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Matthias Flacius
Matthias Flacius.png
Matthias Flacius
Born Matija
(1520-03-03)March 3, 1520
Carpano, a part of Labin in Istria
Died March 11, 1575(1575-03-11) (aged 55)
Other names Matija Vlačić Ilirik, Matthias Flach
Occupation philologist, philosopher and theologian

Matthias Flacius Illyricus (Latin; Croatian: Matija Vlačić Ilirik, German: Matthias Flach) (3 March 1520 – 11 March 1575) was a Lutheran reformer from Istria, present day Croatia. He is an author of the most significant Croatian Protestant book published in 1555 in Čakavian dialect.[1]


Early life and education[edit]

Flacius was born in Carpano, a part of Labin in Istria, son of Andrea Vlacich alias Francovich and Jacobea Luciani, daughter of a wealthy and powerful Albonian family. His mother's uncle was the Lutheran Baldo Lupetina who later was condemned to death in Venice for his faith. He lost his father during his early childhood.

At the age of sixteen Flacius went to study in Venice where he was taught by the humanist Giambattista Cipelli (Baptista Aegnatius / Battista Egnazio). At the age of seventeen, he intended to join a monastic order, with a view to sacred learning. His intention, however, was diverted by his uncle, Baldo Lupetina, provincial of the Franciscans and sympathetic to the Reformation cause, who convinced him to start a university career.

Flacius continued his studies in Basel in 1539, then went to Tübingen and finally ended up in Wittenberg where in (1541) he was welcomed by Melanchthon. There he came under the influence of Martin Luther. In 1544, Flacius was appointed professor of Hebrew at Wittenberg. He finished his master's degree on 24 February 1546, ranking first among the graduates.

Career and teachings[edit]

Soon, Flacius was prominent in the theological discussions of the time, opposing strenuously the Augsburg Interim, and the compromise of Melanchthon known as the Leipzig Interim. Melanchthon wrote of him with venom as a renegade (aluimus in sinu serpentem, "we have nourished a snake in our bosom"). Because Wittenberg became too stressful, Flacius moved to Magdeburg in 1549. On 7 May 1557 he was appointed professor of New Testament theology at Jena but was soon involved in controversy with his colleague Victorinus Strigel on the synergistic question (relating to the function of the will in conversion).

Affirming the natural inability of man, he adopted a position on sin as not being an accident of human nature, but involved in its substance, since The Fall of Man. Holding to a strong view of what Calvinists later called total depravity, Flacius insisted that human nature was entirely transformed by original sin, human beings were transformed from goodness and almost wholly corrupted with evil, making them kin to the Devil in his view, so that within them, without divine assistance, there lies no power even to cooperate with the Gospel when they hear it preached. Human acts of piety are valueless in themselves, and humans are entirely dependent on the grace of God for salvation. Those that agreed with him on this point, for example, Cyriacus Spangenberg, were termed Flaccians. Resisting ecclesiastical censure, he left Jena (Feb. 1562) to found an academy at Regensburg.

That assignment was not successful, so in October 1566 he accepted a call from the Lutheran community at Antwerp. Thence he was driven (Feb. 1567) by the exigencies of war, and went to Frankfurt, where the authorities stood against him. He proceeded to Strasbourg where he was well received by the superintendent Johannes Marbach, and he hoped he had found an asylum. Here again, his religious views were unique and controversial. The authorities ordered him to leave the city by May Day 1573. The prioress Catharina von Meerfeld of the Convent of White Ladies secretly harboured him and his family in Frankfurt where he fell ill and died on 11 March 1575.


Flaccius' life was eventful in a turbulent epoch. He represents in some sense a move in the direction of the scientific study of church history in the modern sense and similarly of hermeneutics, though no doubt his impelling motive was non dispassionate but polemical, namely to prove the false premisses of Roman Catholicism. But he did not polemicize with Catholics alone and his litigious temperament has caused him generally to be passed over as distasteful by historians. The contribution of the principles expressed in Flacius' Catalogus testium veritatis (1556; revised edition by J. C. Dietericus, 1672) and his Clavis scripturae sacrae (1567), followed by his Glossa compendiaria in N. Testamentum (1570) would perthaps merit reconsideration. His characteristic formula, historia est fundamentum doctrinae, is better understood now than in his own day.

Family life[edit]

In 1545, while at Wittenberg, Flaccius married a pastor's daughter. He had twelve children with his first wife before she died in 1564. He remarried the same year and had six more children with his second wife. His son Matthias was professor of philosophy and medicine at Rostock.


Clavis scripturae sacrae, 2nd edition, 1674


  1. ^ Franolić 1984, p. 16.


External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthias_Flacius — Please support Wikipedia.
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Reformatorisch Dagblad

Reformatorisch Dagblad
Tue, 20 Oct 2015 13:15:00 -0700

Dit komt vooral door de invloed van een van Luthers begaafdste volgelingen: Matthias Flacius. De directe bemoeienis van Luther met de Nederlanden beperkte zich tot de lutherse gemeente in Antwerpen. De brief die hij aan deze gemeente richtte was een ...

First Things (blog)

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Thu, 15 Oct 2015 07:26:15 -0700

The radical philosophical import of Luther's theology was missed, Gregor argues, in part because Lutheran scholastics “resumed thinking within the conceptuality of substantia and accidens,” illustrated by the controversy between Matthias Flacius ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Wed, 14 Oct 2015 02:45:00 -0700

Es ist der Theologe Matthias Flacius, dessen heftige Gegnerschaft zu Melanchthon ihm wohl diese zweifelhafte Ehre einbrachte. Bleiben noch einige Personen übrig, respektvoll im Hintergrund des anlässlich der Expo 2000 restaurierten Gemäldes aufgereiht ...

Badische Zeitung

Badische Zeitung
Fri, 25 Apr 2014 13:03:45 -0700

Jahrhunderts anhielten und in der ersten Hus-Gesamtausgabe des lutherischen Theologen Matthias Flacius 1558 ihren Höhepunkt erreichten. Unter den "Wahrheitszeugen" (testes veritatis), die die lutherische Kirchengeschichtsschreibung unter den ...

Reformatorisch Dagblad

Reformatorisch Dagblad
Mon, 30 Sep 2013 08:10:31 -0700

De lutherse kerkhervormer Matthias Flacius Illyricus vond zelfs dat Bonifatius (”goeddoener”) eigenlijk anders had moeten heten: Malefatius, ”kwaaddoener”. De tentoonstelling ”Credo. De kerstening van Europa in de middeleeuwen” is tot 3 november te ...

Reformatorisch Dagblad

Reformatorisch Dagblad
Tue, 11 Sep 2012 08:11:32 -0700

Religieuze leiders bespreken situatie christenen Midden-Oosten · Ds. B. Coster beroepbaar in PKN · Matthias Flacius bezorgde Luther in de Nederlanden een slechte naam · Wereldwijd recordaantal Bijbels verspreid in 2014 · „Thora is belangrijker dan de ...

Reformatorisch Dagblad

Reformatorisch Dagblad
Fri, 04 Mar 2011 03:17:13 -0800

... zo liet prof. dr. Irene Dingel uit Mainz zien. Zo waarschuwden lutherse theologen als Matthias Flacius Illyricus voor de gereformeerde uitleg van de rechtvaardiging, de doop, het avondmaal en de nederdaling ter helle, waartegen de Heidelbergse ...

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