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The Maharlika were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon the Philippines. They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, however, the term itself has erroneously come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class.[1]

Etymology[edit]

In various Indo-Malayan languages (including the languages of the Muslim areas of the Philippines) the cognates mardika, merdeka, merdeheka, or maradika mean "freedom" (as opposed to servitude).[2]

The Merdicas (also spelled Mardicas or Mardikas), whose name comes from the same etymon, were also the Catholic natives of the islands of Ternate and Tidore of the Moluccas, converted during the Portuguese occupation of the islands by Jesuit missionaries. A number of Merdicas were resettled by the Spanish in the communities of Ternate and Tanza, Cavite, Manila in 1663.[2]

Description[edit]

The Maharlika were a martial class of Freemen.[3] Like the Timawa, they were free vassals of their Datu who were exempt from taxes and tribute but were required to provide military service. In times of war, the Maharlika were obligated to provide and prepare weapons at their own expense and answer the summons of the Datu, wherever and whenever that might be, in exchange for a share in the war spoils (ganima). They accompanied their ruler in battles as comrades-at-arms and were always given a share. 1/5 of the spoils goes to the Ginoo and the 4/5 will be shared among the Maharlikans who participated, who in turn will subdivide their shares to their own warriors. The Maharlika may also occasionally be obligated to work on the lands of the Datu and assist in projects and other events in the community.[1]

Unlike the Timawa, however, the Maharlika were more militarily-oriented than the Timawa nobility of the Bisayas.[4] While the Maharlika could change allegiances by marriage or by emigration like the Timawa, they were required to host a feast in honor of their current Datu and paid a sum ranging from six to eighteen pieces of gold before they could be freed from their obligations. In contrast, the Timawa were free to change allegiances at any time,[1] as exemplified by the action of Rajah Humabon upon the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan.[citation needed]

History and current usage[edit]

The only contemporary account of the Maharlika class was by the Franciscan friar Juan de Plasencia in the 16th century. He distinguished them from the hereditary nobility class of the Tagalogs (the maginoo class, which included the datu). The historian William Henry Scott believes that the class originated from high-status warriors who married into the maginoo blood or were perhaps remnants of the nobility class of a conquered line. Similar high-status warriors in other Philippine societies like that of the Bagobo and the Bukidnon did not inherit their positions, but were acquired through martial prowess.[5][4]

During the “New Society Movement” (Kilusang Bagong Lipunan) era in the Philippines, former Philippine President Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos used the word Maharlika to uphold Filipino nationalism, incorrectly claiming that it referred to the ancient Filipino nobility and included the kings and princes of ancient Philippine society. Apart from recommending changing the name of the Philippines into "Maharlika", Marcos was influential in making "maharlika" a trendy name for streets, edifices, banquet halls, villages and cultural organizations. Marcos himself utilized the word to christen a highway, a broadcasting corporation, and the reception area of the Malacañang Palace.[1]

Marcos's utilization of the word started during the Second World War. Marcos claimed that he had commanded a group of guerrillas known as the Maharlika Unit. Marcos also used maharlika as his personal nom de guerre, depicting himself as the most bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla soldier during World War II. During the Martial Law Period in the Philippines, the Philippine film industry produced a film entitled Maharlika to present his “war exploits”.[1][6]

Despite the misconception of its meaning, "Maharlika" as a proposed new name for the Philippines remains popular among Muslim Filipinos, the Lumad, and other Filipino ethnic groups who fought the Spanish colonization. They view the name "Philippines" as a colonialist reminder of the ruler of their previous colonial masters.[7][8] The Tagean-Tallano family had claimed to have legal and historical claims over the Philippines, Sabah, Guam, Marianas, Hawaii, and Palau which they assert that they were part of the "Kingdom of Maharlika".[9]

However, defenders of the current name of the country opposed this idea for being too idealistic and un-historical, citing the claims of the Tallano heirs over the country without any historical provenance and verification from the international historians and experts. They also added that the proposal jeopardizes the unity of the Filipino people by weaning them from their colonial past, which is the key factor to and responsible for the evolution of the Filipino nation. They also see it as "self-flagellation" to the already confused and damaged nationalistic psyche of the people by hating their colonial history.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Paul Morrow (January 16, 2009). "Maharlika and the ancient class system". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b John. M. Lipski, with P. Mühlhaüsler and F. Duthin (1996). "Spanish in the Pacific". In Stephen Adolphe Wurm & Peter Mühlhäusler. Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas: Texts, Volume 2 (PDF). Walter de Gruyter. p. 276. ISBN 9783110134179. 
  3. ^ Samuel K. Tan (2008). A History of the Philippines. UP Press. p. 40. ISBN 9789715425681. 
  4. ^ a b William Henry Scott (1994). Barangay: sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Pres. ISBN 9789715501354. 
  5. ^ Laura Lee Junker (2000). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 126–127. ISBN 9789715503471. 
  6. ^ Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. Filipino nationalism is a contradiction in terms, Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism, Part One of Four, "Kasama" Vol. 17 No. 3 / July–August–September 2003 / Solidarity Philippines Australia Network, cpcabrisbance.org
  7. ^ Wolfgang Bethge. "King Philipp II and the Philippines". Literary Bridge Philippines. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  8. ^ Nathan Gilbert Quimpo (2003). "Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism". Kasama 17 (3). 
  9. ^ "Lost Land of Maharlika". EClinik Learning. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maharlika — Please support Wikipedia.
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2207 news items

New York Times

New York Times
Mon, 04 May 2015 08:27:41 -0700

For Ms. Ponseca, who runs the Filipino restaurants Maharlika and Jeepney in the East Village, banana leaves are not an exotic accessory, but an everyday necessity. They serve as place mats, plates and to-go cartons, as a lining for pans to keep food ...

Samar News.com

Samar News.com
Wed, 13 May 2015 22:03:45 -0700

CAMP VICENTE LUKBAN, Catbalogan City – The 8th Infantry Division, Philippine Army partnered with the Davao City based Maharlika Foundation; United States of America based Smile Train Children Charity; the Catbalogan City based motorcycle rider ...
 
Dallas Morning News
Wed, 20 May 2015 21:26:35 -0700

At Friday's game at Globe Life Park in Arlington, the Rangers featured performances by the Keola's Hula Halau and the Maharlika Dancers. The Rangers will also hold Korean Heritage Night on June 15 and Japan-America Friendship Night on Aug. 17.
 
ABS CBN News
Fri, 24 Apr 2015 00:07:30 -0700

But when a Business Insider's story about balut became viral, it caught the attention of an animal rights activist Gabrielle Hardy, who is now urging Maharlika to stop serving what her petition calls disgusting and distasteful for serving an unborn ...

DNAinfo

DNAinfo
Mon, 08 Dec 2014 10:10:05 -0800

EAST VILLAGE — The health department shut down Filipino restaurant Maharlika after it found live roaches and filth flies at the eatery during a Dec. 4 inspection, records show. The popular restaurant — named one of the 25 best new restaurants in 2011 ...

Inquirer.net

Inquirer.net
Mon, 27 Apr 2015 23:47:14 -0700

Early morning accident along Maharlika Highway in Barangay San Pedro, Sto. Tomas, Batangas, where a passenger was killed and 14 others injured after a bus rammed into a passenger jeepney Tuesday. INQUIRER PHOTO/DELFIN T. MALLARI JR.

Forbes

Forbes
Thu, 14 May 2015 05:06:34 -0700

I've been a lifestyle journalist for 13 years. I started as a youth correspondent for a Philippine newspaper when I was still in high school. Today, I am no longer “under age,” and am the publisher and deputy editor of Lifestyle Asia Magazine, a ...

MoodieReport

MoodieReport
Thu, 21 May 2015 04:26:15 -0700

Prior to the housing project, pledges and various relief goods were also donated by Dubai Duty Free staff which was sent to Maharlika Charity Foundation on 20 January 2014. The goods were distributed in the province of Iloilo, Philippines through ...
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