|Margaret Lea Houston|
|Born||Margaret Moffette Lea
April 11, 1819
|Died||December 3, 1867
|Cause of death||Yellow fever|
|Resting place||Houston-Lea Family Cemetery
|Alma mater||Judson Female Institute|
|Known for||First Lady of Republic of Texas (1841–1844)
First Lady of State of Texas (1859–1861)
|Children||Sam Jr. (1843–1894)
Nancy (Nannie) Elizabeth (1846–1920)
Margaret (Maggie) (1848–1908)
Mary William (Mary Willie) (1850–1931)
Antoinette (Nettie) Power (1852–1932)
Andrew Jackson (1854–1941)
William (Willie) Rogers (1858–1920)
Temple Lea (1860–1905)
Margaret Lea Houston (April 11, 1819 – December 3, 1867) was the third wife of politician Sam Houston of Texas. They met in between his two non-consecutive terms as President of the Republic of Texas, and married during his service as a representative in the Congress of the Republic of Texas. When he was elected to a second term as the Republic's president, she became the First Lady of the Republic of Texas.
She came from a strong, close-knit family in Alabama, many of whom also moved to Texas when she married the man who was arguably the most famous and accomplished individual of his place and time. The couple had 8 children, and she gave birth to the majority of them while he was away attending to politics. Her mother Nancy Lea was a constant in their lives, helping with the children, alternately providing the family with financial assistance and temporary housing, as well as managing the household help. The Lea family presence in Texas formed a spiritual bond that helped Margaret convince her husband to give up both alcohol and profane language. He believed his wife to be an exemplary woman of faith. Under her influence he converted to the Baptist denomination, after he had many years previously been baptized a Catholic in Nacogdoches.
During the 13 years Houston shuttled back and forth to Washington, D.C. while serving in the United States Senate, she remained in Texas raising their children. When he was elected governor, Margaret became First Lady of the state of Texas and was pregnant with their last child. Her brief tenure came on the cusp of the Civil War, at a time when the state was torn apart over the debate of whether or not to secede from the United States, while her husband worked in vain to defeat the Texas Order of Secession. There had been an assassination attempt on his life, and angry mobs gathered in the streets near the governor's mansion. With children to protect, and no government security forces in place, she lived in fear for her family's safety.
After secession she was a war-time mother whose oldest son joined the Confederate army and was taken prisoner at the Battle of Shiloh. Her husband died before the end of the war. In her few remaining years, she became the keeper of the Sam Houston legacy and opened his records to a trusted biographer. When she died of yellow fever 31⁄2 years later, Margaret could not be buried with her husband in a public cemetery in Huntsville for fear of contamination, and was instead interred next to her mother on private property.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Marriage
- 3 First Lady of the Republic
- 4 Extended family life
- 5 First Lady of the state
- 6 Final years
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Citations
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Margaret Moffette Lea was born April 11, 1819 into a family of devout Baptists in Perry County, Alabama. Her father Temple Lea was a church deacon and the state treasurer of the Alabama Baptist Convention, and her mother Nancy Moffette Lea was the only woman delegate at the convention's formation. Margaret was the 5th of 6 children that included older siblings Martin, Varilla, Henry Clinton and Vernal, as well as younger sister Antoinette. The Lea cotton plantation had been acquired with money from a Moffette family inheritance, and was operated by Nancy.
When her father died in 1834, she inherited four slaves that included Joshua and Eliza, her favorite. The older Lea children had married prior to Temple's death, but Vernal, Margaret and Antoinette accompanied the widowed Nancy when she moved into her son Henry's home at Marion. He was an accomplished attorney who sat on the boards of educational institutions, and would be elected to the Alabama State Senate in 1836. Margaret was enrolled at Professor McLean's School, and also attended Judson Female Institute. The latter was founded by Baptists to instruct genteel young women in what were acceptable goals of their time and place, "proficiency in needlework, dancing, drawing, and penmanship". Heavy emphasis was put on Baptist theology and missionary work. She wrote poetry and read romantic novels, while also becoming accomplished in guitar, harp and piano. Reverend Peter Crawford baptized her in the Siloam Baptist Church of Marion when she was 19, by which time, the eligible young lady was considered "accomplished, well-connected and deeply religious."
After completing his first term as President of the Republic of Texas in early December 1838, Sam Houston continued to practice law from his office in San Augustine. He arrived in Mobile in the early months of 1839 as a partner of the Sabine City Company, seeking investors to develop a community that is today known as Sabine Pass. Through Martin Lea, he made the acquaintance of Antoinette's husband William Bledsoe, a wealthy businessman who in turn suggested Nancy Lea as a possible investor. Invited to a garden party at Martin's home, it was there Houston first became acquainted with Margaret. The mutual attraction was instantaneous.
Nancy was favorably impressed with Houston's land sales pitch, but not so impressed with his interest in her daughter. She and others in the family were concerned about his reputation as a hard-drinking carouser with a proclivity for profanity, who was 26 years older than Margaret and twice married. Several weeks of love letters had been exchanged between Margaret and Houston by the time he proposed marriage that summer of 1839, presenting her with his image carved on a brooch. In an effort to assuage the family's opposition to the union, Houston spent several weeks in the Lea home in Alabama.
In September during his absence from Texas, his supporters in San Augustine County elected him to serve in the Republic of Texas House of Representatives. When the couple's engagement was announced in newspapers, the Leas were not the only ones who were skeptical. Acquaintances in Texas were well versed with his personal history and aware that he had not divorced the first wife when he married again, only recently obtaining that divorce with hopes of marrying a Texas woman who, as it played out, rejected him for another suitor. Political crony Barnard E. Bee, Sr. tried to discourage him from making a third attempt at marriage, believing him to be "totally disqualified for domestic happiness."
As the May 9, 1840 wedding day grew close, some family members still looked upon him with uncertainty and were determined to stop what they believed would be a disastrous union for Margaret. She would not be deterred, however, and the Reverend Peter Crawford officiated over the wedding of Margaret and the man she had fallen in love with. The newlyweds spent their honeymoon week at the Lafayette Hotel before sailing to Galveston, where Nancy and the Bledsoes had already established residences. Houston retained a house he owned in Houston City, but Margaret had no taste for the hustle and bustle and preferred the lesser populated Galveston. She and her personal slaves who had accompanied the newlyweds from Alabama shared her mother's house while Houston traveled.
First Lady of the Republic
The year before he met Margaret, Houston had purchased property at Cedar Point on Galveston Bay in Chambers County, which he named Raven Moor, and planned to expand with income from his law practice. The existing 2-room log dogtrot house with its detached slaves' quarters overlooked Galveston Bay and became the newlyweds' first home, filled with both Margaret's personal furnishings from Alabama, as well as newer pieces. She renamed it Ben Lomond as a tip of the hat to the romantic Walter Scott works she'd read, and delegated management of the household to her mother Nancy.
During his second term as representative from San Augustine, Houston was elected in 1841 to once again serve as the Republic's president. Margaret disliked campaign events and giving up her privacy, frequently staying home while her husband traveled about the Republic canvassing for votes. Yet, when she rose to the occasion, such as the extended post-election tour of San Augustine County and victory celebrations in Washington County and Houston City, the public adored her, and she became an impressive political asset. She rode in a local presidential parade, but stayed home rather than travel to the inauguration in Austin. When the couple appeared at several events in Nacogdoches, his old friends took notice of his total avoidance of alcohol, and he continued to assure her that he was giving it up completely. He also began to clean up his language to please his new wife, and would eventually claim to have eliminated his profanity altogether.
Approximately 26 miles (42 km) north of Ben Lomond, the Bledsoes operated a sugar cane plantation at Grand Cane in Liberty County. Financially supplemented by Nancy, the plantation became a family gathering place. About a year after Vernal and Mary Lea also moved to there, Mary suffered a pregnancy miscarriage. Not long after that, the couple accepted trusteeship of a 7-year-old Galveston orphan named Virginia Thorne, who was then placed in the care of Nancy. It was a problematic relationship from the beginning, and would grow to have legal ramifications for Margaret.
Events leading up to the 1842 Battle of Salado Creek caused Houston to believe that Mexico was planning a full-scale invasion to re-take Texas. In response, he moved the Republic's capital farther east to Washington-on-the-Brazos, and sent Margaret back to her relatives in Alabama. Upon her later return, they temporarily lived with the Lockhart family at Washington-on-the-Brazos until they were able to acquire a small home there. The couple's first child Sam Houston, Jr. was born in the new house on May 25, 1843. Upon learning of her son Martin's death in a duel, Nancy moved in with the Houstons, helping Margaret with the new baby, and over Houston's objections, pitching in with some financial assistance for food and household necessities.
Extended family life
Raven Hill and Woodland
When his term in office ended on December 9, 1844, Houston turned his attention to the Raven Hill plantation he had acquired that year northwest of Grand Cane and east of Huntsville. Margaret's slave Joshua was put in charge of the carpentry to build her a new house. Nancy, Margaret and sister Antoinette devoted their time to activities in Grand Cane's Concord Baptist Church, of which they were founding members. She continued to be a wife who was happiest when she and her husband stayed close to home. Although she accompanied him to President Andrew Jackson's Tennessee funeral in the summer of 1845, she did not attend fetes held in her husband's honor by his old friends and supporters. During the latter part of the year, Antoinette's husband William died, followed a few months later by the death of Vernal's wife Mary. Prior to her death, she had elicited a promise from Margaret to assume the trusteeship of Virginia Thorne.
Texas officially relinquished its sovereignty on February 19, 1846 to become the 28th state in the union, and Houston was elected by the Texas state legislature to serve in the United States Senate.[Note 1] Margaret's pregnancy prevented her from accompanying him, so when time and duty permitted he traveled back and forth between Texas and a temporary hotel residence in the nation's capital. When Reverend George W. Samson first met Houston at the E-Street Baptist Church in Washington D. C., the senator told him that his attendance had been influenced by "one of the best Christians on earth," his wife Margaret. For the duration of his senatorial service, Houston regularly attended the E-Street church, sharing his wife's letters with Samson and delving into theological discussions pertaining to Margaret's interpretation of scriptures.
Margaret's sister Antoinette eloped with wealthy Galveston businessman Charles Power in April and began a new life on his sugar plantation. Houston was home during a Congressional recess when their second child Nancy (Nannie) Elizabeth Houston was born at Raven Hill on September 6. About this time, in a letter to Houston that gave insight into Nancy's forceful constant presence in their lives, Margaret conceded, "She is high spirited and a little overbearing, I admit ..." but advised her husband to just give in to the insignificant issues. Houston replied, "I love the old Lady as a Mother, and have resolved to defer to her age and her disposition. Her blood is much like my own."
During the early part of 1847, Houston's letters to Margaret were filled with his weariness of being away from home, and his concern that he'd had no letters from her for weeks. He promised that at the end of the current legislative session, he would "... fly with all speed to meet and greet my Love and embrace our little ones." When she finally answered, she initially only told him of a serious illness that Sam Jr. had since recovered from, even though he was aware of previous problems she'd had with a breast lump. She'd been advised to see a specialist in Memphis, Tennessee if there was a recurrence. When complications appeared, family friend Dr. Ashbel Smith recommended surgery in Texas; only then, did she inform her husband of the situation. In an era before the development of anesthesia, her only alternative to bear the pain was to bite on a coin. Upon receipt of her letter, Houston immediately departed Washington D. C.
After his return home, Houston negotiated a labor-swap arrangement with Raven Hill's overseer Captain Frank Hatch. In lieu of a cash payment for his services, the bulk of Houston's slave labor force was engaged to work on Hatch's property at Bermuda Spring. The remaining slaves were retained as house labor for Margaret. Eventually, Houston became the owner of Bermuda Spring when he and Hatch swapped properties, and he set about to build the Woodland home for his wife. The first child to be born in the house was Margaret (Maggie) Lea Houston, arriving on April 13, 1848 while Congress was in session and Houston in Washington, D.C..
The widowed Vernal remarried to Catherine Davis Goodall in 1849, but trusteeship of Virginia Thorne remained with Margaret. With most of his time spent in the nation's capital, Houston's perception of Thorne was primarily second-hand gleanings from Margaret's letters; yet, he disliked and distrusted the orphaned girl to the point where he feared for the health and safety of his children with her in the house. Exacerbating the situation was Margaret's disapproval of the relationship that the teenage girl developed with overseer Thomas Gott. Push literally came to shove during an incident when Margaret disciplined her for what she believed was rough handling of one of the children. Thorne alleged that during the ensuing dispute over the situation, Margaret had used threats and physical violence against her. After she eloped with Gott a month later, the couple filed assault and battery charges against Margaret. When a grand jury investigation resulted in a deadlock, the matter was referred to the local Baptist church that Margaret helped found, and she was acquitted of the charges. Houston came to believe that the filing of legal charges against his wife had been encouraged by his political enemies.
Daughter Mary William (Mary Willie) Houston was born on April 9, 1850 in the Woodland house during another Congressional session when Houston was in the nation's capital. Their fourth child Antoinette (Nettie) Power Houston arrived on January 20, 1852 while he was again away on a business.
Many friends and acquaintances came to visit the Houstons at Woodland, including members of the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe who had allied with Houston during the Texas Revolution; and he in return had assisted them in their being granted a reservation in east Texas. Throughout the last years of his presidency, Houston had made numerous efforts for the Republic to find common ground with the various tribes, asserting their right to own land. Many tribes had come to respect him as their friend.
Houston's profession of faith
Nancy moved southwest of Huntsville to Independence in 1852, and much of the remaining Lea family began to form its nucleus in the Washington County community. Antoinette and Charles Power were also living in Independence after their Galveston sugar plantation was decimated by a hurricane. Brothers Vernal and Henry both died that year. The following year, Varilla's husband Robertus Royston also died and she joined the rest of the family in Independence. That August, the Houstons bought a house near the original Baylor University campus in Independence. While Houston was attending to business in Washington D. C., their sixth child Andrew Jackson Houston was born on June 21, 1854.
As required by Mexican federal law for property ownership in Coahuila y Tejas, Houston had been baptized into the Catholic faith in the Adolphus Sterne House in Nacogdoches prior to Texas independence. By 1854 when Houston told Rev. Samson he felt compelled to make a public profession of faith, perhaps on the floor of the United States Senate, Margaret and her family had spent 14 years influencing her husband's faith. Ultimately, he decided to make the profession among those who knew him best in Texas.
Word quickly spread about Houston's upcoming public baptism, and spectators traveled from neighboring communities to witness the event. Reverend Rufus Columbus Burleson, Baylor University president and local church pastor, performed the rite in Little Rocky Creek, 2 miles (3.2 km) southeast of town. Houston afterwards still felt unworthy of taking the Eucharist and becoming a member of Margaret's church. At her request, Reverend George Washington Baines of Brenham counseled with him to eliminate his self-doubts. In gratitude and celebration, Nancy sold her silverware to purchase a bell for the Rocky Creek Baptist Church.
First Lady of the state
The state legislature decided during Houston's senatorial 3rd term not to re-elect him, so he ran for the office of Governor of the state of Texas, losing to Hardin Richard Runnels. He was still in Washington, D.C. when William (Willie) Rogers Houston was born on May 25, 1858, their last child born in the Woodland home. In order to satisfy creditors of his gubernatorial campaign debts, Houston was forced to sell the house to his political supporter J. Carroll Smith. He subsequently defeated incumbent Runnels with a second bid for the office during a period when the populace was bitterly divided over the issue of secession from the United States, and was sworn in December 31, 1859.
Construction on the Texas Governor's Mansion in Austin had been completed three years earlier and first occupied by Governor Elisha M. Pease whose wife played hostess to anyone who stopped by for a visit. The Houston family and their retinue of slaves moved into the mansion during a political climate that grew increasingly hostile over the secession debate. The family furniture had been moved from Independence by Joshua, since the state government had no budget for staffing, furnishing or maintaining the governor's residence. That financial burden fell on the shoulders of the incumbent, and the state partially defaulted on Houston's salary. Margaret feared for the family's safety, as her husband worked towards defeating passage of the ordinance of secession. There had been a botched assassination attempt on Houston, and she saw throngs of angry malcontents gathering in the city. Margaret closed the mansion doors to all but those with an invitation from the Houstons.
As with everywhere else had they lived, she cared nothing about public life, and instead worked with Eliza and the other servants to create a home that welcomed extended family members and personal friends of the Houstons. The family and household slaves resided on the second floor of the mansion, while others lived in the stable. Houston would occasionally hire out some of his labor force. The first child born in the Texas governor's mansion was also the last of the Houston children; Temple Lea Houston was delivered on August 12, 1860. This last birth left the 41-year-old Margaret debilitated for almost 2 weeks, with a watchful Houston constantly by her side.
The state Secession Convention passed the Texas Ordinance of Secession on February 1, 1861, effectively becoming part of the Confederate States of America on March 1. Houston, like all other office holders in the state, was expected to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy. He refused and was removed from office on March 16, succeeded by Lt. Governor Edward Clark.
Their home in Independence having been leased out to the Baptists, retreating there was not an option. Houston was in poor health, as well as spiritually and financially broken. After a brief sojourn in Nancy's home, and over her objections, the family returned to Ben Lomond in early April.
Sometime during August 1861, Sam Jr. enlisted in the Confederate States Army 2nd Texas Infantry Regiment, Company C Bayland Guards, sending Margaret into melancholia. She dreaded that her first-born child would never be home again. "My heart seems almost broken ... what shall I do? How shall I bear it? When I first heard the news, I thought I would lie down and die," she wrote to her mother. Houston tried to help out by assuming care of their other children in between his extended visits to Galveston. Her fears seemed well-founded when her son was critically wounded and left for dead at the April 1862 Battle of Shiloh. A second bullet was stopped by his Bible, bearing an inside inscription from Margaret. He was found languishing in a field by a Union Army clergyman who picked up the Bible and also found a letter from Margaret in his pocket. Taken prisoner and sent to Camp Douglas in Illinois, he was later released in a prisoner exchange and received a medical discharge in October.
Lacking the financial means to buy back their Woodland home, they rented the Steamboat House in Huntsville. The 69-year-old Houston was in his final days and physically feeble, requiring the use of a cane to get around. Until daughter Maggie took over as his personal assistant, his wife shouldered the duties. Even so, during this period, he managed to get the Confederate War Department to discharge all draftees from the Alabama-Coushatta tribe, which had distanced itself completely from the conflict.
On July 26, 1863, with Margaret at his bedside reading the 23rd Psalm to him, Houston died. His will named her as his executrix, and named his cousin Thomas Caruthers, as well as with family friends Thomas Gibbs, J. Carroll Smith and Anthony Martin Branch as executors. He had died land rich, but cash poor. The inventory compiled of his estate after his death listed several thousand acres in real estate, $250 cash, slaves, a handful of livestock and his personal possessions.[Note 2]
Margaret was now a widow with 7 of her 8 children under the age of 18 and financially dependent on her. She returned to live near her own mother in Independence, swapping land for a nearby property that became known as the Mrs. Sam Houston house. The Texas legislature eventually gave Margaret an amount equivalent to her husband's unpaid gubernatorial salary; nevertheless, in order to afford Sam Jr.'s enrollment at medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, she rented out the Ben Lomond plantation.
Nancy Lea died of undiagnosed flu-like ailments on February 7, 1864, and was entombed on the grounds of her home. Margaret died on December 3, 1867, having contracted yellow fever during an epidemic. Walter Reed would not make his discovery of the cause of yellow fever through mosquito bite until 1900; contamination through contact was the pervading fear in 1867, and prevented Margaret's remains from being interred in a public cemetery with Houston's. She was buried in the ground beside Nancy's tomb at 11 p.m. by her servant Bingley, family friend Major Eber Cave, and her two daughters Nettie and Mary Willie. No funeral service was performed.
Two years after Houston's death, Baylor University president William Carey Crane was commissioned by Margaret to write her husband's biography, allowing complete access to all correspondence and records. Crane was a Lea family friend from Alabama who had little more than a passing acquaintance with "the hero of San Jacinto". His perception of Margaret, however, was that of an extraordinary woman, in many aspects equal to the man she married. He stated that Houston's "guardian angel", as he called her, had set out from the time she met Houston to refine his rough edges and provide a solid foundation for his personal life. That assessment of Margaret's relationship with her husband was echoed over a century later by author James L. Haley, "... Houston trusted the care of his soul to Margaret, that he had no more war to fight within himself, left him with more energy to wage political battle." Ultimately, several of Houston's associates were cooperative with the Crane endeavor, but not everyone was inspired to join the effort. According to daughter Maggie, the author had told her that many valuable documents were destroyed by Margaret in a fit of anger when someone she considered a friend expressed disinterest. Life and Select Literary Remains of Sam Houston of Texas was rejected by the initial publisher, but was eventually published by J.B. Lippincott in 1884.
After emancipation and Margaret's death, "Aunt Eliza", as the children called her, alternated her time between Nannie's and Maggie's households. When Eliza died in 1898, at her request, she was buried next to Margaret. Nancy's tomb fell to decay over the years, after which she was re-interred in the ground with Margaret and Eliza. There was much discussion during the Texas 1836 centennial about moving Margaret's remains next to Houston's in Huntsville, but the family and various authorities never came to an agreement over it. Not until May 15, 1965 was an historical marker erected in Independence to denote her contributions to Texas history.
"First Lady and the matriarch of one of the most significant families in Texas history." – Texas Historical Commission
- Sam Houston, Jr. (1843–1894) became a physician and author. He was widowed early into his marriage to Lucy Anderson and spent his final years living with his sister Maggie.
- Nancy (Nannie) Elizabeth Houston (1846–1920) married business man Joseph Clay Stiles Morrow. When her mother died, Nannie assumed guardianship of her younger siblings.
- Margaret (Maggie) Lea Houston (1848–1906) married Weston Lafayette Williams. The couple purchased Margaret's home where they helped Nannie provide a home for their younger siblings, and also raised their own 5 children there.
- Mary William (Mary Willie) Houston (1850–1931) married attorney John Simeon Morrow, and later became postmistress of Abilene, Texas.
- Antoinette (Nettie) Power Houston (1852–1932) Poet laureate and state historian for the Daughters of the Republic of Texas, she married Texas A&M University president William Lorraine Bringhurst.
- Andrew Jackson Houston (1854–1941) was a United States Senator. A graduate of West Point, he served in Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. He was a proponent of prohibition and supportive of suffrage for women. His first wife was Carrie Glenn Purnell; after her death, he remarried to Elizabeth Hart Good.
- William (Willie) Rogers Houston (1858–1920) was a lifelong bachelor, and became a career Special Agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He died of a heart attack en route to a reservation in Oklahoma.
- Temple Lea Houston (1860–1905) served as Texas State Senator, District 19, and Senate President Pro Tem. He became the most famous of the Houston children and was considered a brilliant legal counsel whose "Soiled Dove Plea" won the acquittal of a woman accused of prostitution. Married to Laura Cross, he lived his final years in Oklahoma. The Temple Houston television series was based on his legal career.
Historic residences and sites
- Sam Houston's house in Houston City has been replaced by an office building.
- Ben Lomond and Raven Hill homes deteriorated through the years and were destroyed, as was Nancy Lea's home in Independence.
- Steamboat House was moved in 1936 to the grounds of the Sam Houston Memorial Museum at Sam Houston State University, and designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1964.
- The Mrs. Sam Houston house in Independence was listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County on October 22, 1970.
- The Woodland home was listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Walker County on May 30, 1974 as the Sam Houston House, and is part of the Sam Houston Memorial Museum.
- The Rocky Creek Baptist Church bell purchased by Nancy Lea is currently located at the intersection of Farm to Market Road 50 and Farm to Market Road 390.
- Sam Houston's baptismal site is marked by the Texas Historical Commission as located on Farm to Market Road 150 at Sam Houston Road.
- Article 1, Section III of the United States Constitution states "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote." Election by popular vote of individuals in a given state did not come about until the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified on April 8, 1913."Constitution of the United States". United States Senate. United States government.
- Margaret and the other executors of his estate specifically named each of the 12 slaves on the inventory, with a total valuation of $10,530. Haley (2004), p. 417. An enduring myth associated with Houston is that in 1862 he read his slaves the Emancipation Proclamation from a newspaper, and set them free. Lincoln did not issue the proclamation until January 1, 1863. Slaves in Texas were not emancipated until June 19, 1865 by the issuance in Galveston of General Order No. 3 from Union General Gordon Granger, almost two years after Houston's death. The Texas constitution in effect under the Confederacy, Section III, Article 2, prohibited manumission (a slave owner freeing his slaves). Roberts (1993), p. 319; Campbell, Randolph B. (July 1984). "The End of Slavery in Texas: A Research Note". The Southwestern Historical Quarterly (The Portal to Texas History) 88: 71–80.; "Juneteenth". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved March 18, 2016.;"Article VIII, Section 2". Texas Constitution amended 1861. Tarlton Law Library. Retrieved March 18, 2016.; Porterfield, Bill (July 1973). "Sam Houston, Warts and All". Texas Monthly 1 (6): 67.; Cox, Mike. "Sam's Will". Texas Escapes. Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
- "Missionary Register". The Baptist Missionary Magazine (Boston, MA: Board of Managers of the Baptist General Convention). 11–12: 64, 96, 187, 190. 1831. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Hesler, Samuel B. "Nancy Moffette Lea". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Seale (1992), p. 7
- Seale (1992), pp. 4–5
- Roberts (1993), p. 10; Causey, Donna R. "Henry Clinton Lea". Alabama Pioneers. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
- Wells, Elizabeth Crabtree. "Judson College". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Alabama Humanities Foundation. Retrieved April 17, 2016.
- Haley (2004), p. 211; Roberts (1993), p. 8, Seale (1992), pp. 6–9, 14–15, 17, 40, 44, 52, 54, 57, 64, 67, 69.
- Haley (2006), p. 233
- Haley (2004), p. 210
- Haley (2004), pp. 9–10, 74–76
- Roberts (1993), pp. 17–18, 23
- Roberts (1993), pp. 23–25, 38; "Houston news". Telegraph and Texas Register 5 (11): 3. September 11, 1839. Retrieved March 10, 2016."Houston papers State Congressman". Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Haley (2004), pp. 200–201, 220; Jackson (2005), p. 247
- Haley (2004), pp. 209–210, 220
- Roberts (1993), p. 28
- Seale (1992), pp. 17, 31–32
- Seale (1992), pp. 44–45
- Roberts (1993), p. ; Seale (1992), pp. 35–36, 38
- Haley (2004), pp. 201, 211; Flanagan (1973), p. 49
- Roberts (1993), pp. 38–39, 56–57; "THC-Cedar Point". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- Seale (1992), pp. 39–40,44
- Roberts (1993), p. 98
- Haley (2004), p. 222
- Roberts (1993), pp. 54, 74; Seale (1992), pp. 40–42, 45
- Roberts (1993), pp. 63–64; Seale (1992 pp. 59–63
- Seale (1992), pp. 64–65
- Roberts (1993), pp. 39–40, 53–54
- Seale (1992), pp. 37–38,41; "THC-Sam Houston in Liberty County". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2012."THC-Grand Cane". Texas Historical Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2012.Bonney, Lorraine G; Johnston, Maxine; Gunter, Pete A.Y. (2011). The Big Thicket Guidebook: Exploring the Backroads and History of Southeast Texas. University of North Texas Press. pp. 425, 426. ISBN 978-1-57441-318-2.
- Houston, Roberts (1996c), p. 468; Seale (1992), p. 80
- "The Capitals of Texas". Texas Almanac. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Seale (1992), pp. 70–72, 75
- Roberts (1993), p. 99; Seale (1992), pp. 83–86
- Houston, Roberts (1996a), p. 286
- Roberts (1993), p. 111; Flanagan (1973), p. 79
- Seale (1992), pp. 93–94, 99–100; Jasinski, Laurie E. "Concord, Texas (Liberty County)". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Seale (1992), pp. 101–104; Haley (2004), p. 264
- Seale (1992), pp. 93, 105
- Seale (1992), p. 113
- Crane (1884), pp. 240–244
- Roberts (1993), p. 125
- Haley (2004), p. 298; Seale (1992), p. 120
- Houston, Roberts (1996b), p. 82; Roberts (1993), pp. 112, 129–130
- Roberts (1993), pp. 142–151
- Seale (1992), p. 121
- Seale (1992), pp. 122–127
- Haley (2004), p. 300
- "Second Generation Houston family". Star of Texas Museum. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- Seale (1992), p. 147
- Houston, Roberts (1996c), pp. 125, 219
- Houston, Roberts (1996c), pp. 468–481; Seale (1992), pp. 140–141,147–149, 151–153
- Haley (2004), pp. 307, 312
- "History". Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas' Website. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- Haley (2004), pp. 300–400; Crane (1884), (Part II Indian Talks) pp. 334–348; "Minutes of Council at the Falls of the Brazos, October 7, 1844". Texas State Library Archives Commission. Retrieved April 17, 2016.; Seale (1992), pp. 144–146; "Sam Houston House". National Register Digital Assets. National Park Service. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
- Seale (1992), pp. 154, 160
- Roberts (1993), pp. 233, 235
- Houston, Roberts (1996d), p. 54
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