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This article is about the shape. For the cough tablets, see Throat lozenge. For the heraldic element, see Lozenge (heraldry).
"◊" redirects here. For other uses, see Diamond (disambiguation).
Lozenge
Lozenge
Punctuation
apostrophe   '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
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exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
hyphen
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question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /  
Word dividers
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General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
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dagger † ‡
degree °
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inverted exclamation mark ¡
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number sign, pound, hash, octothorpe #
numero sign
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ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
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vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
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Uncommon typography
asterism
hedera
index, fist
interrobang
irony punctuation
lozenge
reference mark
tie
Related
In other scripts

A lozenge (), often referred to as a diamond, is a form of rhombus. The definition of lozenge is not strictly fixed, and it is sometimes used simply as a synonym (from the French losange) for rhombus. Most often, though, lozenge refers to a thin rhombus—a rhombus with acute angles of 45°.[1] The lozenge shape is often used in parquetry and as decoration on ceramics, silverware and textiles. It also features in heraldry and playing cards.

Symbolism[edit]

Sown fields in an open field system of farming.

The lozenge motif dates as far back as the Neolithic and Paleolithic period in Eastern Europe and represents a sown field and female fertility.[2] The ancient lozenge pattern often shows up in Diamond vault architecture, in traditional dress patterns of Slavic peoples, and in traditional Ukrainian embroidery. The lozenge pattern also appears extensively in Celtic art, art from the Ottoman Empire, and ancient Phrygian art.[3]

The lozenge symbolism is one of the main female symbols in Berber carpets.[4] Common Berber jewelry from the Aurès Mountains or Kabylie in Algeria also uses this pattern as a female fertility sign.

In 1658, the English philosopher Sir Thomas Browne published The Garden of Cyrus subtitled The Quincunciall Lozenge, or Network Plantations of the Ancients where he outlined the mystical interconnection of art, nature and the Universe. He suggested that ancient plantations used the quincunx pattern that revealed the "mystical mathematics of the city of Heaven"[5] and proof of the wisdom of God.

Lozenges appear as symbols in ancient classic element systems, in amulets, and in religious symbolism. In a suit of playing cards, diamonds is in the shape of a lozenge.

Encodings[edit]

In Unicode, the lozenge is encoded in multiple variants:

  • U+2311 square lozenge (HTML: ⌑)
  • U+25CA lozenge (HTML: ◊ ◊)[6]
  • U+2662 white diamond suit (HTML: ♢)
  • U+2666 black diamond suit (HTML: ♦ ♦)
  • U+27E0 lozenge divided by horizontal rule (HTML: ⟠)
  • U+29EB black lozenge (HTML: ⧫)
  • U+2B27 white medium lozenge (HTML: ⬧)
  • U+2B28 black medium lozenge (HTML: ⬨)
  • U+2B2A white small lozenge (HTML: ⬪)
  • U+2B2B black small lozenge (HTML: ⬫)

In IBM 026 punched card code it is ⌑ (12-8-4),[7] DOS code page 437 (at character code 4)[8] and Mac-Roman.
The LaTeX command for the lozenge is \lozenge.

Applications[edit]

Modal logic[edit]

In modal logic, the lozenge expresses that there is "possibility." For example, the expression \lozenge P expresses that it is possible that P is true.

Mathematics[edit]

In axiomatic set theory, the lozenge refers to the principles known collectively as the diamond principle.

Camouflage[edit]

A Fokker D.VII shows a four-color Lozenge-Tarnung (lozenge camouflage)
Main article: Lozenge camouflage

During the First World War, the Germans developed Lozenge-Tarnung (lozenge camouflage).[9] This camouflage was made up of colored polygons of four or five colors. The repeating patterns often used irregular four-, five- and six-sided polygons, but some contained regular rhombi or hexagons. Because painting such a pattern was very time consuming, and the paint added considerably to the weight of the aircraft, the pattern was printed on fabric. This pre-printed fabric was used from 1916 until the end of the war, in various forms and colours.

Heraldry[edit]

Main article: Lozenge (heraldry)

The lozenge in heraldry is a diamond-shaped charge, usually somewhat narrower than it is tall. A mascle is a voided lozenge—that is, a lozenge with a lozenge-shaped hole in the middle—and the rarer rustre is a lozenge containing a circular hole. A field covered in a pattern of lozenges is described as lozengy; a similar field of mascles is masculy.

Cough tablets[edit]

Main article: Throat lozenge

Cough tablets have taken the name lozenge, based on their original shape. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first use of this sense was in 1530.

In Finland, the lozenge is associated with salmiak, through Apteekin Salmiakki. Thus, the lozenge is commonly called salmiakkikuvio "salmiak shape". The pattern is often used even if the candy is not actually lozenge-shaped.

U.S. Military[edit]

WWII "ruptured duck" Honorable Discharge Emblem lozenge

To implement 10 U.S.C 773, the Secretary of the Navy has prescribed the following distinctive mark for wear by members of military societies which are composed entirely of honorably discharged officers and enlisted personnel, or by the instructors and members of duly organized cadet corps.

The distinctive mark will be a diamond, 3-1/2 inches long by two inches wide, of any cloth material. A white distinctive mark will be worn on blue, green, or khaki clothing; and a blue distinctive mark will be worn on white clothing.

The distinctive mark will be worn on all outer clothing on the right sleeve, at the point of the shoulder, the upper tip of the diamond to be 1/4 inch below the shoulder seam.

The lozenge is also used in the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force on the insignia of their respective First Sergeants.

They are also used in the Junior ROTC and the Cadet Program in the Civil Air Patrol, for Cadet Officers corresponding to the military pay grades of O-4 to O-6 (C/Major, C/Lieutenant Colonel, and C/Colonel).

Finnish Defence Forces[edit]

In Finnish military ranks, the lozenge is found in the insignia of conscript officer students (one lozenge) and conscript officer candidates (two lozenges).

Transportation[edit]

The lozenge (technically a mascle) can be used on public roadways in the United States and Canada to mark a specific lane for a particular use. The lane will usually be painted with a lozenge at a regular interval, and signage will be installed to indicate the restrictions on using the lane. This marking is most often used to denote high-occupancy vehicle lanes or bus lanes, with accompanying signage reading "◊ HOV LANE" or "◊ BUS LANE" and giving the requirements for a vehicle to be accepted. Prior to 17 January 2006, lozenges could also be used to mark bicycle-only lanes, often in conjunction with a bicycle icon.[10] In New Zealand and Japan, a lozenge marked in white paint on the road indicates an upcoming uncontrolled pedestrian crossing.

Imagery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Definition of lozenge at Mathworld web site
  2. ^ Welters, Linda (1999). Folk dress in Europe and Anatolia: beliefs about protection and fertility. Berg. pp. 16–21. ISBN 1-85973-282-8. 
  3. ^ Sams, Gilbert (1994). The early Phrygian pottery. Science Press. p. 151. ISBN 0924171189. 
  4. ^ Berber Carpets of Morocco: The Symbols Origin and Meaning, by Bruno Barbatti, ACR Edition, ISBN 978-2-86770-184-9.
  5. ^ Moore, Charles (1988). The Poetics of Gardens. The MIT Press. p. 161. ISBN 0262631539. 
  6. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U25A0.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/computinghistory/026.html
  8. ^ Valtanen, Esko (1990). DOS-OPAS. Teknolit. p. 649. ISBN 952-90-1220-9. 
  9. ^ http://www.wwiaviation.com/lozenge.html
  10. ^ "Phase-In Compliance Periods, Section 9B.04 Bicycle Lane Signs" Retrieved on 2009-01-17.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lozenge — Please support Wikipedia.
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142 news items

 
The Augusta Chronicle
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 17:56:15 -0700

“We were very, very surprised because it is unheard of,” said lozenge inventor Stephen Hsu, a researcher at GRU and the corresponding author on the study. Researchers went looking for similar results in other studies and found “none of them showed ...
 
KOAT Albuquerque
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 16:48:45 -0700

He said he doesn't smoke it now, but tries pot in a lozenge form once in a while. He said it's a part of his new business -- he's the president and CEO of a marijuana startup called Cannabis Sativa. The company will develop pot products for ...
 
StarNewsOnline.com
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:30:00 -0700

In reality that is what it is, a half-inch lozenge-shaped piece of foam dyed orange that slips on the leader above the fly to determine its depth. Below the strike indicator I tied on a Tail-End Charlie, a slow-sinking, spider-like fly tied by Bob ...

Ladybud Magazine

Ladybud Magazine
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 20:45:00 -0700

Glycerin-based tinctures, 10 mg doses of edible in lozenge form or gummies, artisan oat bars in tiny, cute packaging. I can give my best friend an ounce! I am very grateful, seriously. I'm just sad sometimes as I look out of my back window at the ...

StreetWise Tech

StreetWise Tech
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:11:15 -0700

Its lens runs on 26mm equivalent optic that has f/2.4 aperture in a shape of a thin lozenge with dual LED flash. It may sound extraordinary for the average listener, but it is not as powerful as it seems, which only offers a 3m operation range. Built ...

Latin Post

Latin Post
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:30:00 -0700

If I had the flu, Shirley would give me a throat lozenge and usher me off on the train to school. There was just no sympathy." Hough, however, says that the report was misconstrued to make the Ballas parents look bad, when in fact they were loving figures.

Medical Jane

Medical Jane
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:33:45 -0700

If you medicate with a sublingual like a lozenge or tincture, the effects will occur much quicker than with something that you chew and digest. When something travels through your saliva it takes only minutes to get to your brain; when you consume food ...

Telegraph.co.uk

Telegraph.co.uk
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 08:33:45 -0700

Within two hours of slipping its last cable, the ship was already six miles out to sea, barely more than a lozenge-shaped blip on the horizon. Having rammed into Giglio on the night of the disaster at a reckless 15 knots – after Capt Francesco ...
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