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The term "Melkite" (/ˈmɛlkt/), also written "Melchite", refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. The word comes from the Syriac word malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ‎), and the Arabic word Malakī (Arabic: ملكي‎, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial").[1] When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Eastern Rite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.[2]

Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community, dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles.[3] This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek, Greco-Macedonian, Roman, Syriac, and Jewish.

Hellenistic Judaism and the Judeo-Greek "wisdom" literature popular in the late Second Temple era amongst both Hellenized Jews (known as Mityavnim) and gentile Greek proselyte converts to Judaism played an important part in the formation of the Melkite tradition.

After the Islamic conquests of the Levant in the 7th century, the Melkite community started incorporating Arabic language in the liturgical traditions as the Middle East became gradually Arabized.[3]

11th-century Melchite Hirmologion written in Syriac Sertâ book script, from Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, now part of the Schøyen Collection.

The term Melkite was originally used as a pejorative term after the acrimonious division that occurred in Eastern Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (451). It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the council and the Byzantine Emperor (malko and its cognates are Semitic words for "king"). "It was only towards the end of the fifth century that it took the name of Melkite".[4] The Melkites were generally Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt, as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchatesAlexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople. After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria (Coptic Orthodox Church) and Antioch (Syriac Orthodox Church). The Nubian kingdom of Makuria (in modern Sudan) in contrast to their Non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox neighbours, was also Chalcedonian, from c. 575 until ca. 710 and still had a large Melkite minority until the 1400s.

From 1342, Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, and worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism, normally dated to 1054, was undefined, and many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. In 1724, Cyril VI (Seraphim Tanas) was elected in Damascus by the Synod as Patriarch of Antioch. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon, the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril. After being ordained a priest, then bishop he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne.

The newly elected Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) also recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome. From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch), who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late nineteenth century, and the Greek Catholics (Melkite Greek Catholic Church), who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group who continue to use the title Melkite; thus, in modern usage, the term applies almost exclusively to the Arabic-speaking Greek Catholics from the Middle East.

Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Members of theses communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic (that is, those of the (Eastern) Roman Empire, what English speakers often call "Byzantine"). The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  2. ^ Sebastian P. Brock (2006). An introduction to Syriac studies (2, revised, illustrated ed.). Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333492. 
  3. ^ a b David Little, Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding. Peacemakers in action: profiles of religion in conflict resolution (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780521853583. 
  4. ^ History of the Melkite Church from its Origins to the Present Day, by Mgr. Joseph Nasrallah, Melkite Exarque in Paris. http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html


  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melkite — Please support Wikipedia.
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1755 news items

Vatican Radio

Vatican Radio
Tue, 04 Aug 2015 04:17:06 -0700

As citizens of the United States, who have not forgotten your own origin and provenance, nor also your belonging to the Melkite Church, you can, I am sure, offer a great contribution. Here, as in your homeland, whatever is ruined can be rebuilt, thus ...

Catholic Culture

Catholic Culture
Mon, 10 Aug 2015 01:37:30 -0700

In recent interviews with Aid to the Church in Need, the head of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church criticized Western policies toward Syria and vowed to remain with his flock in the war-torn nation. “If [the West] helps moderates in Syria in a direct ...

Catholic Free Press

Catholic Free Press
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 15:07:30 -0700

At Our Lady of Redemption, a Melkite parish in the Detroit suburb of Warren, Michigan, active parishioners worry about the threat assimilation poses to their Eastern-rite heritage and their Arabic identity and traditions. More Melkites hail from ...
Washington Post
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 20:56:15 -0700

6, Noon to 6 p.m.: Holy Transfiguration Melkite Greek-Catholic Church will host its 22nd annual Middle Eastern Food Festival. The Festival will feature authentic Middle Eastern food, music and dancing, church tours and other activities. Foods available ...

National Catholic Reporter

National Catholic Reporter
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 08:26:38 -0700

Melkite Archbishop Jean-Clement Jeanbart of Aleppo, Syria, is in the United States for a few days, discussing the desperate plight of Christians in the ancient city of Aleppo and in war-torn Syria. The 72-year-old Jeanbart is being hosted by the ...

Catholic Herald Online

Catholic Herald Online
Mon, 20 Jul 2015 03:50:00 -0700

Fears are growing that a Melkite Greek Catholic priest has been kidnapped in Syria, according to Fides news agency. Fr Antoine Boutros, pastor of a parish in the city of Shahba, and Al-Said Abdun, who was driving him, have not been seen since July 12 ...

The Pilot

The Pilot
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 14:22:30 -0700

Iraqi and Syrian Christians march during a Palm Sunday procession in Beirut, Lebanon, March 29. Synods of Melkite Catholic and Maronite Catholic bishops in Lebanon called on the world's governments to help resolve the conflicts in the region so that ...

Catholic Culture

Catholic Culture
Tue, 18 Aug 2015 02:27:56 -0700

Father Tony Boutros, a Melkite Greek Catholic priest who was kidnapped in Syria in July, was freed on August 15, Archbishop Mario Zenari told Vatican Radio. Archbishop Zenari, the apostolic nuncio in Syria, said that six clergymen, including two ...

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