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People often use gestures during heated or tense arguments, such as at this political demonstration.

Gestures are a form of nonverbal communication in which visible bodily actions are used to communicate important messages, either in place of speech or together and in parallel with spoken words.[1] Gestures include movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body. Physical non-verbal communication such as purely expressive displays, proxemics, or displays of joint attention differ from gestures, which communicate specific messages.[1] Gestures are culture-specific and can convey very different meanings in different social or cultural settings.[2] Gesture is distinct from sign language. Although some gestures, such as the ubiquitous act of pointing, differ little from one place to another, most gestures do not have invariable or universal meanings but connote specific meanings in particular cultures. A single emblematic gesture can have very different significance in different cultural contexts, ranging from complimentary to highly offensive.[3]

This list includes links to Wikipedia pages that discuss particular gestures, as well as short descriptions of some gestures that do not have their own page.

Single hand gestures[edit]

Okay sign
  • A-ok or Okay, made by connecting the thumb and forefinger in a circle and holding the other fingers straight, may signal the word okay; especially as a diving signal. It is considered obscene in Latin America.[citation needed]
  • Abhayamudra is a Hindu Mudra or gesture of reassurance and safety.
  • Apology hand gesture is a Hindu custom to apologize in the form of a hand gesture with the right hand when a person's foot accidentally touches a book or any written material (which are considered as a manifestation of the goddess of knowledge Saraswati), money (which is considered as a manifestation of the goddess of wealth Lakshmi) or another person's leg. The offending person first touches the object with the finger tips and then the forehead and/or chest.[4]
  • Beckoning sign. In North America or Northern Europe a beckoning sign is made with the index finger sticking out of the clenched fist, palm facing the gesturer. The finger moves repeatedly towards the gesturer (in a hook) as to draw something nearer. It has the general meaning of "come here."[5] In Northern Africa (Maghreb), calling someone is done using the full hand.[6] In several Asian and European countries, a beckoning sign is made with a scratching motion with all four fingers and with the palm down.[7] In Japan, the palm faces the recipient with the hand at head's height.[8]
  • Bellamy salute was used in conjunction with the American Pledge of Allegiance prior to World War II.
  • Benediction and blessing. The benediction gesture (or benedictio latina gesture) is a raised right hand with the ring finger and little finger touching the palm, while the middle and index fingers remain raised. Taken from Ancient Roman iconography for speaking (an example is the Augustus of Prima Porta where the emperor Augustus assumes the pose of an orator in addressing his troops), often called the benediction gesture, is used by the Christian clergy to perform blessings with the sign of the cross; however Christians keep the thumb raised — the three raised fingers (index, middle, and thumb) are frequently allegorically interpreted as representing the three Persons of the Holy Trinity.[9]
  • Blah-blah. The fingers are kept straight and together, held horizontal or upwards, while the thumb points downwards. The fingers and thumb then snap together repeatedly to suggest a mouth talking. The gesture can be used to indicate that someone talks too much, gossips, is saying nothing of any consequence, or is boring.[10]
  • Check, please. This gesture, used to mean that a dinner patron wishes to pay the bill and depart, is executed by touching the index finger and thumb together and "writing" a checkmark, circle, or wavy line (as if signing one's name) in the air.[10]
Kennedy's gesture seen here with Nikita Khrushchev.
  • Clinton thumb. The gesture dubbed the "Clinton thumb" after one of its most famous users, Bill Clinton, is used by politicians to provide emphasis in speeches. This gesture has the thumb leaning against the thumb-side portion of the index finger, which is part of a closed fist, or slightly projecting from the fist. An emphatic, it does not exhibit the anger of the clenched fist or pointing finger, and so is thought to be less threatening.[11] This gesture was likely adopted by Clinton from John F. Kennedy, who can be seen using it in many speeches and images from his political career.[11]
  • Crossed fingers are used to superstitiously wish for good luck or to nullify a promise.
  • Cuckoo sign, touched or screw loose. In North America, making a circling motion of the index finger at the ear or side of the head signifies that the person "has a screw loose," i.e. is speaking nonsense or is crazy.[7][10]
  • Dap greeting is a form of handshake recently popularized in western cultures, related to the fist bump.
The "fig sign" is an ancient gesture with many uses.
  • Fig sign is a gesture made with the hand and fingers curled and the thumb thrust between the middle and index fingers, or, rarely, the middle and ring fingers, forming the fist so that the thumb partly pokes out. In some areas of the world[which?], the gesture is considered a good luck charm; in others (including Greece, Indonesia, Japan, Russia, Serbia and Turkey among others), it is considered an obscene gesture. The precise origin of the gesture is unknown, but many historians speculate that it refers to female genitalia. In ancient Greece, this gesture was a fertility and good luck charm designed to ward off evil. This usage has survived in Portugal and Brazil, where carved images of hands in this gesture are used in good luck talismans,.[10]
  • The finger, an extended middle finger with the back of the hand towards the recipient, is an obscene hand gesture used in much of Western culture.
  • Finger gun is a hand gesture in which the subject uses their hand to mimic a handgun. If pointed to oneself, it may indicate boredom or awkwardness; when pointed to another, it is interpreted as a threat of violence, either genuine or in jest.
  • Fist bump is similar to a handshake or high five which may be used as a symbol of respect.
  • Fist pump is a celebratory gesture in which a closed fist is raised before the torso and subsequently drawn down in a vigorous, swift motion.
  • Handshake is a greeting ritual in which two people grasp each other's hands and may move their grasped hands up and down.
  • High five is a celebratory ritual in which two people simultaneously raise one hand and then slap these hands together.
  • Hitchhiking gestures including sticking one thumb upward, especially in North America, or pointing an index finger toward the road elsewhere to request a ride in an automobile.
  • Horn sign is a hand gesture made by extending the index and little finger straight upward. It has a vulgar meaning in some Mediterranean Basin countries like Italy and is used in rock and roll, especially in heavy metal music.
The ILY sign, "I Love You"
  • ILY sign combines the letters 'I', 'L', and 'Y' from American Sign Language by extending the thumb, index finger, and little finger while the middle and ring finger touch the palm. It is an informal expression of love.[12]
  • Knocking on wood is a superstitious gesture used to ensure that a good thing will continue to occur after it has been acknowledged. However, it is sometimes used after speaking of a plausible unfortunate event, so that it does not actually occur.
  • Kodály hand signs are a series of visual aids used during singing lessons in the Kodály method.
  • Loser, made by extending the thumb and forefinger to resemble the letter L is an insulting gesture.
  • Money sign. The thumb rubs repeatedly over the tip of the index finger and middle finger. This gesture resembles the act of rubbing coins or bills together and is generally used when speaking about money.[10]
  • Moutza is a traditional insult gesture in Greece made by extending all five fingers toward the person being insulted.
  • Nazi salute or Hitler salute was used in Germany during World War II to indicate loyalty to Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.
  • Pitchfork or trident gesture is used at Arizona State University athletic events. It is made by extending the index, middle, and little fingers.
  • Pointing with index finger may be used to indicate an item or person.[7]
a man pointing at a photo
Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme.
  • Pollice verso was a gesture supposedly used in Ancient Rome to pass judgment on gladiators with one's thumb.
  • Raised fist is a salute and logo most often used by leftist activists.
  • Respect is a gesture made by extending the index, middle, and ring fingers of one hand at another person with the middle finger raised slightly higher than the index and ring fingers. It is used in restricted circle as a sign of respect and approval.
  • The Ring is an Italian gesture used in conversation to delineate precise information, or emphasize a specific point. It is made similarly to the A-Ok sign, but the ring made by the thumb and forefinger is on top with the palm facing medially. The arm moves up and down at the elbow. If more emphasis is needed both hands will make the gesture simultaneously with the palms facing one another.[13]
  • Roman salute is a salute made by a small group of people holding their arms outward with finger tips touching. It was adopted by the Italian Fascists and likely inspired the Hitler salute.
  • Salute refers to a number of gestures used to display respect, especially among armed forces.
  • Scout handshake is a left-handed handshake used as a greeting among members of various Scouting organizations.
  • Shaka sign consists of extending the thumb and little finger upward. It is used as a gesture of friendship in Hawaii and surf culture.
  • Shocker is a hand gesture with a sexual connotation. The ring finger and thumb are curled or bent down while the other fingers are extended.
  • The so-so gesture expresses mild dissatisfaction. The hand is held parallel to the ground (face down) and rocked slightly.[14][better source needed]
  • Talk to the hand is an English language slang expression of contempt popular during the 1990s. The associated hand gesture consists of extending a palm toward the person insulted.
  • Telephone. Thumb and little outstretched, other fingers tight against palm. Thumb to ear and little finger to mouth as though they were a telephone receiver. Used to say, "I'll call you," or may be used to request a future telephone conversation or to tell someone of a call.[15]
  • Three-finger salute (Serbian) is a salute used by ethnic Serbs, made by extending the thumb, index, and middle fingers.
Thumb up
  • Thumbs Up and Thumbs Down are common gestures of approval or disapproval made by extending the thumb upward or downward.
  • Two-finger salute is a salute made using the middle and index fingers. It is used by Polish Armed Forces and by Cub Scouts.
  • United Macedonia salute is a salute used by some nationalist Ethnic Macedonians. It resembles the A-Ok gesture.
  • V sign or Victory hand is made by raising the index and middle fingers and separating them to form a V, usually with the palm facing outwards. This sign began to be used during World War II to indicate "V for Victory". In the 1960s, the hippie-movement began to use the V-sign to mean "peace", especially in the United States. It is also used in most coastal east Asian nations, in either orientation, as an indication of cuteness when being photographed. Examples are China,[16] Japan,[17] South Korea,[18] Taiwan[19] and Thailand.[20]
  • V sign as an insult is made by raising the index finger and middle finger separated to form a V with the back of the hand facing outwards. This is an offensive gesture in the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland.[21]
  • Varadamudra is a mudra for dispensing boons. It is made with all fingers of the left hand pointing downward.
  • Vulcan salute was used in the television program Star Trek. It consists of all fingers raised and parted between the ring and middle fingers with the thumb sticking out to the side.
  • Wanker gesture is made by curling the fingers into a loose fist and moving the hand up and down as though masturbating. The gesture has the same meaning as the British slang insult, "wanker", or might indicate a failure or waste in other countries.
Waving
  • Wave is a gesture in which the hand is raised and moved left and right, as a greeting or sign of departure.
  • World's Smallest Violin (also called "How Sad" or "World's Smallest Violin Playing Hearts and Flowers") is made by rubbing the thumb and forefinger together, to imitate bowing a violin. This gesture is used to express sarcasm and lack of sympathy, in response to someone exaggerating a sad story or unfair treatment.
  • Zogist salute is a military salute instituted by Zog I of Albania.

Two-hand gestures[edit]

  • Air quotes are made by raising both hands to eye level and flexing the index and middle fingers of both hands while speaking. Their meaning is similar to that of scare quotes in writing.
  • Añjali Mudrā is a sign of respect among yoga practitioners. It is made by pressing the palms together.
  • Applause is an expression of approval made by clapping the hands together to create noise.
  • Awkward turtle is a two handed gesture, invented by the United States Air Force,[22] used to mark a moment as awkward. One hand is placed flat atop the other with both palms facing down, fingers extended outward from the hand and thumbs stuck out to the sides. The thumbs are rotated to symbolize flippers.[23]
  • Batsu. In Japanese culture, the batsu (literally: ×-mark) is a gesture made by crossing one's arms in the shape of an "X" in front of them in order to indicate that something is "wrong" or "no good".[24]
  • Bras d'honneur is an obscene gesture made by flexing one elbow while gripping the inside of the bent arm with the opposite hand
  • Chironomia refers to the use of gestures to support oratory.
  • The Kohanic or Priestly Blessing - a gesture of benediction in Judaism, used (especially by those of Kohanic or priestly descent) when reciting the Priestly Blessing (Number 6: 22-26). Both hands are held up, palms toward the congregation, with the fingers grouped in twos - the little and ring fingers together, the index and second fingers together, and the tips of the two thumbs touching.
  • Forefinger Rub — pointing one index finger at a person and rubbing the other against it — conveys the meaning "shame on you" and is usually performed when the other person has done something shameful or inappropriate.[citation needed]
  • Hand-rubbing, rubbing both hands together, indicates either one feels cold or one is expecting or anticipating something.
  • Jazz hands are used in dance or other performances by displaying the palms of both hands with fingers splayed.
    Jazz hands
  • Mani Giunte is an Italian gesture used when expressing exasperation or disbelief by putting both palms together in prayer and moving them down and back up towards your chest repeatedly. Also known as the "Mother of God."[13]
  • Mano a borsa is an Italian gesture, used when something is unclear. It is created by extending all the digits on the hand bringing them together with palms facing up and moving the hand up and down by the action of the wrist and/or elbow. It implies a question, such as "what do you want?", "what are you saying?" or "what is your point?", and it generally requires a response. This gesture can be done with either hand or both hands.[13]
The Merkel-Raute
  • Merkel-Raute: Described as "probably one of the most recognisable hand gestures in the world", the signature gesture of Angela Merkel has become a political symbol used by both her supporters and opponents.[25]
  • Quenelle: The gesture created by French comedian Dieudonné M'Bala M'Bala was often associated with anti-Zionism or antisemitic sentiments. Its is compared to the bras d'honneur and the Nazi salute. It is made by touching the shoulder of an outstretched arm with the palm of the other hand.[26]
  • Twiddle the thumbs, interlacing fingers and rotating thumbs around each other to indicate boredom, time wasting, lack of productive activity.
  • Victory clasp is used to exclaim victory by clasping the hands together and shaking them to one's side.
  • Whatever - made with the thumb and forefinger of both hands, to form the letter "W". Used to signal that something is not worth the time and energy. Popularized by the movie Clueless.[27]

Gestures made with other body parts[edit]

  • Air kiss, conveys meanings similar to kissing, but is performed without making bodily contact
  • Akanbe, performed by pulling a lower eyelid down to expose the red underneath, often while also sticking out one's tongue, and is a childish insult in Japanese culture
  • Anasyrma, performed by lifting the skirt or kilt; used in some religious rituals
  • Biting the thumb, an old rude Italian gesture comparable to "the finger" in modern terms; in William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet, Capulet's servant Sampson precipitates a brawl by biting his thumb at the Montague's servant Abraham (Act 1, Scene 1)[28][better source needed] In the scene, it appears that biting one's thumb in Verona is a non-verbal equivalent of fighting words. Sampson explains the meaning of the gesture to his companion Gregory, suggesting that the gesture could have been unfamiliar even to the original audience of the play. The play does not describe the gesture in detail, but in performances of the play it is often enacted by placing the thumb upright (as in a "thumbs up" sign) just behind the upper incisors, then flicking the thumb outward in the direction of person the gesture is meant to insult. The gesture implies cowardice—someone who would "take the fig".[citation needed] The gesture is also a traditional Sicilian insult meaning 'to hell with you'.[citation needed]
  • Blowing a raspberry or Bronx cheer, signifies derision by sticking out the tongue and blowing to create a sound similar to flatulence
  • Blow job, made by curling the fingers into a loose fist and moving the hand back and forth in front of the mouth, while the lips make a rounded "o" shape, as though performing fellatio; usually enhanced with the tongue pricking the inner wall of the cheek; considered lewd or obscene and depends on the context, implies different things linked to fellatio, such as informing somebody that someone is performing actual oral sex, offering one, asking one, as a taunting gesture to insult someone as male homosexual, or as an indication of "sucking up"[29][better source needed][30][better source needed]
  • Bowing, lowering the torso or head; a show of respect in many cultures
  • Cheek kissing, pressing one's lips to another person's cheek, may show friendship or greeting
  • Curtsey, a greeting typically made by women, performed by bending the knees while bowing the head
  • Cut-eye, gesture of condemnation in Jamaica and some of North America [31]
  • Davai vyp’yem (Russian drinking sign), the index finger is flicked against the side of the neck, just below the jaw.[32]
  • Dhyanamudra, sitting with both hands in the lap; signifies concentration
  • Duck lips pursed lips gestures often made for photographs and growing in popularity and notoriety since around 2005
  • Elbow bump, a greeting similar to the handshake or fist bump made by touching elbows
  • Eskimo kissing, a gesture in Western cultures loosely based on an Inuit greeting, performed by two people touching noses
  • Eyebrow raising. In Marshall Islands culture, briefly raising the eyebrows is used to to acknowledge the presence of another person or to signal assent.[33] Eyebrow flash is used for various meanings in other settings as well.
  • Eye-roll, performed by rotating the eyes upward and back down; can indicate incredulity, contempt, boredom, frustration, or exasperation; can be performed unconsciously or consciously; occurs in many countries of the world, and is especially common among adolescents[10]
Facepalm
  • Facepalm, an expression of frustration or embarrassment made by raising the palm of the hand to the face[34]
  • Genuflection, a show of respect by bending at least one knee to the ground
  • Hand-kissing, a greeting made by kissing the hand of a person worthy of respect
  • Hat tip or doff, a salutation or show of respect made by two people removing their hats
  • Hongi, a traditional Māori greeting in New Zealand, performed by pressing one's nose and forehead (at the same time) to another person.
  • Kowtow, shows respect by bowing deeply and touching one's head to the ground
  • Mooning, a show of disrespect by displaying one's bare buttocks
  • Mudra, ritual gestures in Hinduism or Buddhism
  • Nod, tilting the head up and down that usually indicates assent in Western Europe, North America, and the Indian subcontinent, among other places but a nod also means the opposite in other places, such as Bulgaria[35]
  • Orant, a gesture made during prayer in which the hands are raised with palms facing outward
  • Puppy face, tilting the head down with eyes looking up, like a puppy; has a number of uses
  • Putting a slightly cupped hand, with palm down, under the chin and then flicking the fingers out (usually once or twice), a common gesture in Italy for expressing indifference; became the center of a controversy in March 2006, when United States Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonin Scalia was photographed allegedly making the gesture to illustrate his response to his critics; a Boston Herald reporter misinterpreted it as "obscene" but Scalia later explained that he merely meant "I couldn't care less."[36]
  • Shrug, lifting both shoulders indicates lack of knowledge or concern
  • Sampeah, a Cambodian greeting or gesture of respect made by lining up the palms and fingers together while bowing
  • Scout sign and salute, the use of the three-finger salute by Scout and Guide organizations
  • Shush, the index finger of one hand is extended and placed vertically in front of the lips, with the remaining fingers curled toward the palm with the thumb forming a fist; used to demand or request silence from those to whom it is directed[37]
  • Sign of the Cross, used in many Christianity rituals, consists of drawing the shape of a cross over one's body or in the air
  • Suck-teeth, gesture in West Indies also known as stiups signalling disagreement or annoyance[38]
  • Thai greeting, or wai, shows respect or reverence by pressing the palms and fingers together
The "cut-throat" or throat slash sign
  • Throat slash, made by moving one's index finger, thumb or entire hand, held straight and with palm down, horizontally across one's throat; the gesture imitates cutting a person's throat with a blade, indicating strong disapproval, extreme anger, or displeasure with others or with oneself;[10] alternatively, it can be a signal to stop broadcasting, i.e. "cut"
  • Thumbing the nose (also known as Anne's Fan or Queen Anne's Fan[39] and sometimes referred to as cocking a snook),[40] a sign of derision in Britain made by putting the thumb on the nose, holding the palm open and perpendicular to the face, and wiggling the remaining fingers,[5] often combined with sticking out the tongue. In a two-handed version each thumb is placed in or slightly in front of the ears, the palms are open and facing forward, and the rest of the fingers wiggle. Another two-handed versions consists in putting the second hand in the same way as the first. In this case, the thumb of the second hand rests on the edge of the first, below the smallest finger, and approximately at the same level as the nose.
  • Tongue click and upward head tilt, negative response in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria
  • Twisting the cheek, thumb and forefinger are placed against the cheek, and a screwing motion, as if making a dimple, is made by twisting the wrist; in Italian culture, this mean that something is delicious; in Germany, the gesture can be used to suggest that someone is crazy[5]
  • Zemnoy poklon or "great bow", used in some Eastern Orthodox Christian rituals, consists of bowing deeply and lowering one's head to the ground

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kendon, Adam (2004). Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83525-9. 
  2. ^ Morris, Desmond; Collett, Peter; Marsh, Peter; O'Shaughnessy, Marie (1979). Gestures, Their Origins and Distribution. London: Cape. ISBN 0-224-01570-2. 
  3. ^ Kendon, Adam (1994). "Human gestures". In K.R. Gibson and T. Ingold. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  4. ^ de Bruyn, Pippa; Bain, Keith; Allardice, David; Joshi, Shonar (2010). Frommer's India. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-64580-2. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c McNeill, David (1992). Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal About Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  6. ^ Strubbe, Kevin; Hobert, Liesbeth (2009). Etiquette in Het Buitenland. Leuven: Van Halewijck. 
  7. ^ a b c Gary Imai. "Gestures: Body Language and Nonverbal Communication". Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  8. ^ Mark Schumacher. "Maneki Neko: The Lucky Beckoning Cat". 
  9. ^ Lowrie, Walter (1906). Monuments of the Early Church. London: Macmillan. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Armstrong, Nancy; Wagner, Melissa (2003). Field Guide to Gestures: How to Identify and Interpret Virtually Every Gesture Known to Man. Philadelphia: Quirk Books. 
  11. ^ a b Mankiewicz, Josh (7 November 2006). "For politicians, the gesture's the thing: 'The Clinton thumb' has become a bipartisan weapon in Washington". MSNBC.com. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  12. ^ "American Sign Language Browser". Communication Technology Laboratory. Michigan State University. Retrieved 9 July 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c Kendon, Adam (1995). "Gestures as illocutionary and discourse structure markers in Southern Italian conversation". Journal of Pragmatics 23: 247–279. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  14. ^ Hodgdon, Barbara (2005). A companion to Shakespeare and performance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. ISBN 1405150238. 
  15. ^ Haviland, John B. (2005). "Gesture as cultural and linguistic practice". In Anita Sujoldzic. Linguistic Anthropology, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Oxford: EOLSS Publishers. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  16. ^ "British-born Chinese blog: Why do we make V signs in photographs?". 
  17. ^ "The Japanese Version (the Sign of Peace)". Icons. A Portrait of England. Archived from the original on 10-01-2007. 
  18. ^ "Koreans and the mysterious V sign". 
  19. ^ "Forumosa. Peace sign=photo sign, since when?". 
  20. ^ "Thai Girls Photo Pose ~ Pattaya Unlimited". 
  21. ^ Partridge, Eric; Dalzell, Tom; Victor, Terry (2008). The Concise New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. p. 683. ISBN 0-203-96211-7. 
  22. ^ https://www.chscommunicator.com/tag/awkward-turtle
  23. ^ Leber, Jessica (15 April 2008). "Do the Awkward Turtle". Columbia News Service. Columbia Journalism School. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  24. ^ Ishida, Toru; Fussell, Susan R.; Vossen, Piek (2007). Intercultural Collaboration: First International Workshop, IWIC 2007, Kyoto, Japan, January 25–26, 2007: Invited and Selected Papers. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-73999-8. 
  25. ^ "'Merkel diamond' takes centre stage in German election campaign". The Guardian. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  26. ^ "'Who, What, Why: What is the quenelle gesture?'". Retrieved 30 December 2013. 
  27. ^ Nick Paumgarten. "Whatever". New Yorker. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  28. ^ Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. 
  29. ^ Kristie Allie - Does a Blowjob Gesture with Her Hands
  30. ^ Should James Wisniewski be suspended for his lewd gesture toward Sean Avery?
  31. ^ Cut-Eye and Suck-Teeth: African Words and Gestures in New World Guise. John R. Rickford and Angela E. Rickford. The Journal of American Folklore, 89: 353 (1976), pp. 294-309
  32. ^ "Russian gestures". The Guardian. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 2013-2-19. 
  33. ^ CultureGrams - Republic of the Marshall Islands
  34. ^ Vichot, Ray (2009). "Doing it for the lulz?": Online Communities of Practice and Offline Tactical Media (Master of Science in Digital Media thesis). Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2010-03-11. 
  35. ^ Christopher Deliso, Saying Yes and No in the Balkans, retrieved 2011-05-23 
  36. ^ The Associated Press (29 March 2006). "Justice Scalia Chastises Boston Newspaper". Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  37. ^ Roberts, Ann; Avril Harpley (2007). Helping Children to be Competent Learners. London: Routledge. 
  38. ^ Cut-Eye and Suck-Teeth: African Words and Gestures in New World Guise John R. Rickford and Angela E. Rickford. The Journal of American Folklore, 89: 353 (1976), pp. 294-309
  39. ^ Shipley, Joseph Twadell (2001). The Origins of English Words: A Discursive Dictionary of Indo-European Roots (reprint ed.). Baltimore: JHU Press. p. 302. ISBN 0-8018-6784-3. Retrieved 8 August 2009. 
  40. ^ Cambridge University Press (2006). Cambridge Idioms Dictionary (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-86037-7. 

External links[edit]


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