The first shafts at Maltby Main Colliery were sunk in 1910, and the first coal produced four years later. Situated in a wooded area on Tickhill Road the colliery was some distance from the township of Maltby and in order to gain a workforce the colliery company commissioned the building of Maltby Model Village, an estate of 1,000 houses. The colliery was opened by the Maltby Main Colliery Company, a subsidiary of the Sheepbridge Iron and Coal Company. Before nationalisation the owners were given as Amalgamated Denaby Collieries Ltd.
The two shafts were deepened in the ten years from 1951 and this allowed horizontal access to the Barnsley seam. This also gave access to a new Swallow Wood seam. By 1969 the Barnsley seam was considered exhausted and production went over to Swallow Wood. In 1981 a major project commenced to mine the Parkgate seam. Costing £180,000,000 the first coal was brought to the surface just one year later.
The colliery was bought by RJB Mining, later renamed UK Coal, in 1994. Silverwood Colliery, the adjacent mine, closed in 1994 but had good reserves which could be worked from Maltby. Uncertainties with contracts, notably with the electricity generators, production was stopped in 1997. The pit recommenced operations and coal was gained from both the Parkgate seam, which is estimated to be exhausted by 2014, and the Silkstone seam, which will extend the life of the pit beyond that date.
In May 2012 unusual and dangerous geological conditions (oil, water and gas ingress) were discovered in workings of the T125 block that was to be exploited in 2013, resulting in abandonment of the tailgate for that block (see Longwall mining), and was expected to cause an gap in production of 1.5 to 3 months. In late 2012 the 540 employees were given redundancies notices, and the pit owner announced it was to mothball the colliery due to dangerous underground conditions. On December 2012 Hargeaves announced that the colliery was to close due to the geological problems.
- Carolyn Baylies (1993), "10. The Yorkshire Coalfield after 1900 – opening up of the Doncaster Area", The History of the Yorkshire Miners, 1881–1918, Routledge, Table 10.3 "Pits sunk near to or on the concealed coalfield", p.278, ISBN 0-415-09359-7
- "Maltby Pit Disaster of 1923", www.rotherhamweb.co.uk
- "27 Miners Killed, Terrific Explosion in Maltby Colliery, England", The Montreal Gazette, 30 July 1923: 1
- "Incident at Maltby Decreases 2012/13 Profit Outlook". HARGREAVES SERVICES PLC. 28 May 2012.
- "Hargreaves Services shares fall by a third as production at Maltby Colliery grinds to halt", www.thisismoney.co.uk, 28 May 2012
- "Hargreaves warns of mining production gap", Yorkshire Post, 28 May 2012
- "Maltby Colliery owner plans to mothball mine", BBC News, 7 November 2012
- "Owners confirm closure of Rotherham coal mine", BBC News, 17 December 2012
- Norcliffe, Liam (16 July 2014), "BREAKING: Maltby Colliery has been demolished", Retford Today
- Handbook of Maltby Main Colliery
- C.T. Goode, Railways in South Yorkshire, Dalesman Publications, ISBN 0-85206-307-5
- "DIVISIONS : Maltby", www.hargreavesservices.co.uk (Hargreaves Services plc), archived from the original on 17 October 2009
- "Maltby Colliery", www.minersadvice.co.uk