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There are 24 High Courts at the state and union territory level of India which, together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system. Each High Court has jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. Below the High Courts is a hierarchy of subordinate courts such as the civil courts, family courts, criminal courts and various other district courts. High Courts are instituted as constitutional courts under Part VI, Chapter V, Article 214 of the Indian Constitution.
The High Courts are the principal civil courts of original jurisdiction in each state and union territory. However, a High Court exercises its original civil and criminal jurisdiction only if the subordinate courts are not authorized by law to try such matters for lack of pecuniary, territorial jurisdiction. High courts may also enjoy original jurisdiction in certain matters if so designated specifically in a state or federal law.
However, the work of most High Courts primarily consists of appeals from lower courts and writ petitions in terms of Article 226 of the constitution. Writ jurisdiction is also original jurisdiction of High Court. The precise territorial jurisdiction of each High Court varies. The appeal order is the following: tehsil-kotwali-criminal/civil courts - district - high court - supreme court.
Each state is divided into judicial districts presided over by a District and Sessions Judge. He is known as a District Judge when he presides over a civil case, and a Sessions Judge when he presides over a criminal case. He is the highest judicial authority below a High Court judge. Below him, there are courts of civil jurisdiction, known by different names in different states. Under Article 141 of the Constitution, all courts in India (which includes High Courts) are bound by the judgments and orders of the Supreme Court of India by precedence.
Judges in a High Court are appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the governor of the state. High Courts are headed by a Chief Justice. The Chief Justices are ranked fourteenth (in their state) and seventeenth (outside their state) in the Indian order of precedence. The number of judges in a court is decided by dividing the average institution of main cases during the last five years by the national average, or the average rate of disposal of main cases per judge per year in that High Court, whichever is higher.
The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in the country, established on 2 July 1862. High Courts that handle a large number of cases of a particular region have permanent benches established there. Benches are also present in states which come under the jurisdiction of a court outside its territorial limits. Smaller states with few cases may have circuit benches established. Circuit benches (known as circuit courts in some parts of the world) are temporary courts which hold proceedings for a few selected months in a year. Thus cases built up during this interim period are judged when the circuit court is in session.
The following are the 24 High Courts of India sorted by name, year established, Act by which it was established, jurisdiction, headquarters, benches, and the maximum number of judges sanctioned.
|Court name||Established||Act established||Jurisdiction||Seat||Benches||Jud.||Chief Justice|
|Allahabad High Court||11 June 1866||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Uttar Pradesh||Allahabad||Lucknow||95||Hon'ble Justice Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud|
|High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad||5 July 1954||Andhra State Act, 1953||Andhra Pradesh, Telangana state||Hyderabad||39||Hon'ble Justice Kalyan Jyoti Sengupta|
|Bombay High Court||14 August 1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu||Mumbai||Nagpur, Panaji, Aurangabad||60||Hon'ble Justice Mohit Shantilal Shah|
|Calcutta High Court||2 July 1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||West Bengal, Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Kolkata||Port Blair (circuit bench)||63||Hon'ble Justice Arun Kumar Mishra|
|Chhattisgarh High Court||11 January 2000||Madhya Pradesh Re-organisation Act, 2000||Chhattisgarh||Bilaspur||12||Hon'ble Justice Yatindra Singh|
|Delhi High Court||31 October 1966||Delhi High Court Act, 1966||National Capital Territory of Delhi||New Delhi||43||Hon'ble Justice G. Rohini|
|Gauhati High Court||1 March 1948||Government of India Act, 1935||Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram||Guwahati||Kohima, Aizwal, Itanagar||27||Hon'ble Justice Abhay Manohar Sapre|
|Gujarat High Court||1 May 1960||Bombay Reorgansisation Act, 1960||Gujarat||Ahmedabad||42||Hon'ble Justice Bhaskar Bhattacharya|
|Himachal Pradesh High Court||1971||State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970||Himachal Pradesh||Shimla||09||Hon'ble Justice Mansoor Ahmad Mir (acting)|
|Jammu and Kashmir High Court||28 August 1943||Letters Patent issued by the Maharaja of Kashmir||Jammu & Kashmir||Srinagar & Jammu||14||Hon'ble Justice Mahesh Mittal Kumar|
|Jharkhand High Court||15 November 2000||Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000||Jharkhand||Ranchi||12||Hon'ble Justice Smt. R. Banumathi|
|Karnataka High Court||1884||Mysore High Court Act, 1884||Karnataka||Bengaluru||Circuit Benches at Hubli-Dharwad & Gulbarga||40||Hon'ble Chief Justice D.H. Waghela|
|Kerala High Court||1956||States Reorganisation Act, 1956||Kerala, Lakshadweep||Kochi||40||Hon'ble Justice Smt. Manjula Chellur|
|Madhya Pradesh High Court||2 January 1936||Government of India Act, 1935||Madhya Pradesh||Jabalpur||Gwalior, Indore||42||Hon'ble Justice Ajay M. Khanwilkar|
|Madras High Court||15 August 1862||Indian High Courts Act 1861||Tamil Nadu, Puducherry||Chennai||Madurai||47||Hon'ble Justice Satish K. Agnihotri (acting)|
|Manipur High Court||25 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Manipur,||Imphal||03||Hon'ble Justice L.K. Mohapatra (acting)|
|Meghalaya High Court||25 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Meghalaya,||Shillong||03||Hon'ble Justice Prafulla Chandra Pant|
|Orissa High Court||3 April 1948||Orissa High Court Order, 1948||Odisha||Cuttack||27||Hon'ble Justice Adarsh Kumar Goel|
|Patna High Court||2 September 1916||Government of India Act, 1915||Bihar||Patna||43||Hon'ble Justice Ms. Justice Rekha Doshit|
|Punjab and Haryana High Court||8 November 1947||High Court (Punjab) Order, 1947||Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh||Chandigarh||53||Hon'ble Justice Sanjay Kishan Kaul|
|Rajasthan High Court||21 June 1949||Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949||Rajasthan||Jodhpur||Jaipur||40||Hon'ble Justice Amitava Roy|
|Sikkim High Court||16 May 1975||The 36th Amendment to the Indian Constitution||Sikkim||Gangtok||03||Hon'ble Justice Narendra Kumar Jain|
|Tripura High Court||26 March 2013||North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012||Tripura||Agartala||04||Hon'ble Justice Deepak Gupta|
|Uttarakhand High Court||9 November 2000||Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000||Uttarakhand||Nainital||09||Hon'ble Justice Barin Ghosh|
High Courts by state/ union territory
Courts under High Court
- District Courts of India
- District Munsiff Court
- Courts of Judicial Magistrate of First Class
- Courts of Judicial Magistrate of Second Class
Notes and Citations
- "Indian Courts". Archived from the original on 21 Jul 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- Originally known established at Agra, it shifted to Allahabad in 1875.
- Lahore High Court was established on 21 March 1919 and had jurisdiction over undivided Punjab and Delhi. On 11 August 1947 a separate High Court of Punjab was created with its seat at Simla under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, which had jurisdiction over Punjab, Delhi and present Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. In 1966 after the reorganisation of the State of Punjab, the High Court was designated as the High Court of Punjab and Haryana. The Delhi High Court was established on 31 October 1966 with its seat at Simla.
- Originally known as the High Court of Assam and Nagaland, it was renamed as Gauhati High Court in 1971 by the North East Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971.
- Srinagar is the summer capital; Jammu is the winter capital.
- Originally known as Mysore High Court, it was renamed as Karnataka High Court in 1974.
- The High Court of Travancore-Cochin was inaugurated at Kochi on 7 July 1949. The state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. That Act abolished the Travancore-Cochin High Court and created the Kerala High Court. The Act also extended the jurisdiction of the Kerala High Court to Lakshadweep.
- Under the Government of India Act, 1935, a High Court was established at Nagpur for the Central Provinces by Letters Patent dated 2 January 1936. After the reorganization of states, this High Court was moved to Jabalpur in 1956.
- Originally known as Punjab High Court, it was renamed as Punjab and Haryana High Court in 1966.
- "Jurisdiction and Seats of Indian High Courts". Eastern Book Company. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Judge strength in High Courts increased". Press Information Bureau–Govt. of India. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Judiciary". Supreme Court of India. Retrieved 2 September 2005.
- "Constitution of India". Wikisource. Retrieved 31 December 2005.
- "Soon, High Courts in 3 northeastern States". Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- "New chief justice of Delhi high court to assume charge on Wednesday". Retrieved 6 November 2012.
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