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Mangaka (漫画家?) is the Japanese word for a comic artist or cartoonist. Outside of Japan, manga usually refers to a Japanese comic book and mangaka refers to the author of the manga, who is usually Japanese. As of 2006, about 3000 professional mangaka were working in Japan.[1]

Most mangaka study at an art college, manga school, or take on an apprenticeship with another artist before entering the industry as a primary creator. More rarely a mangaka breaks into the industry directly, without previously being an assistant. For example, Naoko Takeuchi, author of Sailor Moon, won a contest sponsored by Kodansha, and manga pioneer Osamu Tezuka was first published while studying an unrelated degree, without ever working as an assistant.

A mangaka will rise to prominence through recognition of their ability when they spark the interest of institutions, individuals or a demographic of manga consumers. For example, there are contests which prospective mangaka may enter, sponsored by manga editors and publishers. They are also recognized for the number of manga they run at one time.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The word can be broken down into two parts: manga (漫画?) and ka (?).

The manga corresponds to the medium of art the artist uses: comics, or Japanese comics, depending on how the term is used inside or outside of Japan.

The -ka (家) suffix implies a degree of expertise and traditional authorship. For example, this term would not be applied to a writer creating a story which is then handed over to a manga artist for drawing. The Japanese term for such a writer of comics is gensakusha (原作者?).

In a 2010 message from, at the time Japan Cartoonists Association (ja) chairman, Takashi Yanase it says: "[w]hile Japan is often said to be world’s cartoon kingdom, not a few people will surely be wondering what exactly the Japanese mean by the term "cartoon". Unfortunately, there is no hard- and- fast definition that I can offer, since the members of this association lay claim to an extensive variety of works."[3]

Relationship to other staff[edit]

While Japan does have a thriving independent comic market for amateur and semi-professional artists, creating manga professionally is rarely a solo effort. Mangaka must work with an assortment of others to get their work completed, published, and into the hands of readers.

Editor[edit]

Most professionally published mangaka work with an editor, who is considered the boss of the mangaka and supervises series production. The editor gives advice on the layout and art of the manga, vets the story direction and pace, ensures that deadlines are met, and generally makes sure that the manga stays up to company standards. An example of this is Akira Toriyama and his former editor Kazuhiko Torishima. The editor may also function as a brand manager and publicist for a series. When a manga is the basis for a media franchise, the editor may also supervise the designs for licensed merchandise, anime adaptations, and similar products, though this duty may also fall to the mangaka or an agent.

Writer[edit]

A mangaka may both write and illustrate a series of their own creation, or may work in collaboration with an author. The mangaka typically has a strong influence on dialog even when paired with a writer, as any conversation must fit within the physical constraints imposed by the art. Takeshi Obata of Death Note, Tetsuo Hara of Fist of the North Star, and Ryoichi Ikegami of Sanctuary are all successful mangaka who have worked with writers through the majority of their careers.

Assistants[edit]

Most mangaka have assistants who help them complete their work in a clean and timely manner. The duties of assistants vary widely, as the term incorporates all people working for a mangaka's art studio, but is most commonly used to refer to secondary artists. The number of assistant artists also varies widely between mangaka, but is typically at least three. Other mangaka instead form collaborative groups known as "circles" but do not use additional assistants, such as the creative team CLAMP. A few mangaka have no assistants at all, and prefer to do everything themselves, but this is considered exceptional.

Assistants are commonly used for inking, lettering, and shading, though the predominance of black and white art in manga means that unlike in the western comic industry, a studio rarely employs a colorist. Some mangaka only do the sketchwork for their art, and have their numerous assistants fill in all of the details, but it is more common for assistants to complete background art, leaving the mangaka to focus on drawing and inking the characters. Assistants may also be employed to perform specialized artistic tasks. Go Nagai, for instance, at one time employed a specialist to draw helicopters and other military vehicles,[2] Kaoru Mori employed a historical consultant for Emma, and series that incorporate photorealistic architecture, animals, computer-rendered imagery, or other technically demanding effects may employ or contract separate artists trained in those techniques. Assistants almost never help the mangaka with the plot of their manga, beyond being a sounding board for ideas. A mangaka's assistants will be listed in the credits for a manga tankōbon, and short interviews with or illustrations by assistant artists are a common form of bonus material in these collections, but they do not receive individual credits in magazine publication.

Most mangaka started out as assistants, such as Miwa Ueda to Naoko Takeuchi, Leiji Matsumoto to Osamu Tezuka, and Kaoru Shintani to Leiji Matsumoto. It is also possible for an assistant to have an entire career as such without becoming an independent mangaka. Assistants, particularly specialists, may work with several different mangaka at the same time, and many assistants also self-publish works of their own in the dōjinshi scene.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ McCarthy, Helen (2006). "Manga: A Brief History". 500 Manga Heroes & Villains. Hauppauge, New York, USA: Chrysalis Book Group. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7641-3201-8. 
  2. ^ a b Schodt, Frederik L.: Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics, Kodansha International, August 18, 1997, ISBN 0-87011-752-1
  3. ^ "Message from the chairman". Archived from the original on December 26, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangaka — Please support Wikipedia.
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1054 news items

 
The Fandom Post
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 22:03:45 -0700

With the premiere earlier today for Mangaka-san to Assistant-san to, Frontier Works has let loose with two new commercials for the property. The first is the series debut piece that announces that the show has arrived while the second is a look at the ...
 
The Fandom Post
Sun, 30 Mar 2014 14:11:15 -0700

Ahaead of it's April 8th, 2014 broadcast premiere, Amuse Soft Entertainment has put together the release schedule for Mangaka-san to Assistant-san to. The series is getting the traditional six volume release for the twelve episode run ahead of it which ...
 
The Fandom Post
Tue, 25 Mar 2014 19:03:45 -0700

With the series set to debut on April 8th, 2014, FrontierWorks has brought out the second promotional video for Mangaka-san to Assistant-san to, which clocks in at ninety seconds. The show is based on the manga of the same name by Hiroyuki, who created ...

koi-nya.net

koi-nya.net
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 15:07:30 -0700

La mangaka Bisco Hatori, autora de Ouran, comenzará su nueva obra titulada Urakata! Como ya sabíamos, la mangaka Bisco Hatori estaba trabajando en una nueva obra pues, gracias a la edición de junio de la revista LaLa (Hakusensha), sabemos que ...

koi-nya.net

koi-nya.net
Tue, 22 Apr 2014 12:30:00 -0700

El Mangaka Haruki anunció este mes a través de su cuenta de Twitter que tiene pensado seguir con su serie Kisei Jūi Suzune muy pronto, aunque aún no se ha especificado la fecha exacta. La serie comenzó en la revista Doki! de la editorial Takeshobo en ...
 
The Fandom Post
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 10:26:15 -0700

Plot concept: Originally a 4-panel manga by Hiroyuki, The Comic Artist and Assistants focuses on mangaka Yuuki Aito, who has trouble understanding the feelings of the characters in his own manga. In order to be able to realistically portray his ...

Crunchyroll News

Crunchyroll News
Sat, 19 Apr 2014 16:37:42 -0700

Many Korean mangaka and editors were being prosecuted. The Korean PAT (Parent-Teacher Association) and prosecutors claimed that our manga were harmful for children and teens. They treated us like criminals. At times, they even called us to court.

Nintendo Insider

Nintendo Insider
Wed, 23 Apr 2014 05:56:15 -0700

Developed by Ganbarion, and setting sail for Wii U and 3DS, players can discover two brand new characters created by renowned mangaka Eiichiro Oda and the all-new Battle Coliseum Mode. The game itself directly relating to the more recent episodes in ...
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