digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Liturgy (disambiguation).
Wedding ceremony at Kiuruvesi Church in Kiuruvesi, Finland

Liturgy (Greek: λειτουργία) is the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular beliefs, customs and traditions.

The word, sometimes rendered by its English translation "service", may refer to an elaborate formal ritual such as the Eastern Orthodox Divine Liturgy (Greek: Θεία Λειτουργία), Catholic Mass, the Eucharist or Mass (Anglican Communion) or a daily activity such as the Muslim salah[1] and Jewish services. As a religious phenomenon, liturgy is a communal response to the sacred through activity reflecting praise, thanksgiving, supplication, or repentance. Ritualization may be associated with life events such as birth, coming of age, marriage and death. It thus forms the basis for establishing a relationship with a divine agency, as well as with other participants in the liturgy. Methods of dress, preparation of food, application of cosmetics or other hygienic practices are all considered liturgical activities.

Etymology[edit]

The word liturgy, derived from the technical term in ancient Greek, leitourgia, signifies the often expensive offers of service to the people, and thus to the polis and the state.[2] Through the leitourgia, the rich carried a financial burden and were correspondingly rewarded with honours. The leitourgia became both mandatory and honorific, supporting the patron's standing among the elite. The holder of a Hellenic leitourgia was not taxed a specific sum, but was entrusted with a particular ritual, which could be performed with greater or lesser magnificence. The chief sphere remained that of civic religion, embodied in the festivals: M.I. Finley notes "in Demosthenes' day there were at least 97 liturgical appointments in Athens for the festivals, rising to 118 in a (quadrennial) Panathenaic year."[3] Eventually, under the Roman Empire, such obligations, known as munera, devolved into a competitive and ruinously expensive burden that was avoided when possible.

Buddhism[edit]

Main article: Buddhist liturgy

The term Buddhist liturgy refers to a formalised service performed by the four-fold sangha and by nearly every denomination and sect in the Buddhist world. It is often done once or more times a day and can vary amongst the Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana sects. The liturgy mainly consists of reciting a sutra or passages from a sutra, a mantra (especially in Vajrayana), and several gathas. Depending on what practice the practitioner wishes to undertake, it can be done at a temple or at home. The liturgy is almost always performed in front of an object or objects of veneration and accompanied by offerings of light, incense, and food.

Judaism[edit]

Main article: Jewish liturgy

Jewish liturgy are the prayer recitations that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism. These prayers, often with instructions and commentary, are found in the siddur, the traditional Jewish prayer book. In general, Jewish men are obligated to pray three times a day within specific time ranges (zmanim). while, according to the Talmud, women are only required to pray once daily, as they are generally exempted from obligations that are time dependent.

Traditionally, three prayer services are recited daily:

  1. Shacharit or Shaharit (שַחֲרִת), from the Hebrew shachar or shahar (שַחָר) "morning light,"
  2. Mincha or Minha (מִנְחָה), the afternoon prayers named for the flour offering that accompanied sacrifices at the Temple in Jerusalem,
  3. Arvit (עַרְבִית) or Maariv (מַעֲרִיב), from "nightfall."

Additional prayers:


Christianity[edit]

Main article: Christian liturgy

Frequently in Christianity, a distinction is made between "liturgical" and "non-liturgical" churches based on how elaborate or antiquated the worship; in this usage, churches whose services are unscripted or improvised are called "non-liturgical". Others object to this usage, arguing that this terminology obscures the universality of public worship as a religious phenomenon.[4] Thus, even the open or waiting worship of Quakers is liturgical, since the waiting itself until the Holy Spirit moves individuals to speak is a prescribed form of Quaker worship, sometimes referred to as "the liturgy of silence."[5] Typically in Christianity, however, the term "the liturgy" normally refers to a standardised order of events observed during a religious service, be it a sacramental service or a service of public prayer. In the Catholic tradition, liturgy is the participation of the people in the work of God, which is primarily the saving work of Jesus Christ. In the liturgy, Christ continues the work of redemption.[6]

The term "liturgy" literally in Greek means "work for the people," but a better translation is "public service" or "public work," as made clear from the origin of the term as described above. The early Christians adopted the word to describe its principal act of worship, the Sunday service (Holy Eucharist, Holy Communion, Mass or Divine Liturgy). This service, liturgy, or ministry (from the Latin 'ministerium') is a duty for Christians as a priestly people by their baptism into Christ and participation in his high priestly ministry. It is also God's ministry or service to the worshippers. It a reciprocal service. As such, many Christian churches designate one person who participates in the worship service as the liturgist. The liturgist may read announcements, scriptures, and calls to worship, while the minister preaches the sermon, offers prayers, and blesses sacraments. The liturgist may be either an ordained minister or a layman. The entire congregation participates in and offers the liturgy to God.

Islam[edit]

Main article: Salat

Salāt ("prayer", Arabic: صلاةṣalāh or gen: ṣalāt; pl. صلوات ṣalawāt) is the practice of physical and compulsory prayer in Islam as opposed to dua, which is the Arabic word for supplication. Its importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Islam.

Salat is preceded by ritual ablution and usually performed five times a day. It consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, menstruating, or in puerperium stage after childbirth.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, p. 582–3
  2. ^ N. Lewis, "Leitourgia and related terms," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 3 (1960:175–84) and 6 (1965:226–30).
  3. ^ Finley, The Ancient Economy 2nd ed., 1985:151.
  4. ^ Underhill, E., Worship (London: Bradford and Dickens, 1938), pp. 3–19.
  5. ^ Dandelion, P., The Liturgies of Quakerism, Liturgy, Worship and Society Series (Aldershot, England and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005).
  6. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church 1069(London: Chapman, 1994).
  7. ^ Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, p. 43, Aruna Thaker, Arlene Barton, 2012

Further reading[edit]

  • Baldovin, John F., SJ (2008) Reforming the Liturgy: a Response to the Critics. The Liturgical Press
  • Bowker, John, ed. (1997) Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-213965-7.
  • Bugnini, Annibale, (1990) The Reform of the Liturgy 1948–1975. The Liturgical Press
  • Dix, Dom Gregory (1945) The Shape of the Liturgy
  • Donghi, Antonio, (2009) Words and Gestures in the Liturgy. The Liturgical Press
  • Johnson, Lawrence J., (2009) Worship in the Early Church: an Anthology of Historical Sources. The Liturgical Press
  • Jones, Cheslyn, Geoffrey Wainwright, and Edward Yarnold, eds. (1978) The Study of Liturgy. London: SPCK.
  • Marini, Piero, (2007) A Challenging Reform: Realizing the Vision of the Liturgical Renewal. The Liturgical Press
  • Scotland, N. A. D. (1989). Eucharistic Consecration in the First Four Centuries and Its Implications for Liturgical Reform, in series, Latimer Studies, 31. Latimer House. ISBN 0-946307-30-X
  • "What Do Quakers Believe?". Quaker Information Center, Philadelphia, PA, 2004.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liturgy — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
274690 videos foundNext > 

Liturgy - Quetzalcoatl (Official Music Video)

"Quetzalcoatl" is off Liturgy's album "The Ark Work," out in March on Thrill Jockey. 2xLP/CD: http://thrilljockey.com/thrill/Liturgy/The-Ark-Work iTunes: ...

Liturgy - What's In My Bag?

Tyler Dusenbury & Hunter Hunt-Hendrix of Liturgy go shopping at Amoeba Music Hollywood. See their full list of picks: http://bit.ly/1J7FfW1 Get their music: ...

Liturgy - Generation

No Copyright Intended.

Liturgy - The Ark Work ALBUM REVIEW

Listen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebxIwwhV5MA Experimental rock and metal act Liturgy makes a magnum opus of the sounds and ideas forged on ...

Liturgy - Returner (Official Music Video)

Official Music Video for "Returner" by Liturgy from the album Aesthethica, out now on Thrill Jockey Records thrilljockey.com/​catalog/​?id=105276 Directed by ...

Liturgy Plays 'Follow' Live on Spinning On Air in the WNYC Studio

The Brooklyn-based transcendental black metal band Liturgy plays the song "Follow" off its latest album "The Ark Work." Recorded live on Spinning on Air in the ...

Explanation of a Coptic Orthodox Liturgy

LITURGY: VEINS OF GOD

Liturgy live at RED 7 in Austin Texas. Presented by ACOLYTE (acolyte-bsa.blogspot.com).

Divine Liturgy in ancient Russian hymnody / Божественная Литургия древнерусских распевов

"Missionary" Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom with commentary from Protodeacon Andrei Kuraev. Sung according to recomposed 17th century manuscripts.

St. Basil Liturgy (including Gospel) - Coptic Orthodox - Fr. Antonious Tanious - English

Really nice English Liturgy recording, one of my personal favourite Image of Fr. Antinous obtained from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yz1L3xIYeus Liturgy ...

274690 videos foundNext > 

242466 news items

 
Catholic Culture
Fri, 12 Feb 2016 12:15:00 -0800

In his book, The Spirit of the Liturgy, Guardini gives powerful, convincing answers to the argument that it's all a matter of preference. At the same time he deepens the reader's understanding of the liturgy—which is to say, he enriches the reader's ...

ChristianToday

ChristianToday
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 04:22:30 -0800

Many Anglican churches hold an "imposition of ashes" service to mark the beginning of Lent on Ash Wednesday. In Westminster Abbey it is particularly traditional, with the liturgy inviting congregants to "take to heart the call to repentance and the ...

Greek Reporter

Greek Reporter
Thu, 11 Feb 2016 07:04:21 -0800

Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew performed a liturgy at the recently renovated Greek Orthodox church of Saint Charalambos in Krini (Cesme), Turkey, on Wednesday, February 10, 2016. This is the first time that a Divine Liturgy has been performed in the ...

Catholic World Report

Catholic World Report
Wed, 10 Feb 2016 19:34:11 -0800

In an essay published in Italian in L'Osservatore Romano on January 30, 2016, Cardinal Robert Sarah, Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, discusses the meaning of silence in the Roman liturgy. The ...

Huffington Post

Huffington Post
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 15:03:45 -0800

I do think, however, that "Concussion" contains a religious sub-text: the liturgy of football has a religious power and importance in contemporary culture. Football is, in itself, a religion which engages peoples' most ardent passions, interests ...

Church Militant

Church Militant
Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:34:03 -0800

We are realizing more and more clearly that silence is part of the liturgy. We respond, by singing and praying, to the God who addresses us, but the greater mystery, surpassing all words, summons us to silence. It must, of course, be a silence with ...

First Things (blog)

First Things (blog)
Tue, 02 Feb 2016 03:15:00 -0800

More grist for the discussion of Protestantism and writing, taken from my review of Lori Branch,Rituals of Spontaneity. See the whole review here. Focusing on English literary culture and religion, Branch examines the formation of an “ideology of ...

Consequence of Sound (blog)

Consequence of Sound (blog)
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 08:42:03 -0800

SORROW is a reinterpretation of Symphony No. 3 by Polish composer Henryk Gorecki and features three movements, including one that clocks in at nearly 30 minutes. It includes guest contributions from Neufeld and Liturgy drummer Greg Fox, and, according ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight