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The term Melkite, also written Melchite, refers to various Byzantine Rite Christian churches and their members originating in the Middle East. The word comes from the Syriac word malkoyo (ܡܠܟܝܐ‎), and the Arabic word Malakī (Arabic: ملكي‎, meaning "royal", and by extension, "imperial").[1] When used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers specifically to the Eastern Rite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch.[2]

Melkites view themselves as the first Christian community, dating the Melkite Church back to the time of the Apostles.[3] This first community is said to have been a mixed one made up of individuals who were originally Greek, Roman, Syriac, and Jewish. After the Islamic conquests of the Levant in the 7th century, the Melkite community started incorporating Arabic language in the liturgical traditions as the Middle East became gradually Arabized.[3]

Melchite Hirmologion written in Syriac Sertâ book script (11th century, Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai.

The term Melkite was originally used as a pejorative term after the acrimonious division that occurred in Eastern Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (451). It was used by non-Chalcedonians to refer to those who backed the council and the Byzantine Emperor (malko and its cognates are Semitic words for "king"). "It was only towards the end of the fifth century that it took the name of Melkite".[4] The Melkites were generally Greek-speaking city-dwellers living in the west of the Levant and in Egypt, as opposed to the more provincial Syriac- and Coptic-speaking non-Chalcedonians. The Melkite Church was organised into three historic patriarchatesAlexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem — in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople. After the Council of Chalcedon, over the ensuing centuries those Churches which rejected this council recognised different patriarchs in Alexandria (Coptic Orthodox Church) and Antioch (Syriac Orthodox Church). The Nubian kingdom of Makuria (in modern Sudan) in contrast to their Non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox neighbours, was also Chalcedonian, from c. 575 until ca. 710 and still had a large Melkite minority until the 1400s.

From 1342, Roman Catholic clergy were based in Damascus and other areas, and worked toward a union between Rome and the Orthodox. At that time, the nature of the East-West Schism, normally dated to 1054, was undefined, and many of those who continued to worship and work within the Melkite Church became identified as a pro-Western party. In 1724, Cyril VI (Seraphim Tanas) was elected in Damascus by the Synod as Patriarch of Antioch. Considering this to be a Catholic takeover attempt, Jeremias III of Constantinople imposed a deacon, the Greek monk Sylvester to rule the patriarchate instead of Cyril. After being ordained a priest, then bishop he was given Turkish protection to overthrow Cyril. Sylvester's heavy-handed leadership of the church encouraged many to re-examine the validity of Cyril's claim to the patriarchal throne.

The newly elected Pope Benedict XIII (1724–1730) also recognised the legitimacy of Cyril's claim and recognized him and his followers as being in communion with Rome. From that point onwards, the Melkite Church was divided between the Greek Orthodox (Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch), who continued to be appointed by the authority of the Patriarch of Constantinople until the late nineteenth century, and the Greek Catholics (Melkite Greek Catholic Church), who recognize the authority of the Pope of Rome. However, it is now only the Catholic group who continue to use the title Melkite; thus, in modern usage, the term applies almost exclusively to the Arabic-speaking Greek Catholics from the Middle East.

Some typically Grecian "Ancient Synagogal" priestly rites and hymns have survived partially to the present, notably in the distinct church services of the Melkite and Greek Orthodox communities of the Hatay Province of Southern Turkey, Syria and Lebanon. Members of theses communities still call themselves Rûm which literally means "Roman" or "Asian Greek" in Arabic (that is, those of the (Eastern) Roman Empire, what English speakers often call "Byzantine"). The term "Rûm" is used in preference to "Ionani" or "Yāvāni" which means "European-Greek" or Ionian in Classical Arabic and Biblical Hebrew.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Dick (2004), p. 9
  2. ^ Sebastian P. Brock (2006). An introduction to Syriac studies (2, revised, illustrated ed.). Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333492. 
  3. ^ a b David Little, Tanenbaum Center for Interreligious Understanding. Peacemakers in action: profiles of religion in conflict resolution (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780521853583. 
  4. ^ History of the Melkite Church from its Origins to the Present Day, by Mgr. Joseph Nasrallah, Melkite Exarque in Paris. http://phoenicia.org/melkites.html


  • Dick, Iganatios (2004). Melkites: Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholics of the Patriarchates of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem. Boston: Sophia Press. 

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95 news items

Independent Catholic News
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:22:30 -0700

My Patriarch, Gregorious III Laham, Greek Catholic Melkite Patriarch of Antioch (my own diocese) visited London this last weekend. He gave a talk at the Centre for Eastern Christianity at Heythrop College, a Centre with which I am connected as a Fellow ...

Fars News Agency

Fars News Agency
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:00:00 -0700

And, Thamir, a devout Muslim and the artist who coordinated projects for Iraqi refugees in Amman, including ones in a Melkite Catholic church in a neighborhood where many Iraqi Christians lived. No one ever asked about religion when they agreed to be ...

The Daily Star

The Daily Star
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 14:45:58 -0700

At some point during one of the school's turnovers, the property fell into the hands of the Greek-Melkite Diocese of Saida and Deir al-Qamar, which together with local engineer Mounzer Fouad Ephrem al-Boustani and two of his friends decided in 2011 to ...
Church Times
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 04:37:30 -0700

"We need each other": Archbishop Welby welcomes the Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch, Gregorios III, to Lambeth Palace, during a visit to the UK to appeal for reconciliation in Syria. The Archbishops shared a meal and prayers for peace in the Middle East.
Telegraph.co.uk (blog)
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 04:49:48 -0700

The Syrian patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church has estimated that perhaps 25 per cent of his country's 2 million refugees are Christian. The West's direct intervention in Iraq created Hell on Earth for its Christian citizens, while the West ...
Church Times
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 04:48:45 -0700

"We need each other": Archbishop Welby welcomes the Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch, Gregorios III, to Lambeth Palace, during a visit to the UK to appeal for reconciliation in Syria, last October. The Archbishops shared a meal and prayers for peace in ...
Independent Catholic News
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 17:56:15 -0700

... those who can cry out for justice in the name of all those loved little ones of the Lord! We are the voice of Jesus! May all those who have died rest in God's peace. Amen. Fr Robin Gibbons is an Eastern Rite Chaplain for the Melkite Greek Catholics ...
Wilkes Barre Times-Leader
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Lebanese-American Food Festival, the 13th annual event with Middle-Eastern food and pastries, picnic favorites, games, used-book sale, basket raffle, clams and beer and entertainment by DJ Mike Simon (Saturday) and The Mix (Sunday). St. Joseph Melkite ...

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