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The Los Angeles Basin is the coastal sediment-filled plain located at the north end of the Peninsular Ranges province[1] in southern California, United States, and contains the central part of the city of Los Angeles as well as its southern and southeastern suburbs (both in Los Angeles and Orange counties). It is approximately 50 miles (80 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) wide, bounded on the north by the Santa Monica Mountains and San Gabriel Mountains, on the east by the Santa Ana Mountains and on the south by the Pacific Ocean and the Palos Verdes Hills, along the coast.[1] The confluence of the Los Angeles and Rio Hondo rivers is the center of the basin.[2]

LA Basin Oil Fields, USGS
Los Angeles City oil field, 1905

Geology[edit]

Dominant structures in the basin are northwest-southeast trending fault zones causing parallel block faults causing topographic highs and deeper aniclinal structures in which oil fields are located.[3] The principal subsidence and deposition occurred in the Upper Miocene until the Lower Pleistocene.[4] The sediment in the basin is up to 6 miles (10 km) deep. The basin began to form during the Neogene approximately 15 million years ago (mya), when the terrain was underwater, during a crustal upheaval caused by a clockwise shift in the surrounding mountains. The underlying crustal weakening resulted in the formation of the large bowl of the basin. Sediment from the sea and rivers accumulated in the undersea bowl, building up in thick layers. Approximately 5 million years ago, the crustal stretching subsided and the ocean floor of the basin was forced to the surface. Additional sediment accumulated during the upswell resulting in the floor of the basin as it exists today.

Petroleum[edit]

The accumulation of fine-grained sediments with high organic content, interlayered with coarser grained sands, contributed to the formation of large deposits of oil, including the Wilmington Oil Field.[5] Other large active oil fields include the Long Beach Oil Field, the Salt Lake Oil Field and South Salt Lake Oil Field, the Huntington Beach Oil Field, which underlies much of the city of Huntington Beach; and the Torrance Oil Field, adjacent to the Wilmington field on the northwest. Most of the numerous fields in the basin have either been abandoned or greatly scaled back in production since the early part of the 20th century. In the 1890s the oil field directly north of downtown Los Angeles, the Los Angeles City Oil Field, led the state of California in oil production.[6] Some of the oil fields in the dense urban core remain productive, including the Beverly Hills Oil Field.[7]

In 2013, the USGS estimated that the ten giant oilfields in the LA Basin have future potential to produce an additional 1.4 to 5.6 billion barrels of oil, with their best estimate being 3.2 billion barrels. The report acknowledges that only a fraction of this oil is likely to be produced, given the highly urbanized area surrounding the oilfields.[8]

Iodine[edit]

In former years iodine was recovered commercially from brine co-produced with oil. Dow Chemical Company operated a number of plants at oil fields in the Los Angeles Basin, and recovered iodine from brines that averaged 50 parts per million iodine. Production started in 1932 and lasted into the 1960s.[9]

Earthquakes[edit]

Major faults include the Newport-Inglewood Fault, the Whittier Fault, the Santa Monica Fault, the Elsinore Fault Zone and the San Gabriel Fault.[10] For a list of major events:

Subsidence[edit]

Small-scale subsidence has occurred due to ground water withdrawal while large-scale subsidence has been the result of petroleum extraction, the most spectacular examples being the Baldwin Hills dam collapse of 1963 and the sinking of the Long Beach Harbor by several meters, since alleviated through water injection.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mayuga, M.N., Geology and Development of California's Giant-Wilmington Oil Field, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, pp. 160, 1970.
  2. ^ "The Los Angeles Basin - A Huge Bowl of Sand". LAalmanac.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. "The point where the Los Angeles and Rio Hondo Rivers merge in the City of South Gate is the geologic center for the Los Angeles Basin.'" 
  3. ^ Mayuga, M.N., Geology and Development of California's Giant-Wilmington Oil Field, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, pp. 160-161, 1970.
  4. ^ Mayuga, M.N., Geology and Development of California's Giant-Wilmington Oil Field, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, pp. 161, 1970.
  5. ^ Mayuga, M.N., Geology and Development of California's Giant-Wilmington Oil Field, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, pp. 162, 1970.
  6. ^ History of Oil Production in California: California Department of Conservation, Department of Oil and Gas
  7. ^ "Oil and Gas Statistics: 2007 Annual Report" (PDF). California Department of Conservation. December 31, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2009. 
  8. ^ Remaining Recoverable Petroleum in Ten Giant Oil Fields of the Los Angeles Basin, Southern California, USGS, revised 2-2013
  9. ^ G.I. Smith (1966) "Iodine" in Mineral Resources of California, California Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 191, p.198-199.
  10. ^ Yerkes, R.F., McCulloh, T.H., Schoellhammer, J.E., and Vedder, J.G.,Geology of the Los Angeles Basin, Southern California, Washington: USGS Paper 420-A, p. A5 and A12, 1965.
  11. ^ Mayuga, M.N., Geology and Development of California's Giant-Wilmington Oil Field, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Memoir 14, pp. 176-180, 1970.


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles_Basin — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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97 news items

eTurboNews

eTurboNews
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 13:03:45 -0700

Los Angeles residents can expect an increase in temperatures toward the end of the week and into the weekend as heat continues to build. AccuWeather Meteorologist Dave Samuhel said temperatures will be increasing as desert air floods the area.
 
The Daily Breeze
Thu, 02 Oct 2014 20:11:15 -0700

The good news from the latest comprehensive air-quality study across the Los Angeles basin, which will be released, today, is that the amount of cancer-causing toxins in the air has been reduced overall by 65 percent since 2005. The bad news is that ...
 
Los Angeles Times
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 04:01:10 -0700

The bond measure could bankroll such things as a new dam in the Sacramento Valley, stream protections in the Sierra Nevada and treatment of contaminated groundwater in the Los Angeles Basin. Proposition 1 doesn't earmark funds for any specific ...

De Smog Blog (blog)

De Smog Blog (blog)
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 16:15:00 -0700

In California, where fracking is taking place mostly in the heart of the state's agricultural center — the San Joaquin Valley (as well as the Los Angeles basin, off the coast of Santa Barbara, and in the mountains of Ventura County), opposition is ...
 
LA Daily News
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 10:03:45 -0700

This should be welcome news to those who struggle with clay soil, which may be found throughout the Los Angeles basin. At one time, Los Angeles and the Valley were at the bottom of the ocean, and silty clay, or just plain clay soil, are a reminder of ...
 
Washington Post
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 11:11:22 -0700

This American Indian language (also called Gabrielino) used to be spoken in villages all over the Los Angeles basin and, in a related dialect, throughout most of the San Fernando Valley. These villages have given their names to places across Los ...

Energy Collective

Energy Collective
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 01:17:31 -0700

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Las Vegas Review-Journal

Las Vegas Review-Journal
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:11:15 -0700

Mora said Reno's wish list includes flights to Washington, D.C., Atlanta and more flights to the Los Angeles basin. Reno did get some good news recently when Mexican discount carrier Volaris announced plans for twice-weekly flights to and from Guadalajara.
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