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Not to be confused with malic acid or maleic acid.
Malonic acid
Skeletal formula of malonic acid
Ball-and-stick model of the malonic acid molecule
IUPAC name
propanedioic acid
Other names
methanedicarboxylic acid
141-82-2 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:30794 YesY
ChemSpider 844 YesY
DrugBank DB02175 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem 867
Molar mass 104.06 g·mol−1
Density 1.619 g/cm3
Melting point 135 to 137 °C (275 to 279 °F; 408 to 410 K) (decomposes)
Boiling point decomposes
Acidity (pKa) pKa1 = 2.83[1]
pKa2 = 5.69[1]
Related compounds
Other anions
acetic acid
oxalic acid
propionic acid
tartronic acid
acrylic acid
butyric acid
succinic acid
fumaric acid
Related compounds
dimethyl malonate
MSDS External MSDS
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Malonic acid (IUPAC systematic name: propanedioic acid) is a dicarboxylic acid with structure CH2(COOH)2. The ionized form of malonic acid, as well as its esters and salts, are known as malonates. For example, diethyl malonate is malonic acid's diethyl ester. The name originates from the Greek word μᾶλον (malon) meaning 'apple'.


The calcium salt of malonic acid occurs in high concentrations in beetroot. It exists in its normal state as white crystals. Malonic acid is the classic example of a competitive inhibitor: It acts against succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) in the respiratory electron transport chain.


A classical preparation of malonic acid starts from chloroacetic acid:[2]

Preparation of malonic acid from chloroacetic acid.

Sodium carbonate generates the sodium salt, which is then reacted with sodium cyanide to provide the cyano acetic acid salt via a nucleophilic substitution. The nitrile group can be hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide to sodium malonate, and acidification affords malonic acid.

Malonic acid was first prepared in 1858 by the French chemist Victor Dessaignes (1800-1885) via the oxidation of malic acid.[3]

Organic reactions[edit]

In a well-known reaction, malonic acid condenses with urea to form barbituric acid. Malonic acid is also frequently used as an enolate in Knoevenagel condensations or condensed with acetone to form Meldrum's acid. The esters of malonic acid are also used as a CH2COOH synthon in the malonic ester synthesis.

Additionally, the coenzyme A derivative of malonate, malonyl-CoA, is an important precursor in fatty acid biosynthesis along with acetyl CoA. Malonyl CoA is formed from acetyl CoA by the action of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the malonate is transferred to an acyl carrier protein to be added to a fatty acid chain.


Malonic acid is a precursor to specialty polyesters. It can also be a component in alkyd resins. It is used in a number of manufacturing processes including the electronics industry.

Malonic acid is used as a building block chemical to produce numerous valuable compounds.[4]


  1. ^ a b pKa Data Compiled by R. Williams (pdf; 77 kB)
  2. ^ Nathan Weiner. "Malonic acid". Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 2, p. 376 
  3. ^ See:
  4. ^ Malonic Acid & Derivatives

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malonic_acid — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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46 news items

Biomass Magazine

Biomass Magazine
Tue, 10 Mar 2015 15:52:30 -0700

Lygos Inc., an industrial biotechnology company, recently announced that it has successfully achieved pilot-scale production of malonic acid from sugar. Malonic acid is a high-value specialty chemical useful for production of a variety of ...

Biobased Digest

Biobased Digest
Wed, 29 Apr 2015 13:15:12 -0700

But the company had pathways to a multi-billion dollar market, via a collection of target molecules, including: butanol, BDO, 3-HP, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, malonate semialdehyde, 3-HP, acrylic acid, PDO, malonic acid, ethyl 3-HP, propiolactone ...

Chemicals Technology

Chemicals Technology
Thu, 05 Mar 2015 04:00:00 -0800

Lygos has completed the pilot-scale production of malonic acid using renewable resources at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's advanced bio-fuels process demonstration unit (ABPDU). The new manufacturing technology is said to replace the ...
PR Web (press release)
Mon, 02 Mar 2015 20:07:30 -0800

Lygos, Inc. (http://www.lygos.com) announced today that it has successfully achieved pilot scale production of malonic acid from sugar. Lygos' novel manufacturing technology decreases CO2 emissions, eliminates toxic inputs and could replace the ...
Business Wire (press release)
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 09:07:30 -0700

Global Market Report of Malonic acid (CAS 141-82-2) aims at providing comprehensive data on Malonic acid globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc.). It captures Malonic acid market trends, pays close attention to Malonic ...
Biomass Magazine
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 16:03:45 -0700

Biomass Magazine reported in 2012 that the company could not disclose specifically which molecules they were targeting, but now the company is speaking publically about their first product, malonic acid. “That grant is really focused on how you get ...
Biobased Digest
Sun, 08 Mar 2015 22:03:45 -0700

In the US, ethanol production averaged 931,000 barrels per day (b/d)—or 39.10 million gallons daily, down 16,000 b/d from the week before. This represents the lowest rate of output in 17 weeks. The four-week average for ethanol production stood at 951 ...

Biomass Magazine

Biomass Magazine
Tue, 07 Oct 2014 14:56:15 -0700

In addition to its production capacity of about 10,000 metric tons per year out of the Cassano, Italy Biosuccinium plant, Reverdia announced in October at the European Forum for Industrial Biotechnology that it is now licensing Biosuccinium. This is a ...

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