digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

"LAN" redirects here. For other uses, see Lan (disambiguation).
A conceptual diagram of a local area network using 10BASE5 Ethernet

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, or office building.[1] A local area network is contrasted in principle to a wide area network (WAN), which covers a larger geographic distance and may involve leased telecommunication circuits, while the media for LANs are locally managed.

Ethernet over twisted pair cabling and Wi-Fi are the two most common transmission technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token Ring, and AppleTalk.

History[edit]

The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems. A 1970 report from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network[2][3] gave a good indication of the situation.

Cambridge Ring (computer network) was developed at Cambridge University in 1974[4] but was never developed into a successful commercial product.

Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975,[5] and filed as U.S. Patent 4,063,220. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper, "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching for Local Computer Networks."[6]

ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977.[7] It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York.[8]

Standards evolution[edit]

The development and proliferation of personal computers using the CP/M operating system in the late 1970s, and later DOS-based systems starting in 1981, meant that many sites grew to dozens or even hundreds of computers. The initial driving force for networking was generally to share storage and printers, which were both expensive at the time. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be “the year of the LAN”.[9][10][11]

In practice, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical layer and network protocol implementations, and a plethora of methods of sharing resources. Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system. A solution appeared with the advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types, and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. Netware dominated[12] the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid-1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups.

Of the competitors to NetWare, only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths, but Banyan never gained a secure base. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share, Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server - but none of these was particularly successful.

During the same period, Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, Intergraph, NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. Although this market segment is now much reduced, the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS X networking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX, AppleTalk, NBF, and other protocols used by the early PC LANs.

Cabling[edit]

Early LAN cabling had generally been based on various grades of coaxial cable. Shielded twisted pair was used in IBM's Token Ring LAN implementation, but in 1984, StarLAN showed the potential of simple unshielded twisted pair by using Cat3 cable—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most commercial LANs today.

Fiber-optic cabling is common for links between switches, but fiber to the desktop is uncommon.

Wireless media[edit]

Many LANs are based partly or wholly on wireless technologies. Smartphones, tablet computers and laptops typically have wireless networking support built-in. In a wireless local area network, users may move unrestricted in the coverage area. Wireless networks have become popular in residences and small businesses, because of their ease of installation. Guests are often offered Internet access via a hotspot service.

Technical aspects[edit]

Network topology describes the layout of interconnections between devices and network segments. At the Data Link Layer and Physical Layer, a wide variety of LAN topologies have been used, including ring, bus, mesh and star, but the most common LAN topology in use today is switched Ethernet. At the higher layers, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) is the standard, replacing NetBEUI, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk and others.

Simple LANs generally consist of one or more switches. A switch can be connected to a router, cable modem, or ADSL modem for Internet access. Complex LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops, their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS), and to segregate traffic with VLANs. A LAN can include a wide variety of network devices such as switches, firewalls, routers, load balancers, and sensors.[13]

LANs can maintain connections with other LANs via leased lines, leased services, or the Internet using virtual private network technologies. Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN, and the distance involved, a LAN may also be classified as a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a wide area network (WAN).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gary A. Donahue (June 2007). Network Warrior. O'Reilly. p. 5. 
  2. ^ Samuel F. Mendicino (1970-12-01). "Octopus: The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Network". Rogerdmoore.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. 
  3. ^ "THE LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY OCTOPUS". Courant symposium series on networks (Osti.gov). 29 Nov 1970. OSTI 4045588. 
  4. ^ "A brief informal history of the Computer Laboratory". University of Cambridge. 20 December 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. 
  5. ^ "Ethernet Prototype Circuit Board". Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Retrieved 2007-09-02. 
  6. ^ "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks". Acm.org. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 
  7. ^ "ARCNET Timeline". ARCNETworks magazine. Fall 1998. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-11. 
  8. ^ Lamont Wood (2008-01-31). "The LAN turns 30, but will it reach 40?". Computerworld.com. Retrieved 2010-10-11. 
  9. ^ "'The Year of The LAN' is a long-standing joke, and I freely admit to being the comedian that first declared it in 1982...", Robert Metcalfe, InfoWorld Dec 27, 1993
  10. ^ "...you will remember numerous computer magazines, over numerous years, announcing 'the year of the LAN.'", Quotes in 1999
  11. ^ "...a bit like the Year of the LAN which computer industry pundits predicted for the good part of a decade...", Christopher Herot
  12. ^ Wayne Spivak (2001-07-13). "Has Microsoft Ever Read the History Books?". VARBusiness. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. 
  13. ^ "A Review of the Basic Components of a Local Area Network (LAN)". NetworkBits.net. Retrieved 2008-04-08. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_area_network — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
561151 videos foundNext > 

The Glitch Mob - Local Area Network

For more bangers like this visit my CHANNEL & SUBSCRIBE. http://www.theglitchmob.com http://www.facebook.com/theglitchmobmusic ...

01 - Networking Fundamentals - Understanding Local Area Networking

01 - In this module you'll learn about basic concepts and Local Area Networking.

What is a LAN (Local Area Network)

What is a LAN (Local Area Network) Check my other networking videos: ...

Network Scope - Local Area Network (LAN)

This video introduces Local Area Networks (LANs). In this video I discuss Switches, Ethernet Cables, MAC addresses, and WiFi. This video is part of an ...

How to Connect two Computer in a Local Area Network ( LAN ) using Cat5 cable:

What is a LAN (Local Area Network)

Whether you set up your home network or use a network someone else set up, you've probably heard of the term LAN. In this tutorial we'll explain the definition ...

Local Area Network (LAN) explained!

What is LAN? Ethernet? Basic stuff for my school project. Please SUBSCRIBE to my channel.

Local Area Network connection doesn't have a valid IP configuration-Easily Fixed

This video shows the easy method to solve the issue-Wireless network connection does not have a valid ip configuration.

How to Set Up a LAN Network | Internet Setup

Watch more How to Set Up Internet videos: http://www.howcast.com/videos/499724-What-Is-a-Router-Internet-Setup Learn the basics of how to set up a LAN ...

LAN LOCAL AREA NETWORKS

Creating a local area network through ethenet and modems.

561151 videos foundNext > 

4770 news items

 
Money Flow Index
Fri, 04 Sep 2015 05:11:15 -0700

The products and solutions include Network Infrastructure, UC Group Systems and UC Personal Devices, which includes desktop video devices and wireless local area network products. On March 21, 2011, the Company acquired Accordent Technologies, ...

Financialbuzz.com

Nasdaq
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:52:30 -0700

In May, Hewlett-Packard acquired Aruba Networks which should improve its role in the wireless local area network (WLAN) market. This is likely to be a positive as more and more companies are now allowing employees to access work systems through their ...

Computerworld

PC Magazine
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 04:03:45 -0700

Since the Belkin N600 does not set a password for the Web management interface by default, a local area network (LAN) attacker can gain privileged access to it or leverage the default absence of credentials in remote attacks such as cross-site request ...
 
News Watch International
Fri, 04 Sep 2015 02:11:15 -0700

The Enterprise segment includes sales of rugged and enterprise-grade mobile computers and tablets, laser/imaging/RFID-based data capture products, wireless local area network (WLAN) and integrated digital enhanced network (iDEN) infrastructure, ...

Computerworld

Computerworld
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 11:33:45 -0700

"In a modern Cisco network today, you can prioritize traffic across the WAN [wide-area network], WLAN [wireless local area network]," added Moorhead. "Maybe the deal will prioritize packets [to and from an iPhone] to bring a better mobility experience ...
 
Dakota Financial News
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 17:11:15 -0700

It provides routers, adapters, and wireless access gateways, as well as managed wireless local area network, backhaul, and triple-play carrier services. The company sells its products to enterprise customers in various industries, including hospitality ...

SemiEngineering

SemiEngineering
Wed, 02 Sep 2015 23:56:15 -0700

Both the MAC and PHY layers are responsible for realizing wireless local area network (WLAN) communication in the standard 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands. The MAC layer also handles security. Originally this was used in computer networking but ...

Talkin' Cloud

Talkin' Cloud
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:56:15 -0700

In addition, Chou noted that a global file locking capabilities enables applications built for a local area network to be accesses over a WAN in about 10 to 20 seconds. For solution providers Chou said the alliance with VMware is especially compelling ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight