

Art and Objecthood[edit]

In his essay, "Art and Objecthood," published in 1967, Fried argued that Minimalism's focus on the viewer's experience, rather than the relational properties of the work of art exemplified by modernism, made the work of art indistinguishable from one's general experience of the world. Minimalism (or "literalism" as Fried called it) offered an experience of "theatricality" or "presence" rather than "presentness" (a condition that required continual renewal). The essay inadvertently opened the door to establishing a theoretical basis for Minimalism as a movement based in a conflicting mode of phenomenological experience than the one offered by Fried.[1]

Absorption and theatricality[edit]

In "Art and Objecthood" Fried criticised the "theatricality" of Minimalist art. He introduced the opposing term "absorption" in his 1980 book, Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot.[2] Drawing on Diderot's criticism,[3] Fried argues that whenever a self-consciousness of viewing exists, absorption is compromised, and theatricality results.[4] As well as applying the distinction to 18th-century painting, Fried employs related categories in his art criticism of post-1945 American painting and sculpture.[4] Fried rejects the effort by some critics to conflate his art-critical and art-historical writing.[5]

Stephen Melville follows Fried in suggesting that theatricality has been construed as a threat to the autonomy of art; he also argues that Fried's analysis is limited by accepting on its own terms the response of art to this threat.[6] Like Fried, Melville contends that theatricality is an ontological character of art that can be temporarily neutralized but never denied[6] and that absorption is itself a particular mode of theater.[7] Martin Puchner holds that Fried's distinction rests on a Modernist resistance to interference from the public sphere and a defence of the artist's control over the external circumstances of reception.[8]

Fried revisits some of these concerns in a study of recent photography with Why Photography Matters as Art as Never Before (London and New Haven 2008). In a reading of works by prominent art photographers of the last 20 years (Bernd and Hilla Becher, Jeff Wall, Andreas Gursky, Thomas Demand among others) Fried asserts that concerns of anti-theatricality and absorption are central to the turn by recent photographers towards large-scale works "for the wall.".[9]

Selected bibliography[edit]

In more recent years, Fried has written several long and complex histories of modern art, most famously on Édouard Manet, Gustave Courbet, Adolph Menzel, and painting in the late 18th century.

  • Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Awarded 1980 Gottschalk Prize.
  • Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Awarded 1990 Charles C. Eldredge Prize.
  • Courbet's Realism Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
  • Manet's Modernism Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1996. French translation awarded 2000 Prix Littéraire Etats-Unis.
  • Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
  • Menzel's Realism: Art and Embodiment in Nineteenth-Century Berlin London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Why Photography Matters as Art as Never Before London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008.
  • The Moment of Caravaggio Princeton University Press, 2010.

Fried is a poet, having written The Next Bend in the Road, Powers, and To the Center of the Earth.


  1. ^ Hal Foster The Crux of Minimalism, From "The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century" 1996, Mit Press ISBN 0-262-56107-7
  2. ^ Charles Green, The Third Hand: Collaboration in Art from Conceptualism to Postmodernism, UNSW Press, p140. ISBN 0-86840-588-4
  3. ^ Toril Moi, Henrik Ibsen and the Birth of Modernism: Art, Theater, Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 2006, p114. ISBN 0-19-929587-5
  4. ^ a b Tracy C. Davis, Thomas Postlewait, Theatricality, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p20. ISBN 0-521-01207-4
  5. ^ Michael Fried, Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews, University of Chicago Press, 1998, p73. ISBN 0-226-26319-3
  6. ^ a b Steven Connor, Postmodernist Culture: An Introduction to Theories of the Contemporary, Blackwell Publishing, 1997, p98. ISBN 0-631-20052-5
  7. ^ Stephen W. Melville, Philosophy Beside Itself: On Deconstruction and Modernism, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p11. ISBN 0-8166-1437-7
  8. ^ William B. Worthen, Print and the Poetics of Modern Drama, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p131. ISBN 0-521-84184-4
  9. ^ Michael Fried: Why Photography Matters as Art as Never Before: London and New Haven, 2008, p14. ISBN 978-0-300-13684-5

See also[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Fried — Please support Wikipedia.
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15 news items

Wesleyan Argus
Tue, 15 Apr 2014 10:00:24 -0700

After Head Coach Michael Fried reconfigured some of the doubles pairings, the team went 1-2 against Trinity. The one win came at third doubles, where Brint and Charlie Seifer '15 snuck out a 9-7 victory. The two had not played with each other since the ...

Brooklyn Rail

Brooklyn Rail
Thu, 03 Apr 2014 12:54:24 -0700

In 1967, Michael Fried amended Clement Greenberg's 1962 statement that a “stretched or tacked-up canvas already exists as a picture” with the caveat that “it is not conceivably one” because, even if “future circumstances might be such as to make it a ...


Wed, 09 Apr 2014 20:11:15 -0700

The event, which MJC congregant Michael Fried and his 13-year-old daughter, Samantha, took lead roles in organizing, was loosely based on the TV show “The Amazing Race.” Twenty-five teams, comprised mostly of family members, started at 10 a.m. on ...
New York Times
Sat, 22 Mar 2014 17:00:00 -0700

Gene Feist, left, and Michael Fried in 1974. Mr. Feist, a director, started the Roundabout in 1965. Credit Associated Press. Continue reading the main story. Continue reading the main story. Continue reading the main story Share This Page. Continue ...
Wesleyan Argus
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 21:40:20 -0700

“The team battled very well today,” wrote Head Coach Michael Fried in an email to the Argus. “We didn't play perfect tennis by any means, but we battled and fought and found a way to win. I'm proud of our mental toughness, as I thought it was the ...
Wesleyan Argus
Thu, 27 Mar 2014 21:07:30 -0700

Coach Michael Fried is confident in this year's freshmen class and has high expectations both on and off the court. “[This year's freshmen] are a huge part of the camaraderie that brings our team together,” Fried said. After starting the spring season ...
Billings Gazette
Tue, 18 Mar 2014 21:29:25 -0700

Michael Fried of Plains Justice said residents look on the 700 undammed miles of the Yellowstone River in at least two ways: “as a place where we take our dogs to walk, or a place where our land and water rights end.” JW Westman of Public Lands and ...
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 02:00:00 -0700

Later chapters overlay the concept of embodied transparency on the contrasting notions of absorption and theatricality, developed by art historian Michael Fried to describe styles of painting popular among early to mid 17th century French artists. The ...

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