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For other uses, see Manhole (disambiguation).
PMG manholes in a city street, Perth, Western Australia.
Manhole in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
This is a sewer manhole, exposed during construction. Typically, only the top ring and manhole cover (not pictured) would be visible.
Manhole cover of precast concrete in Germany

A manhole (alternatively utility hole, cable chamber, maintenance hole, inspection chamber, access chamber or confined space) is the top opening to an underground utility vault used to house an access point for making connections or performing maintenance on underground and buried public utility and other services including sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains and gas.

Usage[edit]

Manhole closings are protected by a manhole cover (also known as a "biscuit"[citation needed]), a flat plug designed to prevent accidental or unauthorized access to the manhole. Those plugs are traditionally made of metal, but may be constructed from precast concrete, glass reinforced plastic or other composite material (especially in Europe, or where cover theft is of concern).

Manholes are usually outfitted with metal, polypropylene, or fiberglass steps installed in the inner side of the wall to allow easy descent into the utility space. Because of legislation restricting acceptable manual handling weights, Europe has seen a move toward lighter weight composite manhole cover materials, which also have the benefits of greater slip resistance and electrical insulating properties.

The access openings are usually circular in shape to prevent accidental fall of the cover into the hole.

Manholes are generally found in urban areas, in streets and occasionally under sidewalks. In rural and undeveloped areas, services such as telephone and electricity are usually carried on utility poles or even pylons rather than underground.

Composite manholes[edit]

Composite (fiberglass) manholes are commonly used in applications where infiltration, exfiltration, or corrosion by hydrogen sulfide (from sewer gas) are a concern, or where structures need to be factory integrated into a manhole before placement.

Structures commonly integrated into composite manholes include:

  • Flow inverts[1]
  • Flumes[2]
  • Drop structures from higher elevation flows to lower elevation discharge pipes

Occasionally, composite manholes will integrate:

  • Weirs[3]
  • Storm water screening structures[4]
  • Sewage grinders[5]
  • Energy absorbing structures to dissipate undesirable flow stream turbulence or velocity[6]

Hazards caused by stray voltage in manholes[edit]

In urban areas, stray voltage issues have become a significant concern for utilities. In 2004, Jodie S. Lane was electrocuted after stepping on a metal manhole cover, while walking her dog in New York City.[7] One solution is the Electrified Cover Safeguard invention, which is an on-site, real-time stray voltage warning system which is being used in the street lights in New York City and is also being tested by ConEd and other utilities and municipalities in England, Europe, and Japan.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Isles, Paul (2010). "Dover Engineering Works". Dover Life Magazine

Further reading[edit]

  • Ascher, Kate ; researched by Wendy Marech (2007). The works : anatomy of a city (Reprint. ed.). New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0143112709. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhole — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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5417 news items

CBS Local

STLtoday.com
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 11:00:00 -0700

SAUGET • A sewer gas explosion early this morning in Sauget sent several manhole covers flying, at least one of which damaged a power line and cut off electricity to a factory. Sauget Police Chief Patrick Delaney said the village's sewer system lost ...

Indian Express

Indian Express
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 16:26:15 -0700

Around 10.30 am, Satbir and his two colleagues went to carry out maintenance and repair work inside the manhole. As soon as Satbir removed the manhole cover, he fell inside, said Babu Ram, one of the two men who accompanied him. “Toxic gases gushed ...

Daily Mail

Parentdish
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 03:30:00 -0700

A three-year-old boy narrowly avoided falling down a drain after a manhole cover gave way beneath his feet. The terrifying moment Oliver Akenhead stepped on the unsecured manhole while playing outside with his sister was captured on CCTV. The footage ...

West Virginia Record

West Virginia Record
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 11:26:44 -0700

9, 2012, she was visiting Veterans Memorial Park and stepped on a water meter lid that was not secured. She fell into the manhole and sustained serious injury because the manhole cover was not secured, according to the lawsuit. The plaintiff says the ...

Trenchless Technology

Trenchless Technology
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 12:07:30 -0700

These were conventional cast iron manhole frames and covers, with open pick holes and unsealed connections. Studies in some municipalities have shown that quite a bit of water can flow into sewers through these unsealed manholes — sometimes more ...

WXYZ

WDIV Detroit
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 01:52:33 -0700

AT 6:44, WE'LL GIVE YOU A UPDATE ON CONSTRUCTION. Evrod: WE'RE FOLLOWING BREAKING NEWS OUT OF DETROIT'S WEST SIDE THIS MORNING. THAT'S WHERE A MAN'S BODY HAS BEEN FOUND INSIDE A MANHOLE ON THE I-96 ...
 
MarineLink
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 14:11:15 -0700

Current manhole practices are often unsafe, impractical and time-consuming, and a lack of best practices is unsustainable. There have been several incidents that have caused bodily harm and injuries due to unmarked or poorly secured manholes. Accidents ...
 
gulfnews.com
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 04:48:45 -0700

I was walking on Al Arooba Street in Sharjah, when I saw this manhole. The cover has gaping holes in it, probably because it is extremely old and rusted. This is quite dangerous for passersby, as it seems fragile and could break due to excess weight ...
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