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Manuel Mondragón
Born 1859
Ixtlahuaca, State of Mexico
Died 1922
(Aged 63)
San Sebastián, Spain
Allegiance Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico
Years of service 1880 - 1914
Rank General de División
Commands held Secretario de Guerra y Marina
Battles/wars Mexican Revolution
Awards Légion d'honneur
Relations model/artist/poet Carmen Mondragón (Nahui Ollin)

Manuel Mondragón was a Mexican-Spanish military officer who played a prominent role in the Mexican Revolution. He was born in Ixtlahuaca, State of Mexico in 1859 and died in exile in Spain in 1922. He graduated from the Mexican Military Academy as an artillery officer in 1880. He designed Mexico's first semi-automatic rifle, the M1908 rifle, and a 75mm howitzer. General Mondragón was the father of a model, artist and poet Carmen Mondragón, better known as Nahui Ollin.


The Mondragón M1908 rifle.

As an adolescent Mondragón entered the Military Academy of Chapultepec, where he specialised in artillery. Upon finishing his studies, he worked developing military materiel. He modified the French 75mm howitzer, earning a name for himself among Porfirist military circles. He perfected a repeating rifle and a 75mm howitzer (the Saint Chamond-Mondragón), both of which still bear his name. In 1904 he wrote a manual Description and employment of the instruments for preparing and executing fires, and in 1910 Description of rapid-fire 75mm materiel. In 1907 he was named Director of the Department of Artillery.

He initiated a project on military organic law, based on mandatory military service, and as professor of the Military Academy released a work in 1910 entitled Defense of the Coasts. The artillery at the ports of Salina Cruz on the Pacific and Puerto México on the Gulf are due to his efforts.

As a military officer during the Porfirato, he worked against the Maderista movement. In September 1911, he took leave from the Federal Army, but in 1913 returned, reincorporated in the army to support Gregorio Ruiz in the anti-Maderista rebellion of the Decena trágica. He is suspected of having assassinated the Mexican President Francisco I. Madero and his Vice-President José María Pino.


Militiamen beside a 75mm Saint Chamond-Mondragón field gun designed by Mondragon during the Mexican revolution.

At the side of Bernardo Reyes and Félix Díaz, Mondragón assisted in the start of the rebellion and coup against Francisco I. Madero. He allied with General Victoriano Huerta as Madero was obliged to renounce the presidency, thus frustrating the start of a new democratic direction in the country. Upon Huerta's assumption of the presidency, Mondragón was named Secretary of War and the Navy. He served in this position only a short time, as in June he resigned amid accusations from prominent Huertist politicians and public opinion of his culpability in the advance of revolutionary forces, due to his incompetence and poor planning in the campaign against them.


Following these accusations, Victoriano Huerta expelled Mondragón from Mexico, heeding the rumor of a plot to overthrow him. Mondragón left for Spain, where the government of France awarded him the Légion d'honneur. General Manuel Mondragón died in San Sebastián in 1922.


  • Francisco Naranjo. Diccionario biográfico Revolucionario. Imprenta Editorial "Cosmos", Mexico, 1935. ISBN 968-805-293-0

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_Mondragón — Please support Wikipedia.
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18042 news items

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:15:00 -0800

El titular de la Conadic, Manuel Mondragón, aclara en las páginas de MILENIO (5/2/16) que no hay 2.3 millones de adictos a las drogas y al alcohol, como publicó el diario en su edición del 26 de enero pasado. Desmentida la cifra falsa, Mondragón ...

El Sudcaliforniano

El Sudcaliforniano
Sun, 07 Feb 2016 21:26:15 -0800

"La mejor manera de luchar contra el delito es evitando que se cometan, por eso he visitado al doctor Manuel Mondragón para iniciar una estrategia conjunta para evitar el consumo de drogas, ya que para nadie es un secreto que mucho de los delitos que ...

El Universal

El Universal
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 10:50:22 -0800

Manuel Mondragón y Kalb, comisionado Nacional Contra las Adicciones, expresó la posibilidad de que el gobierno federal modifique el límite permitido para la portación de marihuana –de 5 gramos contemplada en la Ley Genera de Salud- lo que permitiría ...


Mon, 25 Jan 2016 20:33:53 -0800

El consumo sigue siendo más frecuente en los hombres, aunque la distancia se ha reducido, al registrarse que por cada seis mujeres hay siete varones”, se destaca en el reporte presentado este día por Manuel Mondragón y Kalb, titular de la Comisión ...

Mexico News Daily

Mexico News Daily
Tue, 26 Jan 2016 15:21:52 -0800

Conadic chief Manuel Mondragón wants to know the how and where of treatment: “713,963 secondary and preparatory school students need to be treated for use of drugs, and 1.674 million for abuse of alcohol. The question is, where are we going to treat ...

InSerbia News

InSerbia News
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 07:11:15 -0800

Manuel Mondragón, another medical doctor and current National Commissioner Against Addictions (CONADIC), a commission under the arm of the National Secretariat of Health, made his opinion that “no person should be in jail for consuming marijuana” ...
Mon, 08 Feb 2016 21:37:30 -0800

Hace unos días, en estas mismas páginas, el secretario de Gobernación escribía que en el tema de drogas no se debe recurrir, bajo ninguna circunstancia, a la criminalización de los consumidores. Incluso Manuel Mondragón, uno de los principales voceros ...


Tue, 26 Jan 2016 22:22:30 -0800

WHO BENEFITS? Mexican National Commissioner Against Addictions, Manuel Mondragon (R) observes a woman (L), next to her son, who needs a derivative of marijuana to treat her child's illness, during a public hearing for the legalization of marijuana in ...

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