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The term "Melkite" (/ˈmɛlkt/), also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. The word comes from the Syriac word malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ‎), and the Arabic word Malakī (Arabic: ملكي‎, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial").[1] When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Eastern Rite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.[2]

Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community, dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles.[3] This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek, Greco-Macedonian, Roman, Syriac, and Jewish.

Hellenistic Judaism and the Judeo-Greek "wisdom" literature popular in the late Second Temple era amongst both Hellenized Jews (known as Mityavnim) and gentile Greek proselyte converts to Judaism played an important part in the formation of the Melkite tradition.

After the Islamic conquests of the Levant in the 7th century, the Melkite community started incorporating Arabic language in the liturgical traditions as the Middle East became gradually Arabized.[3]

11th-century Melchite Hirmologion written in Syriac Sertâ book script, from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, now part of the Schøyen Collection.

The term Melkite was originally used as a pejorative term after the acrimonious division that occurred in Eastern Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (451). It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the council and the Byzantine Emperor (malko and its cognates are Semitic words for "king"). "It was only towards the end of the fifth century that it took the name of Melkite".[4] The Melkites were generally Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt, as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchatesAlexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople. After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria (Coptic Orthodox Church) and Antioch (Syriac Orthodox Church). The Nubian kingdom of Makuria (in modern Sudan) in contrast to their Non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox neighbours, was also Chalcedonian, from c. 575 until ca. 710 and still had a large Melkite minority until the 1400s.

From 1342, Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, and worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism, normally dated to 1054, was undefined, and many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. In 1724, Cyril VI (Seraphim Tanas) was elected in Damascus by the Synod as Patriarch of Antioch. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon, the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril. After being ordained a priest, then bishop he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne.

The newly elected Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) also recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome. From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch), who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late nineteenth century, and the Greek Catholics (Melkite Greek Catholic Church), who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group who continue to use the title Melkite; thus, in modern usage, the term applies almost exclusively to the Arabic-speaking Greek Catholics from the Middle East.

Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Members of theses communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic (that is, those of the (Eastern) Roman Empire, what English speakers often call "Byzantine"). The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  2. ^ Sebastian P. Brock (2006). An introduction to Syriac studies (2, revised, illustrated ed.). Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333492. 
  3. ^ a b David Little, Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding. Peacemakers in action: profiles of religion in conflict resolution (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780521853583. 
  4. ^ History of the Melkite Church from its Origins to the Present Day, by Mgr. Joseph Nasrallah, Melkite Exarque in Paris. http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html

References[edit]

  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melkite — Please support Wikipedia.
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2171 news items

Catholic Herald Online

Catholic Herald Online
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 03:50:00 -0700

Fears are growing that a Melkite Greek Catholic priest has been kidnapped in Syria, according to Fides news agency. Fr Antoine Boutros, pastor of a parish in the city of Shahba, and Al-Said Abdun, who was driving him, have not been seen since July 12 ...

Radio Vatican

La Croix
Thu, 16 Jul 2015 08:45:00 -0700

Un prêtre melkite et un laïc disparus en Syrie. Alors qu'il se rendait dans une autre ville pour y célébrer la messe, le P. Antoine Boutros, curé de la paroisse melkite Saint Philippe Apôtre de Shahba, a disparu, sans doute enlevé par une bande criminelle.

National Catholic Reporter

National Catholic Reporter
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 08:26:38 -0700

Melkite Archbishop Jean-Clement Jeanbart of Aleppo, Syria, is in the United States for a few days, discussing the desperate plight of Christians in the ancient city of Aleppo and in war-torn Syria. The 72-year-old Jeanbart is being hosted by the ...
 
LA Daily News
Thu, 30 Jul 2015 22:03:45 -0700

St. Anne Melkite Catholic Church in North Hollywood: The church has been designated a cathedral by Pope Francis. A Hierarchical Divine Liturgy will be celebrated for its inauguration, 4 p.m. Saturday. 11211 Moorpark St., North Hollywood. Rt. Rev.

Christian Post

Christian Post
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 06:27:06 -0700

Jean-Clément Jeanbart, the Melkite Greek Catholic Archbishop of Aleppo, Syria, has also said that Christians are slowly dying in the war-torn country. "What horrors must IS commit before the world will take greater action to stop the murderers ...

Lebanese Examiner

Lebanese Examiner
Fri, 19 Jun 2015 11:01:51 -0700

(BEIRUT, LEBANON) — Most of Lebanon's people are considering emigration, and 35% are reportedly waiting for travel visas, the Patriarch of the Melkite Catholic Church reported as he opened a Synod of Melkite bishops in Beirut. Patriarch Gregory III ...

The Pilot

The Pilot
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:22:30 -0700

Iraqi and Syrian Christians march during a Palm Sunday procession in Beirut, Lebanon, March 29. Synods of Melkite Catholic and Maronite Catholic bishops in Lebanon called on the world's governments to help resolve the conflicts in the region so that ...
 
Scranton Times-Tribune
Sun, 02 Aug 2015 00:52:30 -0700

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