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Ludwig Feuerbach
Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach.jpg
Born (1804-07-28)July 28, 1804
Landshut, Bavaria
Died September 13, 1872(1872-09-13) (aged 68)
Rechenberg near Nuremberg, Imperial Germany
Era 19th-century philosophy
Region Western Philosophy
School Materialism, Humanism
Main interests Religion, Christianity
Notable ideas Religion as the outward projection of human inner nature

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 – September 13, 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including both Karl Marx and Frederich Engels.

An associate of Left Hegelian circles, Feuerbach advocated liberalism, atheism and materialism. Many of his philosophical writings offered a critical analysis of religion. His thought was influential in the development of dialectical materialism,[1] where he is often recognized as a bridge between Hegel and Marx.[2]

Life and career[edit]

Feuerbach was the fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, brother of mathematician Karl Wilhelm Feuerbach and uncle of painter Anselm Feuerbach.[3] Feuerbach's other brothers were almost all distinguished in scholarship or science:

  • Joseph Anselm Feuerbach (1798–1851), archeology and philology; his son was the painter Anselm Feuerbach (1829–1880)
  • Eduard August Feuerbach (1803–1843), jurisprudence
  • Friedrich Heinrich Feuerbach (1806–1880), philology and philosophy

He also had three sisters:

  • Rebekka Magdalena "Helene" Feuerbach von Dobeneck (1808–1891)
  • Leonore Feuerbach (1809–1885)
  • Elise Feuerbach (1813–1883)


Feuerbach matriculated in the University of Heidelberg with the intention of pursuing a career in the church.[citation needed] Through the influence of Prof. Karl Daub he was led to an interest in the then predominant philosophy of Hegel and, in spite of his father's opposition, enrolled in the University of Berlin in order to study under the master himself. After 2 years, the Hegelian influence began to slacken. Feuerbach became associated with a group known as the Young Hegelians, alternately known as the Left Hegelians, who synthesized a radical offshoot of Hegelian philosophy, interpreting Hegel's dialectic march of spirit through history to mean that existing Western culture and institutional forms—and, in particular, Christianity—would be superseded. "Theology," he wrote to a friend, "I can bring myself to study no more. I long to take nature to my heart, that nature before whose depth the faint-hearted theologian shrinks back; and with nature man, man in his entire quality." These words are a key to Feuerbach's development. He completed his education at Erlangen, at the Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg with the study of natural science.

Early writings[edit]

His first book, published anonymously, Gedanken über Tod und Unsterblichkeit (1830), contains an attack on personal immortality and an advocacy of the Spinozistic immortality of reabsorption in nature. These principles, combined with his embarrassed manner of public speaking, debarred him from academic advancement. After some years of struggling, during which he published his Geschichte der neueren Philosophie (2 vols., 1833–1837, 2nd ed. 1844), and Abelard und Heloise (1834, 3rd ed. 1877), he married in 1837 and lived a rural existence at Bruckberg near Nuremberg, supported by his wife's share in a small porcelain factory.

In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie und Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proven "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea."

Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity)[edit]

His most important work, Das Wesen des Christentums (1841), was translated by George Eliot into English as The Essence of Christianity.

Feuerbach's theme was a derivation of Hegel's speculative theology in which the Creation remains a part of the Creator, while the Creator remains greater than the Creation. When the student Feuerbach presented his own theory to professor Hegel, Hegel refused to reply positively to it.

In part I of his book Feuerbach developed what he calls the "true or anthropological essence of religion." Treating of God in his various aspects "as a being of the understanding," "as a moral being or law," "as love" and so on. Feuerbach talks of how humankind is equally a conscious being, more so than God because humans have placed upon God the ability of understanding. Humans contemplate many things and in doing so they become acquainted with themselves. Feuerbach shows that in every aspect God corresponds to some feature or need of human nature. As he states, "In the consciousness of the infinite, the conscious subject has for his object the infinity of his own nature." Instead, Feuerbach concludes, "If man is to find contentment in God," he claims, "he must find himself in God."

Thus God is nothing else than human: he is, so to speak, the outward projection of a human's inward nature. This projection is dubbed as a chimaera by Feuerbach, that God and the idea of a higher being is dependent upon the aspect of benevolence. Feuerbach states that, “a God who is not benevolent, not just, not wise, is no God,” and continues to say that qualities are not suddenly denoted as divine because of their godly association. The qualities themselves are divine therefore making God divine, indicating that humans are capable of understanding and applying meanings of divinity to religion and not that religion makes a human divine.

The force of this attraction to religion though, giving divinity to a figure like God, is explained by Feuerbach as God is a being that acts throughout humans in all forms. God, “is the principle of [man's] salvation, of [man's] good dispositions and actions, consequently [man's] own good principle and nature.” It appeals to humankind to give qualities to the idol of their religion because without these qualities a figure such as God would become merely an object, its importance would become obsolete, there would no longer be a feeling of an existence for God. Therefore, Feuerbach says, when humans remove all qualities from God, “God is no longer anything more to him than a negative being.” Additionally, because humans are imaginative, God is given traits and there holds the appeal. God is a part of a human through the invention of a God. Equally though, humans are repulsed by God because, “God alone is the being who acts of himself.”

In part 2 he discusses the "false or theological essence of religion," i.e. the view which regards God as having a separate existence over against humankind. Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which he believes not only injures the moral sense, but also "poisons, nay destroys, the divinest feeling in man, the sense of truth," and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper, which is to him a piece of religious materialism of which "the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality."

A caustic criticism of Feuerbach was delivered in 1844 by Max Stirner. In his book Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (The Ego and His Own), he attacked Feuerbach as inconsistent in his atheism. The pertinent portions of the books, Feuerbach's reply, and Stirner's counter-reply form an instructive polemics. (see External Links)

After "1848"[edit]

During the troubles of 1848-1849 Feuerbach's attack upon orthodoxy made him something of a hero with the revolutionary party; but he never threw himself into the political movement, and indeed lacked the qualities of a popular leader. During the period of the Frankfurt Congress he had given public lectures on religion at Heidelberg. When the diet closed he withdrew to Bruckberg and occupied himself partly with scientific study, partly with the composition of his Theogonie (1857).

In 1860 he was compelled by the failure of the porcelain factory to leave Bruckberg, and he would have suffered the extremity of want but for the assistance of friends supplemented by a public subscription. His last book, Gottheit, Freiheit und Unsterblichkeit, appeared in 1866 (2nd ed., 1890). In 1868 he read the first volume of Marx's Capital and joined the Social-Democratic Party.[4] After a long period of decline, he died on September 13, 1872. He is buried in Johannis-Friedhof Cemetery in Nuremberg, which is also where the artist Albrecht Dürer is interred.


Essentially the thought of Feuerbach consisted in a new interpretation of religion's phenomena, giving an anthropological explanation. Following Schleiermacher’s theses, Feuerbach thought religion was principally a matter of feeling in its unrestricted subjectivity. So the feeling breaks through all the limits of understanding and manifests itself in several religious beliefs. But, beyond the feeling, is the fancy, the true maker of projections of "Gods" and of the sacred in general.


Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were strongly influenced by Feuerbach's atheism, though they criticised him for his inconsistent espousal of materialism.[1]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Feuerbach, Ludwig at marxists.org Glossary. Accessed October 2007.
  2. ^ Harvey, Van A., "Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/ludwig-feuerbach/.
  3. ^ Harvey, Van A., "Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2008/entries/ludwig-feuerbach/, Section 1.
  4. ^ Nürnberger Nachrichten, Wed. July 28, 2004, Kulturteil p. 1.


  • See also Van A. Harvey, et al. Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion (Studies in Religion and Critical Thought), 1997.
  • Marxism explained: materialism John Minns at Socialist Alternative. looks at Feuerbach's influence on Marx and Engels. Accessed October 2007
  • Warren Breckman, Marx, the Young Hegelians and the Origins of Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. [1]
  • Ludwig Feuerbach, “The Essence of Christianity” in Religion and Liberal Culture, ed. Keith Michael Baker, vol. 8 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John W. Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 323-336.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-1872) - biography in Issue 103 of Philosophy Now magazine.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Feuerbach — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

39 news items

Hindustan Times
Sat, 09 Aug 2014 09:30:00 -0700

As the German philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach said long ago, man is what he eats. What happens when the Bong, denied his favourite fish, is forced to eat potatoes instead? Naturally, he first gets irritated, then cranky and finally he sees red. It's ...

Network Norwich

Network Norwich
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 19:54:01 -0700

Ludwig Feuerbach (1804-72) Took the writings of Hegel and Schleiermacher to mean that there is no transcendent, external other God – no supernatural God of the Bible. Instead everything that previous writers have said about the great spirit in ...

Eureka Street

Eureka Street
Wed, 30 Jul 2014 19:00:17 -0700

In some ways this challenge stemmed from Ludwig Feuerbach who argued that human beings are simply animals — 'we are what we eat', we are simply material beings who copulate, give birth, grow and die. Life has no transcendent purpose and, ...
Österreich Journal
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 00:41:15 -0700

Jahrhundert als „Bauernphilosoph“ bekannt und korrespondierte mit den Geistesgrößen seiner Zeit, darunter dem Philosophen Ludwig Feuerbach, dem Schriftsteller Ludwig Anzengruber oder dem späteren Literatur-Nobelpreisträger Paul Heyse.
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 14:56:15 -0700

Er korrespondierte mit den Geistesgrößen seiner Zeit, darunter dem Philosophen Ludwig Feuerbach, dem Schriftsteller Ludwig Anzengruber oder dem späteren Literatur-Nobelpreisträger Paul Heyse. Die Österreichische Nationalbibliothek konnte nun den ...


Sun, 24 Aug 2014 20:45:00 -0700

早期馬克思深受唯物論哲學家費爾巴哈(Ludwig Feuerbach)之啟發,他是以生理需求、身體勞動、人與自然的關係來構思我們的社會本質。費氏試圖翻轉黑格爾的精神現象學,改以感性的人學來加以取代,因此,儘管後續的飲食社會學者總是會引用他著名的格言「人吃 ...
Diario Córdoba
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 19:31:36 -0700

Fue en las reuniones del club de la izquierda hegeliana, a la sombra de Bruno Bauer, de Moises Hess, de Ludwig Feuerbach, de Arnold Ruge, donde Carlos Marx (tenía entonces, 19 años) comenzó a elaborar un sistema global de interpretación de la ...
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 23:00:00 -0700

È importante, anche per chiarire il senso della frase e di tutta l'operazione Wolfskin, sottolineare come Wrod sembra incarnare l'idea di dio-concetto creato dall'uomo e introdotta dal filosofo tedesco Ludwig Feuerbach, e quindi l'incarnazione mistica ...

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