|This article needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)|
Thunjan Parambu in Tirur
|• Total||3,000 km2 (1,000 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,158/km2 (3,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KL-MLP|
|Vehicle registration||KL-10, KL-53, KL-54, KL-55, KL-65, KL-71|
|Sex ratio||1096 ♂/♀|
Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India. The district was formed on 16 June 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts: Ernad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in Kozhikode district, and portions of Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks in Palakkad district.
The district includes Thirunavaya, the classic medieval center of Vedic learning;Kottakkal, home of Ayurveda medicine; Ponnani, one of the oldest centres of Islamic education in the region; Manjeri, and Perinthalmanna. In 1921 the present-day Malappuram district was part of the Moplah rebellions, followed by decades of stagnant economic, social and political development. In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction, and thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf. They sent money home, supporting the rural economy, and by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy.
Malappuram district contains abundant wildlife and a number of small hills, forests, rivers and streams flowing to the west, backwaters and paddy, arecanut, cashew nut, pepper, ginger, pulses, coconut, banana, tapioca, and rubber plantations. Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in south India. The Hindu temples and Moplah mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals, and it is the most populous district in Kerala. Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and tribal religions.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Languages
- 5 Legislative constituencies
- 6 Parliament constituencies
- 7 Administrative subdivisions
- 8 Art and culture
- 9 Industry
- 10 Healthcare
- 11 Transport
- 12 Proposed projects
- 13 Education
- 14 Post and telecommunications
- 15 Media
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Malappuram, meaning "terraced place atop the hills", derives from the geography of the district headquarters. Before the district's formation of the district, the region was known as Eranad and Valluvanad.
The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. The port of Ponnani (roughly identified with Tyndis) was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. After the Chera Dynasty a number of dynasties controlled the area, and by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district.
European colonial powers first landed in Malabar during the 15th century, and the Samoothiris often allied with foreign powers. During the 18th century, the de facto Mysore kingdom rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan marched into the Samoothiris’ districts.
Malappuram has been part of movements such as Khilafat Movement and Moplah Rebellion in the early 20th century. Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was part of Malabar District in the Madras Presidency of British India. The present district was administered as parts of Kozhikode, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk. Malabar District remained part of Madras state for some time after independence, but on 1 November 1956 it merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in the territorial jurisdiction of the region took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was formed from portions of Eranad taluk and Ponnani taluk. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the new Chavakkad taluk, and the remainder is present-day Ponnani taluk. Perinthalmanna taluk was formed from the former Valluvanad Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur remained in Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk and Ponnani taluk remained in Palakkad District. The new district of Malappuram was formed with four taluks (Eranad, Perinthalmanna, Tirur and Ponnani), four towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 100 panchayats. Two more taluks, Tirurangadi taluk and Nilambur taluk, were formed from Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk.
The district, in northern Kerala, is bounded on the north by Wayanad and Kozhikkode districts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District, on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the northwest by Kozhikode District.
- Bharathappuzha, also known as the River Nila
- Chaliyar: In the north of the district, the 169-kilometre (105 mi) Chaliyar rises in the Illambalieri hills of Tamil Nadu. Its tributaries are the Chalipuzha, Punnapuzha, Pandiyar, Karimpuzha, Cherupuzha and Vadapurampuzha. The Chaliyar crosses Nilambur, Mampad, Edavanna, Areekode, Vazhakkad, reaching the sea at Beypore in Kozhikode district. Of these rivers, the Chaliyar is the only perennial one; the others dry up in summer, and the district is drought-prone. The Chaliyar Action Committee, founded by K. A. Rahman in opposition to water and air pollution, began the Kerala environmental movement which continues in other parts of the state.
- Kadalundi River: The Kadalundi begains at the confluence of two rivers, the Olipuzha and the Veliyar; the Olipuzha begins on Cherakomban Hill, and the Veliyar on Erattakomban Hill. It flows through Silent Valley National Park, Eranad and Valluvanad before meeting the sea at Kadalundi. The 130-kilometre (81 mi) Kadalundi passes through Melattur, Pandikkad, Malappuram, Panakkad, Parappur, Kooriyad, Tirurangadi and Parappanangadi.
- Tirur River
In the 2011 census the district had a population of 4,112,920, roughly equal to that of New Zealand and the US state of Oregon. Malappuram is the 50th-most-populous of India's 640 districts, with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000/sq mi). Its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent. Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men, and its literacy rate is 93.55 percent. Islam (68.53 percent of the district's population) is the majority religion, followed by Hinduism (29.17 percent) and Christianity (2.22 percent).
The district has the largest number of legislative constituencies in Kerala.
|Constituency||Local body||MLA||Political party||Kerala ministry|
|Malappuram||Malappuram Municipality, Pulpetta, Anakkayam, Morayur, Pokkottur Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk and Kodur Panchayath of Perintalmanna Taluk||P. Ubaidullah||Muslim League|
|Manjeri||Manjeri Municipality, Pandikkad, Thrikkalangode panchayaths of Eranad Taluk and Edappatta, Kizhattur Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk||Adv. M. Ummar||Muslim League|
|Kondotty||Kondotty municipality, Cherukavu, Muthuvalloor, Vazhayur, Vazhakkad, Pulikkal, Nediyirippu and Cheekkode Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk||Mammunny Haji||Muslim League|
|Eranad||Chaliyar Panchayath of Nilambur Taluk, Areekkode, Oorngattiri, Kavanur, Keezhu paramba, Kuzhimanna and Edavanna Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk||P.K. Basheer||Muslim League|
|Mankada||Mankada, Angadippuram, Kuruva, Koottilangadi, Puzhakkatteeri, Moorkkanad and Makkaraparamba Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk||T.A. Ahammad Kabeer||Muslim League|
|Perinthalmanna||Perintalmanna Municipality, Aliparamba, Elamkulam, Thazhekode, Vettathoor, Pulamanthole and Melattur Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk||Manajalam Kuzhi Ali||Muslim League||Minister of Urban Affairs, Town Planning, Development Authority and Minority Welfare|
|Thirurangadi||Thirurangadi municipality, Parappanagadi municipality, Nannambra, Thennala and Edarikode Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk and Perumanna-Klari Panchayath of Tirur Taluk||P.K. Abdu Rrabb||Muslim League||Minister for Education|
|Vengara||Vengara, AR Nagar, Kannamangalam, Oorakam, Othukkungal and Parappur Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk||P.K.Kunjali Kutty||Muslim League||Minister for Industries, Information Technology and Urban Affairs|
|Vallikunnu||Vallikkunnu, Pallikkal, Chelembra, Moonniyur, Thenjippalam and Peruvalloor Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk||Adv. KNA Kader||Muslim League|
|Tirur||Tirur Municipality, Athavanadu, Kalpakanchery, Valavannur, Vettam, Thalakkad and thirunavaya Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk||C.Mammutty||Muslim League|
|Tanur||Tanur municipality, Thanalur, Niramaruthoor, Cheriyamundom, Ponmundom and Ozhur Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk||Abdu Rahman Randathani||Muslim League|
|Kottakkal||Kottakkal Municipality, Valanchery, Ponamala, Marakkara, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, and Kuttippuram Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk||Abdussamad Samadani||Muslim League|
|Nilambur||Nilambur Municipality, Vazhikkadavu, Pothukal, Edakkara, Muthedam, Chungathara, Amarambalam and Karulai Panchayaths of Nilambur Taluk||Aryadan Muhammad||INC||Minister for Power|
|Wandoor||Wandoor, Tiruvali, Mampad, Porur, Kalikavu, Chokkad, Karuvarakundu and Thuvvoor Panchayaths of Nilambur Taluk||A.P. Anil Kumar||INC||Minister for Welfare of Scheduled Castes & Backward Classes and Tourism|
|Ponnani||Ponnani Municipality, Alankode, Maranchery, Nannammukku, Perumpadappu and Veliyancode Panchayaths of Ponnani Taluk||P.Sreerama Krishnan||CPI(M)|
|Tavanur||Tavanur, Kaladi, Vattamkulam, Edappal Panchayaths of Ponnani Taluk and Mangalam, Purathoor, Thrippangode Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk||KT. Jaleel||CPI(M) Ind.|
|Parliamentary constituency||Assembly constituencies||MP||Political party|
|Malappuram||Malappuram, Manjeri, Mankada, Perinthalmanna, Vallikunnu, Kondotty and Vengara.||E. Ahamed||Muslim League|
|Ponnani (portion)||Thirurangadi, Tirur, Tanur, Ponnani, Kottakkal and Tavanur.||E.T. Muhammed Basheer||Muslim League|
|Waynad (portion)||Eranad, Wandoor and Nilambur.||M.I. Shanavas||INC|
Blocks and panchayats
|Malappuram||Anakkayam, Morayur, Pokkottur, Kodur, Ponmala and Othukkungal|
|Perumpadappu||Perumpadappu, Alankode, Marancheri, Nannammukku and Veliyankode|
|Tirur||Purathoor, Thrippangode, Thalakkad, Vettom, Mangalam and Tirunavaya|
|Tirurangadi||Vallikkunnu, Thenjippalam, Moonniyoor, Peruvalloor and Nannambra|
|Vengara||Vengara, AR Nagar, Parappur, Kannamangala, Oorakam, Edarikode and Thennala|
|Tanur||Tanalur, Niramaruthoor, Ponmundam, Ozhur, Perumanna-Klari, Valavanoor and Cheriyamundom|
|Kuttippuram||Kuttippuram, Athavanadu, Kalapakancheri, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, Marakkara|
|Mankada||Mankada, Kuruva, Koottilangadi, Puzhakkattiri, Moorkkanad and MakkaraParamba|
|Perintalmanna||Aliparamba, Elamkulam, Thazkekode, Vettathur, Pulamanthole, Melattur, Keezhattur and Angadippuram|
|Ponnani||Edappal, Thavanur, Kaladi and Vattamkulam|
|Areecode||Areecode, Orngattiri, Kavanur, Keezhuparamba, Kuzhimanna, Edavanna, Cheekode and Pulpetta|
|Kalikavu||Kalikavu, Chokkadu, Karuvarakundu, Thuvvoor, Amarambalam, Karulai and Edappatta|
|Kondotty||Vherukavu, Muthuvalloor, Vazhayur, Vazhakkad, Pulikkal, Nediyiruppu, Pallikkal and Chelembra|
|Wandoor||Wandoor, Tiruvali, Mampad, Porur, Pandikkad and Thrikkalangode|
|Nilambur||Vazhikkadavu, Pothukal, Edakkara, Muthedam, Chungathra and Chaliyar|
Art and culture
Thunchath Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam literature, was born in Trikkandiyur (near Tirur). Mampuram was a centre of the Moplah Rebellion of 1921, and Mampuram Thangal is buried there. It is the birthplace of Omar Qazi, a Muslim scholar and a leader of anti-British movements. Kathakali musician Tirur Nambissan was born in Ezhoor, and the poets Mahakavi Vallathol Narayana Menon, V.C. Balakrishna Paniker and Moyinkutty Vaidyar were born in Malappuram. Malappuram is also the birthplace of Poonthanam, remembered for his poetic masterpiece "Jnanappana".
Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics
Mathematicians from Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Achyuta Pisharati and Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji were born in Thrikandiyur in Tirur. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri is known for his Narayaneeyam.
Fairs and festivals
Kondotty Nercha is a week-long festival in March at the 18th-century Pazhayangadi Mosque. The tomb of the Sufi Mohammed Shah is near the Mughal-style mosque. The Andu Nercha of Puthenpalliis held at Perumpadappu, in the southwestern part of the district. During the festival, ney choru (rice with ghee) is distributed to devotees and the poor. The Omanoor Nercha is a mosque festival which commemorates martyrs.
Vairamkode Vela (temple festival), or Theeyaattu, is a six-day festival held in February from Sunday to Friday featuring processions, fireworks and markets. The seven-day Thirumandhamkunnu pooram, in March or April, is a temple festival in central Malabar. Tirumanthamkunnu Temple is, with Kodungallur and Panayarakavu, one of Kerala's three main Bhagavati temples. Kottakkal is also noted for its March–April temple festival, Kottakkal pooram, where Indian classical artists perform. The Nilambur Pattu is a week-long festival, held in January at its Kovilakam. The Malaparamba Perunnal is a church festival in Malaparamba, near Angadipuram, and there are also summer church festivals in Pariyapuram, Chungathara and Edakkara.
About 1,000 people are aided annually under a self-employment programme. There are KINFRA food-processing and IT industrial estates in Kakkancherry and a rubber plant and industrial estate in Payyanad.
Wood-related industries are in Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur and Mampad. Sawmills, furniture manufacturers and the timber trade are the most important businesses in the district. Employees' State Insurance has a branch office in Malappuram.
The town of Perintalmanna has four private hospitals: Moulana Hospital, MES Medical College, Al-Shifa Hospital and EMS Co-operative Hospital. A state-owned general hospital is in Manjeri. Kottakkal has three large hospitals: the Ayurveda Arya Vaidya Sala, the Malabar Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS) and Al-Mas.
Two railway lines pass through the district. The Mangalore-Madras line runs along the coast, with stations (from north to south) at Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tirur, Tirunavaya and Kuttippuram. The Nilambur–Shoranur railway line runs through the eastern part of the district, with stations at Nilambur, Vaniyambalam, Thuvur, Melattur, Pattikkad, Angadipuram and Cherukara.
Bus service is available throughout the district, with 93 routes operated by Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) on major roads and 300 intercity routes passing through the district. There are four KSRTC bus stations, at Malappuram Depot, Ponnani, Perinthalmanna and Nilambur.
National Highway 17, renumbered NH 66, enters the district at Idimuzhikkal in the north and runs for 82 kilometres (51 mi) through Calicut University, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Kuttipuram, Thavanur, Ponnani, Puduponnani, Veliyancode and Kadikkad before entering Thrissur district in the south. National Highway 213, renumbered NH 966, enters the district at Iykarappadi (near Ramanattukara) and runs for 68 kilometres (42 mi) through Kondotty, Malappuram and Perinthalmanna to Karinkallathani.
State highways such as Tirur-Malappuram-Manjeri, Malappuram-Parappanangadi, Valanchery-Nilambur and the Kozhikode-Nilambur-Gudalur road pass through the district. The district has 208 kilometres (129 mi) of state highway, 1,220 kilometres (760 mi) of major district roads, 102 kilometres (63 mi) of other district roads and 160 kilometres (99 mi) of rural roads.
The Chaliyar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha and Thutha rivers and their tributaries flow through the district, requiring a number of road bridges. Bridges include the Kuttippuram, Thutha and Pulamanthole bridges across the Bharathapuzha, bridges at Kottakadavu, Parakkadav, Thayyilakadav, Panampuzha, Koomankallu, Nooradi, Kottilangadi, Aanakkayam, Melattur, Kalikavu, Olipram Kadavu, Koomankallu, Kuzhipram Kadavu and Panakkadu across the Kadalundi River, bridges at Areekode, Edavanna, Mampad, Vadapuram, Myladi, Karimpuzha, Koorad, Kattadikadavu, Cherupuzha, Kadungallur and Poonkudi across the Chaliyar and its tributaries and bridges at Edakulam, Thalakadathur, Tirur, Unniyal, Mangattiri, Ettirikkadavu across the Tirur River.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2015)|
According to the Motor Vehicles Act 1988, the Government of India has assigned "KL" to Kerala for the first part of the state's licence-plate number. The second part was a numerical district code with 01 for Trivandrum, 14 for Kasargod and 15 for the KSRTC.
Governmental vehicle-registration designations in the district are:
- KL-10 : Malappuram RTO (Ernad and Kondotty taluks)
- KL-53 : Perintalmanna SRTO (Perintalmanna taluk)
- KL-54 : Ponnani SRTO (Ponnani taluk)
- KL-55 : Tirur SRTO (Tirur Taluk)
- KL-65 : Tirurangadi SRTO (Tirurangadi taluk)
- KL-71 : Nilambur SRTO (Nilambur taluk)
The district's old registration numbers were KLM, KLL and KRM.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2015)|
- Formation of a Malappuram Development Authority for the sustainable development of Malappuram and its surrounding panchayats, similar to the development authorities of other cities in the state
- A Kozhikode-Malappuram-Angadipuram-Ottappalam railway line connecting Malappuram with Karippur Airport and Kozhikode.
- Low-floor buses
- Expediting construction of the KSRTC bus terminal and shopping complex in Uphill
- Expediting Edu-Health City construction in Panakkad, including a cancer hospital
- Modernisation and relocation of Down Hill Market and bus stand to Down Hill bypass area
- Completion of the Kottappadi Bypass
- A new road from Malappuram to Valanchery, as proposed in the Valanchery planning department's Malappuram District Urbanization Report
- Two new National Highways: Malappuram-Manjeri-Gudalur and Malappuram-Kolathur-Pulamanthol-Thrissur
- Rerouting of NH66 from Ponnani to Feroke via Tirur, Parappanangadi
The district has four education districts (Tirur, Malappuram, Wandoor and Tirurangadi) and 17 education sub-districts. The University of Calicut is in Thenjipalam, and AMU (Aligarh Muslim University) Malappuram Centre is in Chelamala. Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University is in Thunchan Parambu, 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the Malappuram city centre.
- Government Medical College, Malappuram, Manjeri
- M.E.S. Medical College, Perinthalmanna
- Educare Institute of Dental Sciences, Chattiparamba
Ayurvedic medical colleges
- VPSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal
- Calicut University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Thenhipalam
- Eranad Knowledge City Technical Campus (EKC), Cherukulam, Manjeri
- Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tavanur
- M.E.S. Engineering College, Kuttippuram
- M.E.A. Engineering College, Perinthalmanna
- Veda Vyasa Institute of Technology, Karadparamba
- Cochin College of Engineering and Technology, Valancheri
- S.S.M. Polytechnic College, Tirur
- Government Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
- Government Polytechnic College, Tirurangadi
- Government Women's Polytechnic College, Kottakal
- Maidin Polytechnic College, Malappuram
Government arts colleges
- Government College, Malappuram
- Pookkoya Thangal Memorial Government College, Perintalmanna
- Thunchan Memorial Government College, Tirur
- Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy, Chelembra
- Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy College, Pulikkal
- Moulana College of Pharmacy, Perinthalmanna
- Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Perinthalmanna
Private arts and science colleges
- M.E.S. College, Valanchery
- MAJLIS Arts and Science, Puramannur, Valanchery
- P.S.M.O. College, Tirurangadi
- H.M. College, Manjeri
- G.E.M.S. College, Ramapuram
- M.I.C. Arts and Science College
- M.E.S. College, Mambad
- M.E.S. College, Ponnani
- N.S.S. College, Manjeri
Post and telecommunications
The district has two postal divisions (Manjeri and Tirur), four head post offices, 120 post sub-offices and 284 branch post offices. Speed post facilities are in Malappuram, Manjeri, Perinthalmanna, Calicut University, Karipur, Ponnani, Kottakkal, Kuttippuram and Edappal.
The morning daily newspapers Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Chandrika and Deshabhimani have printing centres in the district. Prahelika and the Flash are the evening dailies. Monthly, fortnightly and weekly periodicals, primarily devoted to religion and culture, are also published. Local cable-TV channels include Malappuram Cable Vision (MCV), Asianet Cablevision (ACV) and Den Malabar Vision. The Malappuram Press Club is in Up Hill. Doordarshan has relay stations at Malappuram and Manjeri, and All India Radio has an FM station at Manjeri.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malappuram (district).|
- pp. 396, Malayala Manorama Yearbook 2006, Kottayam, 2006 ISSN 0970-9096
- "Summer Journey 2011". Time. 21 July 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2013-06-29.
New Zealand 4,143,101 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Allar: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28.
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Aranadan: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28.
- "Educare Institute of Dental Sciences". Retrieved 20 July 2015.
||Kozhikode district||Wayanad district||Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu|
|Arabian Sea(Lakshadweep Sea)|
|Thrissur district||Palakkad district|