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The term "Melkite" (/ˈmɛlkt/), also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. The word comes from the Syriac word malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ‎), and the Arabic word Malakī (Arabic: ملكي‎, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial").[1] When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Eastern Rite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.[2]

Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community, dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles.[3] This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek, Roman, Syriac, and Jewish. After the Islamic conquests of the Levant in the 7th century, the Melkite community started incorporating Arabic language in the liturgical traditions as the Middle East became gradually Arabized.[3]

Melchite Hirmologion written in Syriac Sertâ book script (11th century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.

The term Melkite was originally used as a pejorative term after the acrimonious division that occurred in Eastern Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (451). It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the council and the Byzantine Emperor (malko and its cognates are Semitic words for "king"). "It was only towards the end of the fifth century that it took the name of Melkite".[4] The Melkites were generally Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt, as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchatesAlexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople. After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria (Coptic Orthodox Church) and Antioch (Syriac Orthodox Church). The Nubian kingdom of Makuria (in modern Sudan) in contrast to their Non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox neighbours, was also Chalcedonian, from c. 575 until ca. 710 and still had a large Melkite minority until the 1400s.

From 1342, Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, and worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism, normally dated to 1054, was undefined, and many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. In 1724, Cyril VI (Seraphim Tanas) was elected in Damascus by the Synod as Patriarch of Antioch. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon, the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril. After being ordained a priest, then bishop he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne.

The newly elected Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) also recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome. From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch), who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late nineteenth century, and the Greek Catholics (Melkite Greek Catholic Church), who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group who continue to use the title Melkite; thus, in modern usage, the term applies almost exclusively to the Arabic-speaking Greek Catholics from the Middle East.

Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Members of theses communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic (that is, those of the (Eastern) Roman Empire, what English speakers often call "Byzantine"). The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  2. ^ Sebastian P. Brock (2006). An introduction to Syriac studies (2, revised, illustrated ed.). Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333492. 
  3. ^ a b David Little, Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding. Peacemakers in action: profiles of religion in conflict resolution (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780521853583. 
  4. ^ History of the Melkite Church from its Origins to the Present Day, by Mgr. Joseph Nasrallah, Melkite Exarque in Paris. http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html

References[edit]

  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 

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WIAT 42

WIAT 42
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 21:22:07 -0700

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (WIAT)- Sarah Katherine (Suki) Bateh sits on the front pew at Saint George Melkite Greek Catholic Church every Sunday morning. “There is something about this place that she never cries and she is always happy. She sees something ...

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle
Tue, 07 Oct 2014 09:53:25 -0700

''The F.B.I. and the prosecutors think I'm sitting on a stash of $5 million,'' the 66-year-old Melkite Catholic priest said, fingering a religious ornament that he called his Jesus Beads. ''They would like people to believe that I'm an international ...

Consortium News

Consortium News
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 18:59:32 -0700

A British study in 1931 found them to include adherents of the Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Greek Uniate (Melkite), Anglican, Armenian (Gregorian), Armenian Uniate, Jacobite, Syrian Catholic, Coptic, Abyssinian, Abyssinian Uniate, Maronite, Chaldean, ...

AINA

AINA
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 16:26:15 -0700

If the word Protestant is not heard here, then perhaps one should not be surprised when one day it becomes as rare as the Chaldeans, the Melkite Greek Catholics, the Syrian Orthodox, the Nestorians or the Assyrian Church of the East, only a few of the ...

The National Law Review

The National Law Review
Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:45:00 -0700

Last month, the Miami-Dade Circuit Court stripped St. Jude Melkite Catholic Church of its recently acquired historic designation. This church is located at 1501 Brickell Avenue, in the midst of multiple high rise condominiums and office buildings. It ...

The Catholic Sun

The Catholic Sun
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 10:48:45 -0700

“The beauty of the Chaldean Rite — as well as the Melkite, Maronite and other Eastern Rites — reflects the beauty of God, Bishop Olmsted said. “Your presence here in our diocese enriches us.” Msgr. Felix Shabi, corbishop of the Chaldean Catholic ...
 
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Thu, 16 Oct 2014 21:27:54 -0700

Spaghetti dinner: Women's Society of St. Joseph Melkite Church spaghetti dinner Oct. 22, 5-8 p.m., church hall, North St. Frances Cabrini Avenue; takeouts, 4 p.m.; pasta, meatballs, salad, bread, dessert, coffee; $8.50/adults, $4/ages 5-10; from ...

Al-Arabiya

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Fri, 03 Oct 2014 02:42:43 -0700

Perhaps, the most significant words that were said about Lebanon's closing of the roads for security reasons came from Roman Catholic Melkite Archbishop of Zahle, Issam Darwish. He said: “We stand by the kidnapped soldiers without any doubt; they ...
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