|Martin Edward Hellman|
October 2, 1945 |
|Alma mater||New York University (BSc)
Stanford University (PhD)
|Thesis||Learning with Finite Memory (1969)|
|Doctoral advisor||Thomas Cover|
|Doctoral students||Taher Elgamal|
|Known for||Diffie–Hellman key exchange|
Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, and is best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle. Hellman is a long-time contributor to the computer privacy debate and is more recently known for promoting risk analysis studies on nuclear threats, including the NuclearRisk.org website.
Hellman graduated from the Bronx High School of Science. He went on to earn his Bachelor's degree from New York University in 1966, and at Stanford University he earned a Master's degree in 1967 and a Ph.D. in 1969, all in electrical engineering. From 1968–1969 he worked at IBM's Watson Research Center where he encountered Horst Feistel. From 1969–1971 he was an assistant professor at MIT. He joined Stanford in 1971 as a professor, serving until 1996 when he became Professor Emeritus.
Public key cryptography
Hellman and Whitfield Diffie's paper New Directions in Cryptography was published in 1976. It introduced a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, which went far toward solving one of the fundamental problems of cryptography, key distribution. It has become known as Diffie–Hellman key exchange. The article also seems to have stimulated the almost immediate public development of a new class of encryption algorithms, the asymmetric key algorithms. Hellman and Whitfield Diffie were awarded the Marconi Fellowship and accompanying prize in 2000 for work on public-key cryptography and for helping make cryptography a legitimate area of academic research.
Computer privacy debate
Hellman has been a long-time contributor to the computer privacy debate. He and Diffie were the most prominent critics of the short key size of the Data Encryption Standard in 1975. An audio recording survives of their review of DES at Stanford in 1976 with Dennis Branstad of NBS and representatives of the National Security Agency. Their concern was well-founded: subsequent history has shown not only that NSA actively intervened with IBM and NBS to shorten the key size, but also that the short key size enabled exactly the kind of massively parallel key crackers that Hellman and Diffie sketched out, which when ultimately built outside the classified world, made it clear that DES was insecure and obsolete. In 2012, a $10,000 commercially available machine can recover a DES key in days. Hellman also served (1994–96) on the National Research Council's Committee to Study National Cryptographic Policy, whose main recommendations have since been implemented.
Hellman has been active in researching international security since 1985.
In 1987, over 30 scholars came together to produce Russian and English editions of "Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking, Soviet and Western Scholars Issue a Challenge to Build a World Beyond War". Anatoly Gromyko and Martin Hellman were the chief editors of this book. The authors of this book examine questions such as: How can we overcome the inexorable forces leading toward a clash between the United States and the Soviet Union? How do we build a common vision for the future? How can we restructure our thinking to synchronize with the imperative of our modern world?,
Defusing the nuclear threat
Martin's current project in International Security is to defuse the Nuclear threat. In particular, Hellman is studying the probabilities and risks associated with nuclear weapons and encouraging further international research in this area. His website NuclearRisk.org has been endorsed by a number of prominent individuals including a former Director of the National Security Agency, Stanford's President Emeritus, and two Nobel Laureates.
Awards and honors
In 1997 he was awarded The Franklin Institute's Louis E. Levy Medal, in 1981 the IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award (together with Whitfield Diffie), in 1998 a Golden Jubilee Award for Technological Innovation from the IEEE Information Theory Society, and in 2010 he was awarded the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal.
- List of publications from Microsoft Academic Search
- List of publications from the DBLP Bibliography Server
- Diffie, W.; Hellman, M. (1976). "New directions in cryptography". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 22 (6): 644–654. doi:10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638.
- Leung-Yan-Cheong, S.; Hellman, M. (1978). "The Gaussian wire-tap channel". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24 (4): 451. doi:10.1109/TIT.1978.1055917.
- Karnin, E.; Greene, J.; Hellman, M. (1983). "On secret sharing systems". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 29: 35. doi:10.1109/TIT.1983.1056621.
- Merkle, R.; Hellman, M. (1978). "Hiding information and signatures in trapdoor knapsacks". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24 (5): 525. doi:10.1109/TIT.1978.1055927.
- Pohlig, S.; Hellman, M. (1978). "An improved algorithm for computing logarithms over<tex>GF(p)</tex>and its cryptographic significance (Corresp.)". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 24: 106. doi:10.1109/TIT.1978.1055817.
- Hellman, Martin (1969). Learning with Finite Memory (PhD thesis). Stanford University.
- Martin Hellman's webpage at Stanford University http://www-ee.stanford.edu/~hellman
- Columbia University press release regarding Marconi Fellowship
- "DES (Data Encryption Standard) Review at Stanford University". 1976. Retrieved 2012-03-20.
- Richard Rathbun, Rick Roney, Louise Smith, Donna Richeson, Don Fitton, Craig Ritchey, "BEYOND WAR: A New Way of Thinking", (Editors: Martin Hellman, Craig Barnes, Al Braun, Pat Chandler, Jack Li, Mac Lawrence, Tom Lindsay, Tom Osborne, Chris Rich, Nancy Ritchey, Karen Stevens and Judie Swope.) PDF available free online
- Breakthrough website page
- Anatoly Gromyko, Martin Hellman, Craig Barnes, Alexander Nikitin, Donald Fitton, Sergei Kapitza, Elena Loshchenkova, William McGlashan, Andrei Melville, Harold Sandler, Olivia Simantob, "Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking", Walker and Company, ISBN 0-8027-1026-3, ISBN 0-8027-1015-8 and published simultaneously in the Soviet Union by Progress Publishing Company, Moscow. Martin Hellman's Stanford website page, PDF online free
- "Franklin Laureate Database – Louis E. Levy Medal Laureates". Franklin Institute. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
- "IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award Recipients". IEEE. Retrieved January 2, 2011.
- "Golden Jubilee Awards for Technological Innovation". IEEE Information Theory Society. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- "IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal Recipients". IEEE. Retrieved January 22, 2011.
- "Meet the 2011 National Inventors Hall of Fame Inductees – Martin Hellman". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- "Martin Hellman". Computer History Museum. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
- Oral history interview with Martin Hellman Oral history interview 2004, Palo Alto, California. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Hellman describes his invention of public key cryptography with collaborators Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle at Stanford University in the mid-1970s. He also relates his subsequent work in cryptography with Steve Pohlig (the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm) and others. Hellman addresses the National Security Agency’s (NSA) early efforts to contain and discourage academic work in the field, the Department of Commerce’s encryption export restrictions (under the International Traffic of Arms Regulation, or ITAR), and key escrow (the so-called Clipper chip). He also touches on the commercialization of cryptography with RSA Data Security and VeriSign.
- Martin Hellman's website on the risk of nuclear threat from nuclear war or nuclear terrorism
- "Defusing the nuclear threat and making the world safer" Announcement of Hellman presentation at U.C. Santa Cruz; Oct. 2008
- Hellman at the 2009 RSA conference, video with Hellman participating on the Cryptographer's Panel, April 21, 2009, Moscone Center, San Francisco
- Soaring, Cryptography and Nuclear Weapons