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The term "Melkite" (/ˈmɛlkt/), also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. The word comes from the Syriac word malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ‎), and the Arabic word Malakī (Arabic: ملكي‎, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial").[1] When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Eastern Rite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.[2]

Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community, dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles.[3] This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek, Roman, Syriac, and Jewish. After the Islamic conquests of the Levant in the 7th century, the Melkite community started incorporating Arabic language in the liturgical traditions as the Middle East became gradually Arabized.[3]

Melchite Hirmologion written in Syriac Sertâ book script (11th century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.

The term Melkite was originally used as a pejorative term after the acrimonious division that occurred in Eastern Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (451). It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the council and the Byzantine Emperor (malko and its cognates are Semitic words for "king"). "It was only towards the end of the fifth century that it took the name of Melkite".[4] The Melkites were generally Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt, as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchatesAlexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople. After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria (Coptic Orthodox Church) and Antioch (Syriac Orthodox Church). The Nubian kingdom of Makuria (in modern Sudan) in contrast to their Non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox neighbours, was also Chalcedonian, from c. 575 until ca. 710 and still had a large Melkite minority until the 1400s.

From 1342, Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, and worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism, normally dated to 1054, was undefined, and many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. In 1724, Cyril VI (Seraphim Tanas) was elected in Damascus by the Synod as Patriarch of Antioch. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon, the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril. After being ordained a priest, then bishop he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne.

The newly elected Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) also recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome. From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch), who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late nineteenth century, and the Greek Catholics (Melkite Greek Catholic Church), who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group who continue to use the title Melkite; thus, in modern usage, the term applies almost exclusively to the Arabic-speaking Greek Catholics from the Middle East.

Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Members of theses communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic (that is, those of the (Eastern) Roman Empire, what English speakers often call "Byzantine"). The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  2. ^ Sebastian P. Brock (2006). An introduction to Syriac studies (2, revised, illustrated ed.). Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333492. 
  3. ^ a b David Little, Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding. Peacemakers in action: profiles of religion in conflict resolution (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780521853583. 
  4. ^ History of the Melkite Church from its Origins to the Present Day, by Mgr. Joseph Nasrallah, Melkite Exarque in Paris. http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html

References[edit]

  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melkite — Please support Wikipedia.
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6710 videos foundNext > 

2604 news items

 
The Catholic Register
Fri, 27 Feb 2015 08:07:30 -0800

Pictured from left to right are Melkite Catholic Patriarch Gregoire III Laham; Greek Orthodox Patriarch John X of Antioch; Lebanese Cardinal Becha ra Rai, Maronite patriarch; Syriac Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius Aphrem II; and Syriac Catholic Patriarch ...

Catholic Herald Online

Catholic Culture
Thu, 19 Feb 2015 09:40:38 -0800

Christians in the Middle East are experiencing “the fifth year of the Way of the Cross,” Melkite Catholic Patriarch Gregory III Laham said in his Lenten message. The Melkite Patriarch said that the suffering of Christians in the region is one of “the ...

ANSAmed

ANSAmed
Fri, 06 Feb 2015 05:18:45 -0800

And as of last night, Rome will be hosting a small photo exhibit - promoted by the Syrian community in Italy in cooperation with the European volunteering association Sol.Id - hosted in a room next to the Melkite Greek Basilica Saint Mary in Cosmedin ...

Aleteia

Aleteia
Fri, 27 Feb 2015 07:14:24 -0800

Archbishop Jean-Clement Jeanbart, Metropolitan of Aleppo for the Melkite Church, has been monitoring the situation in nearby Hassakah, where hundreds of frightened refugees from villages taken over by militants of the Islamic State group this week.

Catholic Online

DFW Catholic
Fri, 20 Feb 2015 06:03:45 -0800

The Melkite Patriarch of Antioch and All the East said that in this Lenten season, the Middle East is experiencing a “Way of the Cross”. Patriarch Gregory III Laham, said that the current conflicts are “the greatest tragedy since World War II” in his ...

The Daily Star

The Daily Star
Sun, 01 Mar 2015 14:07:44 -0800

De Mistura at the Ibrahim-al Khalil Melkite Greek Catholic church to show solidarity with the Assyrian community in Damascus. AFP PHOTO / LOUAI BESHARA. Connect; Tweet; RSS; Follow; Email; Print; Share. Agencies. BEIRUT: Syrian rebel and opposition ...

The Daily Star

The Daily Star
Sun, 01 Mar 2015 08:52:30 -0800

ISIS releases 19 Christians, more than 200 still captive - activists. Displaced Assyrians take part in a prayer at the Ibrahim-al Khalil Melkite Greek Catholic church in the Jaramana district on the outskirts of the capital Damascus on March 1, 2015 ...

Huffington Post

Huffington Post
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 08:52:30 -0800

In 2009, after a six-year campaign, the Landmarks Preservation Commission did designate the former St. George's Melkite Church, since it attractively represents the former "Little Syria" community. Yes, the Middle Eastern immigrants -- Syrian, Lebanese ...
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