digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing. This may also include liturgical writing. The difference between literary and non-literary forms is more marked in some languages than in others. Where there is a strong divergence, the language is said to exhibit diglossia.

Classical Latin was the literary register of Latin, as opposed to the Vulgar Latin spoken across the Roman Empire. The Latin brought by Roman soldiers to Gaul, Iberia, or Dacia was not identical to the Latin of Cicero, and differed from it in vocabulary, syntax, and grammar.[1] Some literary works with low-register language from the Classical Latin period give a glimpse into the world of early Vulgar Latin. The works of Plautus and Terence, being comedies with many characters who were slaves, preserve some early basilectal Latin features, as does the recorded speech of the freedmen in the Cena Trimalchionis by Petronius Arbiter. At the third Council of Tours in 813, priests were ordered to preach in the vernacular language — either in the rustica lingua romanica (Vulgar Latin), or in the Germanic vernaculars — since the common people could no longer understand formal Latin.

Literary English[edit]

For literary uses of English, see Literary technique.
For formal English, see Standard English.
For written English, see Standard Written English.

Literary language is a register that is used in literary criticism and general discussion on some literary work. For much of its history there has been a distinction in the English language between an elevated literary language and a colloquial language.[2] After the Norman conquest of England, for instance, Latin and French displaced English as the official and literary languages[3] and Standard literary English did not emerge until the end of the Middle Ages.[4] At this time and into the renaissance, the practice of aureation (the introduction of terms from classical languages, often through poetry) was an important part of the reclamation of status for the English language, and many historically aureate terms are now part of general common usage. Modern English no longer has quite the same distinction between literary and colloquial registers.[2]

English has been used as a literary language in countries that were formerly part of the British Empire, for instance India up to the present day,[5] Malaysia in the early twentieth century,[6] and Nigeria, where English remains the official language.

Other languages[edit]

See also: Standard language

Arabic[edit]

See main article: Modern Standard Arabic

Modern Standard Arabic is the contemporary literary and standard register of Classical Arabic used in writing across all Arabic-speaking countries and any governing body with Arabic as an official language. Many western scholars distinguish two varieties: the Classical Arabic of the Qur'an and early Islamic (7th to 9th centuries) literature; and Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the standard language in use today. The modern standard language is closely based on the Classical language, and most Arabs consider the two varieties to be two registers of one and the same language. Literary Arabic or classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages.

The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia—the use of two distinct varieties of the same language, usually in different social contexts. Educated Arabic speakers are usually able to communicate in MSA in formal situations. This diglossic situation facilitates code-switching in which a speaker switches back and forth between the two varieties of the language, sometimes even within the same sentence. In instances in which highly educated Arabic-speakers of different nationalities engage in conversation but find their dialects mutually unintelligible (e.g. a Moroccan speaking with a Kuwaiti), they are able to code switch into MSA for the sake of communication.

Bengali[edit]

Standard Bengali has two forms:

  • Choltibhasha, the vernacular standard based on the elite speech of Kolkata
  • Shadhubhasha, the literary standard, which employs more Sanskritized vocabulary and longer prefixes and suffixes.

Grammatically, the two forms are identical and differing forms, such as verb conjugations, are easily converted from one form to another. However, the vocabulary is quite different from one form to the other and must be learned separately. Among the works of Rabindranath Tagore are examples of both shadhubhasha (especially among his earlier works) and choltibhasha (especially among his later works). The national anthem of India was originally written in the shadhu bhasha form of Bengali.

Chinese[edit]

See main article: Classical Chinese

Literary Chinese, Wényánwén (文言文), "Literary Writing", is the form of written Chinese used from the end of the Han Dynasty to the early 20th century when it was replaced by vernacular written Chinese, or Baihua (白話). Literary Chinese diverged more and more from Classical Chinese as the dialects of China became more and more disparate and as the Classical written language became less and less representative of the spoken language. At the same time, Literary Chinese was based largely upon the Classical language, and writers frequently borrowed Classical language into their literary writings. Literary Chinese therefore shows a great deal of similarity to Classical Chinese, even though the similarity decreased over the centuries.

Finnish[edit]

The Finnish language has a literary variant, literary Finnish, and a spoken variant, spoken Finnish. Both are considered a form of non-dialectal standard language, and are used throughout the country. Literary Finnish is a consciously created fusion of dialects for use as a literary language, which is rarely spoken at all, being confined to writing and official speeches.

German[edit]

Main article: Standard German

German differentiates between Hochdeutsch/Standarddeutsch (Standard German) and Umgangssprache (colloquial language). Amongst the differences is the regular use of the genitive case or the simple past tense Präteritum in written language. In colloquial language one replaces genitive phrases ("des Tages") with a construction of "von" + dative object ("von dem Tag") - comparable to English "the dog's tail" vs. "the tail of the dog" - and the Präteritum ("ich ging") with the perfect ("ich bin gegangen") to a certain degree. Nevertheless the use of neither the Präteritum nor especially the genitive case is totally unusual in colloquial language, just quite rare, yet also depending on a region's dialect and/or the grade of education of the speaker. People of higher education use the genitive more regularly in colloquial language and the use of perfect instead of Präteritum is especially common in southern Germany, where the Präteritum is considered somewhat declamatory. The German Konjunktiv I / II ("er habe" / "er hätte") is also used more regularly in written form being replaced by the conditional ("er würde geben") in colloquial language, although in some southern German dialects the Konjunktiv II is used more often. Generally there is a continuum between more dialectical varieties to more standard varieties in German, while colloquial German nonetheless tends to increase analytic elements at the expense of synthetic elements.

Greek[edit]

Main article: Katharevousa

From the early nineteenth century until the mid twentieth century Katharevousa, a form of Greek, was used for literary purposes. In later years, Katharevousa was used only for official and formal purposes (such as politics, letters, official documents, and newscasting) while Dhimotiki, ‘demotic’ or popular Greek, was the daily language. This created a diglossic situation until in 1976 Dhimotiki was made the official language.

Italian[edit]

When Italy was unified, in 1861, Italian existed mainly as a literary language. Different languages were spoken throughout the Italian peninsula, many of which were Romance languages which had developed in every region, due to the political fragmentation of Italy. Now it is the standard language of Italy.

Japanese[edit]

Until the late 1940s, the prominent literary language in Japan was Classical Japanese language (文語 "Bungo"), which is based on the language spoken in Heian Period (Late Old Japanese) and is different from contemporary Japanese language in grammar and some vocabulary. It still has relevance for historians, literary scholars, and lawyers (many Japanese laws that survived World War II are still written in bungo, although there are ongoing efforts to modernize their language). Bungo grammar and vocabulary are occasionally used in modern Japanese for effect, and fixed form poetries like Haiku and Tanka are still mainly written in this form.

In the Meiji period, some authors started to use the colloquial form of the language in their literature. Following the government policy after the World War II, the standard form of contemporary Japanese language is used for most literature published since the 1950s. The standard language is based on the colloquial language in Tokyo area, and its literary stylistics in polite form differs little from its formal speech. Notable characteristics of literary language in contemporary Japanese would include more frequent use of Chinese origin words, less use of expressions against prescriptive grammar such as "ら抜き言葉", and use of non-polite normal form ("-だ/-である") stylistics that are rarely used in colloquial language.

Javanese[edit]

In the Javanese language alphabet characters derived from the alphabets used to write Sanskrit, no longer in ordinary use, are used in literary words as a mark of respect.

Tagalog[edit]

Tagalog language was the basis of the Filipino. The Modern Tagalog language was derived from Archaic Tagalog During the Classical period, it was the language of the Mai State, Tondo Dynasty (according to the Laguna Copperplate Inscription) and the Southern Luzon, It was also the spoken language of the Philippine Revolution. Filipino and Tagalog share the same vocabulary and grammatical system and are mutually intelligible. However, there is a significant political and social history that underlies the reasons for differentiating between Tagalog and Filipino. It has a writing system called Baybayin, a syllabary which is a member of the Brahmic family.

The current constitution of the Philippines maintains that Filipino is the country’s national language as well as one of its official languages, alongside English. Today, Filipino is considered the proper term for the language of the Philippines, especially by Filipino-speakers who are not of Tagalog origin. Many Filipino-speakers acknowledge Filipino’s roots by referring to the Filipino language as “Tagalog-based" Native Tagalog-speakers continue to make up one of the largest linguistic and cultural groups of the Philippines, numbering an estimated 14 million native speakers. The Tagalog-based Filipino language is taught in schools throughout the Philippines and is the official language of education and business. [7]

Maltese[edit]

Maltese has a variety of dialects (including the Żejtun dialect, Qormi dialect and Gozitan amongst others) that co-exist alongside Standard Maltese. Literary Maltese, unlike Standard Maltese, features a preponderance of Semitic vocabulary and grammatical patterns, however this traditional separation between Semitic and Romance influences in Maltese literature (especially Maltese poetry[8] and Catholic liturgy on the island) is changing.

N'Ko[edit]

N'Ko is a literary language devised by Solomana Kante in 1949 as a writing system for the Mande languages of West Africa. It blends the principal elements of the mutually unintelligible Manding languages. The movement promoting N'Ko literacy was instrumental in shaping the Maninka cultural identity in Guinea, and has also strengthened the Mande identity in other parts of West Africa.[9] N'Ko publications include a translation of the Qur'an, a variety of textbooks on subjects such as physics and geography, poetic and philosophical works, descriptions of traditional medicine, a dictionary, and several local newspapers.

Tamil[edit]

Tamil exhibits a strong diglossia, characterised by three styles: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language, a modern literary and formal style, and a modern colloquial form. These styles shade into each other, forming a diglossic continuum.[10]

The modern literary style is generally used in formal writing and speech. It is, for example, the language of textbooks, of much of Tamil literature and of public speaking and debate. Novels, even popular ones, will use the literary style for all description and narration and use the colloquial form only for dialogue, if they use it at all. In recent times, however, the modern colloquial form has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of the modern literary style: for instance most cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio.

Kannada[edit]

Kannada exhibits a strong diglossia, like Tamil, also characterised by three styles: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language, a modern literary and formal style, and a modern colloquial form. These styles shade into each other, forming a diglossic continuum.

The formal style is generally used in formal writing and speech. It is, for example, the language of textbooks, of much of Kannada literature and of public speaking and debate. Novels, even popular ones, will use the literary style for all description and narration and use the colloquial form only for dialogue, if they use it at all. In recent times, however, the modern colloquial form has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of the modern literary style: for instance most cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio.

There are also many dialects of Kannada, one major dialect being Dharwad Kannada of North Karnataka.

Yorùbá[edit]

Samuel Crowther's Yorùbá grammar led to Standard Yoruba becoming a literary language.
Main article: Standard Yoruba

Standard Yoruba is the literary form of the Yoruba language of West Africa, the standard variety learnt at school and that spoken by newsreaders on the radio. Standard Yoruba has its origin in the 1850s, when Samuel A. Crowther, native Yoruba and the first African Anglican Bishop in Nigeria, published a Yoruba grammar and started his translation of the Bible. Though for a large part based on the Ọyọ and Ibadan dialects, Standard Yoruba incorporates several features from other dialects.[11] Additionally, it has some features peculiar to itself only, for example the simplified vowel harmony system, as well as foreign structures, such as calques from English which originated in early translations of religious works. The first novel in the Yorùbá language was Ogboju Ode ninu Igbo Irunmale (The Forest of A Thousand Demons), written in 1938 by Chief Daniel O. Fagunwa (1903–1963). Other writers in the Yorùbá language include: Senator Afolabi Olabimtan (1932–1992) and Akinwunmi Isola.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ L. R. Palmer The Latin Language (repr. Univ. Oklahoma 1988, ISBN 0-8061-2136-X)
  2. ^ a b Matti Rissanen, History of Englishes: New Methods and Interpretations in Historical Linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 1992, p9. ISBN 3-11-013216-8
  3. ^ Elaine M. Treharne, Old and Middle English C.890-c.1400: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, pxxi. ISBN 1-4051-1313-8
  4. ^ Pat Rogers, The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature, Oxford University Press, 2001, p3. ISBN 0-19-285437-2
  5. ^ R.R.Mehrotra in Ofelia García, Ricardo Otheguy, English Across Cultures, Cultures Across English: A Reader in Cross-cultural Communication, Walter de Gruyter, 1989, p422. ISBN 0-89925-513-2
  6. ^ David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p104. ISBN 0-521-53033-4
  7. ^ http://www.alsintl.com/resources/languages/Tagalog/
  8. ^ LANGUAGE & LITERATURE>POETRY [aboutmalta.com]
  9. ^ Oyler, Dianne White (1994) Mande identity through literacy, the N'ko writing system as an agent of cultural nationalism. Toronto : African Studies Association.
  10. ^ Harold Schiffman, "Diglossia as a Sociolinguistic Situation", in Florian Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. London: Basil Blackwell, Ltd., 1997 at pp. 205 et seq.
  11. ^ Cf. for example the following remark by Adetugbọ (1967, as cited in Fagborun 1994:25): "While the orthography agreed upon by the missionaries represented to a very large degree the phonemes of the Abẹokuta dialect, the morpho-syntax reflected the Ọyọ-Ibadan dialects".

Bibliography[edit]

  • Crystal, David (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Cambridge, 2003) ISBN 0-521-53033-4
  • McArthur, Tom (ed.), The Oxford Companion to the English Language (Oxford, 1992), ISBN 0-19-280637-8
  • McArthur, Tom, The English Languages (Cambridge, 1998) ISBN 0-521-48582-7

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literary_language — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
927986 videos foundNext > 

Literary Language

Powerpoint presentation for Edu 290.

Figurative Language and other literary devices

My Animoto Video - created at http://animoto.com This is a student-made video for a language arts class. I do not own any pictures or the song. Sorry if the ...

English Language and Literature at Oxford University

Want to know more about studying at Oxford University? Watch this short film to hear tutors and students talk about this undergraduate degree. For more infor...

"The Origin of Kannada as a Literary Language," by U.R. Ananthamurthy

A talk by U.R. Ananthamurthy at Azim Premji University September 9, 2011 On September 9, 2011 as a part of APU Colloquium Series, Azim Premji University orga...

Literature and Language Advice for Students from Professor Ron Marken

Ron Marken Literature Professor Emeritus Department of English University of Saskatchewan 3M National Teaching Fellowship Winner.

Literary Devices in Pop Culture

This is a project for my English 7741 class. Thanks Paul and Andrew for volunteering your time to help me make this video!

Literary Elements Found in Songs.m4v

Examples of Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Alliteration, and Hyperbole are found while exploring quick clips of today's hit music.

Flocabulary - Figurative Language

Learn all about different kinds of figurative language with this Flocabulary song. See the lyrics and full lesson at http://flocabulary.com/figurative-language/

Figurative and Literary Language - Part 1

www.NeoEnglish.co.nr.

literary devices in songs

similes metaphors alliteration and personification in songs.

927986 videos foundNext > 

16 news items

 
Boston Globe
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 21:18:45 -0700

Like his predecessors, he treats Shakespeare's English as a grand summit of the literary language, which must be preserved through extremely traditional forms of education. He believes students should start memorizing Latin verbs at age 3. He even ...

Press TV

Press TV
Tue, 05 Aug 2014 10:15:00 -0700

Ferdowsi spent over three decades on the book that was written in Persian at a time when Arabic was the main scientific and literary language of Iran. The book composed of 55,000 couplets has been translated into several languages in the world ...
 
Marin Independent Journal
Sun, 24 Aug 2014 03:12:24 -0700

We will be able to discuss it at high levels, it will use literary language and it will probably contain complex world issues. Q: What are your goals during a book club meeting? A: That we come away from the meeting having engaged with both the book ...

Armenpress.am

Armenpress.am
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 01:35:41 -0700

The mystical poem "Book of Lamentations" has been translated into many languages and has played a significant role in the development of the Armenian literary language. In 95 grace-filled prayers St. Gregory draws on the exquisite potential of the ...

Asbarez Armenian News

Asbarez Armenian News
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 14:11:15 -0700

given us our literary language. We must explore the reasons for it and the forms of its historical advent. We must prove capable of changing direction and working our way back through all the historically sedimented layers between us and the initial ...
 
The Capital Journal
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 20:35:30 -0700

But he notes that Luther is also important historically for his contributions to launching German as a literary language and for his emphasis on literacy. “What I see as significant about Luther is, first of all, his desire for people to read,” Urbach ...
 
MBAUniverse.com
Sun, 24 Aug 2014 23:45:00 -0700

All the passages are rich in vocabulary and literary language. Another interesting feature with the RC passages is that they are inclined more toward philosophical thought, even if the contents were based on business and economy. Answers to the ...
 
STA - Slovenska Tiskovna Agencija (subscription)
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:37:30 -0700

The festival will also feature several round table debates, with the main event dubbed "From Language to Language", discussing the choice of literary language and identity and status of writers. Each year the festival also focuses on literature from a ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Literary language

You can talk about Literary language with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!