Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work (called an opera) which combines a text (called a libretto) and a musical score. Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition. While the scale of opera can be larger or smaller - there are many different genres of opera - performance typically involves different types of artist (singers, instrumentalists and often dancers and actors) and technical staff. Usually an orchestra led by a conductor accompanies the singers. In contrast to spoken theatre, the opera world is international. German, French, Italian and English works are performed worldwide in their original languages, and artists travel from country to country performing.
The following is a list of articles on general opera topics:
- 1 Essence of opera
- 2 Opera in different national traditions
- 3 Operatic genres
- 4 History of opera
- 5 General opera concepts
- 6 People in opera
- 7 Other opera lists
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Essence of opera
- Main article: Opera
Opera in different national traditions
Operas have been written in a diversity of languages with many countries or regions developing their own operatic style, tradition and history.
- Italian opera - Opera in German - French opera - Opera in English - Polish opera - Russian opera - Hungarian opera - Armenian opera - Opera in Latin America - Opera in Venezuela - List of Mexican operas
- Main article: List of opera genres
Over the centuries, the original form of opera, as established by Claudio Monteverdi and his contemporaries, has diversified into distinct and recognisable genres, in addition to the national traditions listed above. These include, but are not limited to, the following.
- Azione teatrale
- Ballad opera
- Comédie en vaudeville
- Comédie mêlée d'ariettes
- Dramma giocoso
- Festa teatrale
- Género chico
- Grand Opera
- Music drama
- Opera buffa
- Opéra bouffe
- Opéra bouffon
- Opéra comique
- Opéra féerie
- Opera semiseria
- Opera seria
- Pastorale héroïque
- Romantische Oper
- Savoy opera
- Tragédie en musique
History of opera
- Main article: History of opera
General opera concepts
Participants in opera
The participants in an opera performance are similar to, but more specialized than those in other theatrical productions.
- Opera performers are at the same time both singers and actors, and often dancers as well. Other participants are:
- Audience - Conductor - Director (in the sense of stage director, not general manager or general director (often also called opera director) - Extra - Producer - Prompter - Répétiteur - Stage hand - Stage manager - Technician
Music concepts relevant to opera
- Composer - Libretto - Music - Musical composition - Voice type - Singing - Aria - Orchestra - Score - Sheet music
Theatre concepts relevant to opera
- Blocking - Curtain call - Prop (short for "theatrical property") - Rehearsal - Stage - Stagecraft (Technical theatre) - Theatrical scenery - Ticket
People in opera
Opera composers, librettists, directors
- List of major opera composers - an annotated compilation of the most frequently named composers on ten lists by opera experts.
- List of opera librettists - inclusive list of libretto writers.
- List of opera directors (in the sense of stage director, not general manager or general director (often also called opera director).
Opera singers categories
- Sopranos - Mezzo-sopranos - Contraltos - Countertenors - Tenors - Baritones - Bass-baritones - Basses
Other opera lists
- List of important operas - an annotated chronological list of operas which are included for their historical significance or widespread popularity (or both).
- The opera corpus - an extended list of more than 2,300 works by more than 720 composers.
- List of operas - an alphabetical list by title of operas with Wikipedia articles.
- List of opera genres
- List of opera houses - lists opera houses by name (or name of performing arts centres in which they are located, if appropriate and best known that way, e.g. Kennedy Center in Washington DC).
- List of important opera companies
- List of opera festivals
- Voice type, the classification of singers by the range, weight, and color of their voices
- Glossary of music terms - list of music topics, with definitions for ease of reference
- List of Orphean operas - list of operas dealing with the myth of Orpheus
- Some definitions of opera: dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century (Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
- Plotkin, Fred (1994). Opera 101: A Complete Guide to Learning and Loving Opera. Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8025-6.
- Silke Leopold, "The Idea of National Opera, c. 1800," Unity and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800, Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze (eds), Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 19-34; The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Stanley Sadie (ed), Grove's Dictionaries of Music, 1992, passim
- Apel, Willi (1968). Harvard Dictionary of Music: Second Edition. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-37501-7.
- Grout, Donald (2003). A Short History of Opera. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-11958-0.
- Sadie, Stanley (1992). The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522186-2.
- Boyden, Matthew (2007). The Rough Guide to Opera. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-538-6.
- Boldrey, Richard (1994). Guide to Operatic Roles and Arias. Caldwell Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-877761-64-5.
- Warrack, John and West, Ewan (1992), The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5
- Operabase - database for opera companies, artists, managers and performances
- OperaGlass - a resource at Stanford University including libretti, source texts, performance histories, synopses, discographies and lists of rôle creators.
- Operissimo - resource for composers and works as well as houses, companies and artists.