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This List of shell ring sites includes archaeological sites with confirmed and possible shell rings. Shell rings have been reported from Colombia, Peru, Japan, and the southeastern United States. Some sites have two or more shell rings, including some with two more or less equal rings joined together, or a main ring with smaller rings attached to it. About half of the sites with shell rings in the United States are in the Sea Islands of South Carolina, Georgia, and northeastern Florida.

Colombia[edit]

Japan[edit]

  • Aya-yashiki - Jōmon period circular shell mound.[2]
  • Futatsumori Shell Mound - Late Early to Middle Jōmon period horseshoe-shaped shell mound.[3]
  • Horinouchi shell mound site - Late to Latest Jōmon period horseshoe-shaped shell mound.[2][4]
  • Kasori - Two Middle to Late Jōmon period circular shell mounds.[5][6]
  • Kidosaku shellmound site - Middle to Late Jōmon period circular shell mound.[7]
  • Kotehashi Shell Mound - Late to Latest Jōmon period horseshoe-shaped shell mound.[8]
  • Kowashimizu - Jōmon period circular shell mound.[2]
  • Soya - Jōmon period horseshoe-shaped shell mound.[2]
  • Ubayama Kaizuka - Middle to Late Jōmon period horseshoe-shaped shell mound.[9]

United States[edit]

South Carolina Sea Islands[edit]

  • Auld Mound, or Yough Hall Plantation Shell Ring (38CH41) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).[10]
  • Barrows (38BU300) - Late Archaic shell ring.[11][12]
  • Bull Island (38BU475) - Shell ring of undetermined date.[13]
  • Buzzard's Island Site (38CH23) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[14]
  • Chester Field (38BU29) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[15]
  • Coosaw Island (38BU1866) - Four shell rings, two conjoined, at least three are Late Archaic.[16]
  • Crow Island (38CH60) - "C"-shaped mound, possible shell ring.[17]
  • Fig Island Site (38CH42) - Three Late Archaic shell rings, one with several attached rings, listed in NRHP, National Historic Landmark (NHL).
  • Guerard Point (38BU21) Reported as a ring in 1897, now completely leveled.[18]
  • Hanckel Mound, or Leadenwah Creek Mount (38CH7) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[19]
  • Horse Island (38CH14) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[20]
  • Lighthouse Point Shell Ring, or Parrot's Point Shell Ring (38CH12) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[21]
  • Patent (38BU301) - Late Archaic shell ring.[11][22]
  • Sea Pines (38BU7) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[23]
  • Sewee Mound (38CH45) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[24]
  • Skull Creek (38BU8) - Two conjoined Late Archaic shell rings, listed in NRHP.[25]
  • Stratton Place (38CH24) - Late Archaic shell ring.[26]

Georgia Sea Islands[edit]

  • Barbour Island (9MC320) - Late Archaic possible shell ring.[27]
  • Bony Hammock (9GN53) - Late Archaic possible shell ring.[28]
  • Busch Krick (9MC87)- Late Archaic shell ring, damaged.[29]
  • Cane Patch (9CH35) - Late Archaic possible shell ring, has been mined.[30]
  • Cannon's Point (9GN57) Late Archaic shell ring.[31]
  • Long Field Crescent/St. Catherines Island Shell Ring (9LI231) - Late Archaic shell ring, listed in NRHP.[32][33][34][35]
  • McQueen Shell Ring - Late Archaic shell ring.[33][36]
  • Odingsell (9CH111) - Late Archaic possible shell ring.[37]
  • Oemler (9CH14) - Late Archaic possible shell ring.[38]
  • Osabaw 77 (9CH203) - Late Archaic possible shell ring.[39]
  • Sapelo Island (9MC23) - Three Late Archaic shell rings, Sapelo 1 largely intact, Sapelo 2 heavily damaged, Sapelo 3 may represent either early stages in construction of a ring or a very heavily damaged ring.[40]
  • Skidaway Island
    • Large and Small Skidaway 9 (9CH63) Two shell rings, possibly pre-ceramic.[41]
    • Skidaway 21 (9CH75) - Possible shell ring.[42]
    • Skidaway (9CH77) - Late Archaic shell ring, highly modified.[43]
  • West (9GN76) - Late Archaic shell ring.[44]

Florida[edit]

Sea Islands[edit]

  • Grand Shell Ring (8DU1) - Early St. Johns II culture (900-1250) shell ring associated with a sand mound, listed in NRHP.[45]
  • Oxeye (8DU7478) - Late Archaic shell ring.[46]
  • Rollins (8DU7510) - Late Archaic large shell ring with many smaller rings attached.[47]

East Coast[edit]

  • Guana (8SJ2554) - Late Archaic shell ring.[48]
  • Joseph Reed (8MT13) - Late Archaic shell ring.[49]

Southwest[edit]

  • Bonita Bay (8LL716, 8LL717) - Shell ring with associated mound of uncertain date.[50]
  • Chokoloskee - Possible shell ring with associated shell works, destroyed by development.[51]
  • Dismal Key - Two Glades culture shell rings with associated shell works.[52]
  • Dismal Key Southeast Ring - Shell ring.[53]
  • Everglades City No. 7 - Two late Archaic/Glades culture shell rings.[54]
  • Everglades City No. 9 - Two late Archaic shell rings.[55]
  • Everglades City No. 10 - Two late Archaic shell rings.[56]
  • Everglades City South Ring - Glades culture shell ring.[57]
  • Fakahatchee Key - Two Glades culture shell rings with associated shell works.[58]
  • Fakahatchee Key 3 - Shell ring.[59]
  • Hill Cottage (8SO2) - Late Archaic shell ring.[60]
  • Horr's Island archaeological site (8CR206, 8CR207, 8CR208, 8CR209, 8CR211) - Late Archaic shell ring with associated mounds.[61]
  • Key Marco - Possible Glades culture shell ring with associated shell works, destroyed by development.[62]
  • Russell Key - Glades culture shell ring with associated shell works.[63]
  • Sandfly Key - Two late Archaic/Glades culture shell rings with associated shell works.[64]
  • Santina Horseshoe - Possible shell ring.[65]
  • West Pass - Possible shell ring (crescent shaped midden) with associated shell works.[66]

Panhandle[edit]

  • Bernath - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[67]
  • Buck Bayou (8WL90) - Late Archaic, possible shell ring, possible connections to Poverty Point.[68]
  • Fourmile Point - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[69]
  • Gulf Breeze - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[69]
  • Hammock Point - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[69]
  • Horseshoe Bayou - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[70]
  • Meig's Pasture (8OK102) Late Archaic ring, but little shell.[71]
  • Strange Bayou - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[69]
  • Third Gulf Breeze - Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture shell ring.[70]

Alabama[edit]

Mississippi[edit]

  • Cedarland (22HC30) - Late Archaic shell ring with a number of differences compared to Atlantic coast rings.[73]
  • Claiborne (22HC35) - Late Archaic shell ring with a number of differences compared to Atlantic coast rings.[74]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Hemmings, E. Thomas (1970). "Emergence of Formative Life on the Atlantic Coast of the Southeast". Research Manuscript Series, Book 6. University of South Carolina. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d Koike, Hiroko (1980). "Seasonal Dating by Growth-line Counting of the Clam, Meretrix lusoria Part II. Seasonality of Shell-collecting Activities in Prehistoric Japan I. Historical Review of Shell-Midden Studies in Japan". University of Tokyo. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  3. ^ "Futatsumori Shell Mound". Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  4. ^ "Horinouchi Shell Mound". City of Ichikawa. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  5. ^ Kawashima, Takamune (2010). "Mounds and rituals in the Jomon Period". Documenta Praehistorica. XXXVII: 185–192. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  6. ^ Naumann, Nelly (2000). Japanese Prehistory: The Material and Spiritual Culture of the Jōmon Period. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. p. 32. ISBN 3-447-04329-6. 
  7. ^ Koike, Hiroko. "Prehistoric Hunting Pressure and Paleobiomass: An Environmental Reconstruction and Archaeozoological Analysis of a Jomon Shellmound Area". Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  8. ^ "Kotehashi Shell Mound". Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "Ubayama Kaizuka (Shell Mound) Park". City of Ichikawa. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  10. ^ National Register:7
    • Russo 2006:130
  11. ^ a b "Daws Island Heritage Preserve". South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
  12. ^ Russo 2006: 71
  13. ^ Russo:122
  14. ^ "Buzzard's Island Shell Ring Heritage Preserve South Carolina". National Park Service. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    • National Register:7
    • Russo 2006:127
  15. ^ National Register:3
    • Russo 2006:117-18
  16. ^ Heide, Gregory and Michael Russo (2003). "Investigation of the Coosaw Island Shell Ring Complex (38BU1866)". National Park Service. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    • Russo 2006:74-77
  17. ^ Russo 2006:131
  18. ^ Russo:116
  19. ^ National Register:7
    • Russo 2006:123
  20. ^ National Register:7
    • Russo 2006:126
  21. ^ Trinkley, Michael (October 1975). "Preliminary Report of Archaeological Excavations at Lighthouse Point Shell Ring, South Carolina". Southern Indian Studies. XXVII: 1–36. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    • National Register:10
    • Russo 2006:124-25
  22. ^ Russo 2006:72-73
  23. ^ "The Indian Shell Ring in the Sea Pines Forest Preserve". Association of Sea Pines Plantation Property Owners. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
    • National Register:3
    • Russo 2006:68
  24. ^ Russo, Michael and Gregory Heide (2003). "Mapping the Sewee Shell Ring". National Park Service. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    • National Register:7
    • Russo 2006:83-84
  25. ^ National Register:3
    • Russo 2006:69-70
  26. ^ Trinkley, Michael (1984). "The Archaeology of Sol Legare Island, Charleston County, South Carolina". Chicora Foundation. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 
    • Russo 2006:128-29
  27. ^ Russo 2006:148
  28. ^ Russo 2006:144
  29. ^ Crusoe and DePratter:7-8
    • Russo 2006:147
  30. ^ Crusoe and DePratter:8-9, 10, 11
    • Russo 2006:138
  31. ^ Marrinan, Rochelle A. (1975). "Ceramics, Molluscs, and Sedentism: the Late Archaic Period on the Georgia Coast". University of Florida. 
    • Russo 2006:85-86
  32. ^ Russo 2006:146
  33. ^ a b Mahar, Ginessa. "The Bigger Picture: Using Landscape Archaeology to Better Understand Two Late Archaic Shell Rings on St. Catherines Island". The Society for Georgia Archaeology. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  34. ^ Cannarozzi, Nicole R. "Estimating the Season of Harvest of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from the St. Catherines Island Shell Ring (9Li231)". Florida Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  35. ^ Elliott, Daniel T. "Ground Penetrating Radar Reconnaissance on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia". The LAMAR Institute. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  36. ^ Thomas, David Hurst and Matthew C. Sanger. "Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happened in the Southeastern Archaic?". Retrieved 9 December 2011. 
  37. ^ Russo 2006:142
  38. ^ Russo 2006:135
  39. ^ Russo 2006:143
  40. ^ Russo 2006:88-93
  41. ^ Russo 2006:139
  42. ^ Russo 2006:140
  43. ^ Russo 2006:141
  44. ^ Russo 2006:87
  45. ^ Parsons, Alexandra (2008). "The Grand Shell Ring: A Study of Site Seasonality, Hard Clam Exploitation, and Resource Scheduling". Florida State University. p. 18. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
    Lee, Harry G. "Archaeology Team Really Digs Shells". Retrieved 8 December 2011. 
  46. ^ Russo 2006:96-97
  47. ^ Russo 2006:98-99
  48. ^ Russo, Michael, Gregory Heide, and Vicki Rolland. "The Guana Shell Ring". National Park Service. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
    • Russo 2006:102-03
  49. ^ Russo, Michael and Gregory Heide (June 2002). "The Joseph Reed Shell Ring". The Florida Anthropologist 55 (2). Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
    • Russo 2006:100-01
  50. ^ Russo 2006:145-50
  51. ^ Schwadron:154-56
  52. ^ Schwadron:134, 280
  53. ^ Schwadron:165-68
  54. ^ Schwadron:168-70, 280
  55. ^ Schwadron:170-72, 280
  56. ^ Schwadron:172-74, 280
  57. ^ Schwadron:280
  58. ^ Schwadron:130-31
  59. ^ Schwadron:162-64
  60. ^ Russo 2006:104-05
    "Historic Spanish Point". Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  61. ^ Russo 2006: 94-95
  62. ^ Widmer, Randolph J (1988). The Evolution of the Calusa: a Nonagricultuiral Chiefdom of the Southwest Florida Coast. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-8173-0358-8. 
    • Schwadron:149-52
  63. ^ Schwadron:140-41, 280
  64. ^ Schwadron:146-48, 280
  65. ^ Schwadron:122, 124
  66. ^ Schwadron:159-62
  67. ^ Bense:262 ff.
  68. ^ Russo 2006:153-54
  69. ^ a b c d Bense:260
  70. ^ a b Bense:258
  71. ^ Russo 2006:151-52
  72. ^ "Dauphin Island Shell Mounds". University of South Alabama - Center for Archaeological Studies. Archived from the original on 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  73. ^ Russo 2006:155-56
  74. ^ Russo 2006:157-58

References[edit]


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