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This is a list of Brazilian scientists, those born in Brazil or who have established citizenship or residency there.
- Adib Jatene, heart surgeon
- Adolfo Lutz, physician and pioneer of public health
- Adolpho Ducke, Croatian-Brazilian biologist; zoologist; entomologist; botanist
- Alberto Santos-Dumont, aviator and inventor.
- Alexander Kellner, Liechtensteinian/Brazilian paleontologist.
- André Rebouças (1838–1898), pioneer engineer, brother of Antônio Rebouças Filho.
- Ângelo Moreira da Costa Lima (1887–1964), Brazilian; doctor; entomologist.
- Aristides Leão, physician and physiologist, discovered Leão's depression, a phenomenon of nervous tissue
- Aziz Ab'Saber - geographer; geologist; ecologist recognized for the Theory of Refuges and Amazon studies. Former president of the SBPC.
- Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Brazilian Catholic priest, pioneer of aviation, the inventor of the balloon, he became known as the "flying priest"
- Carlos Augusto Bertulani, Brazilian physicist.
- Carlos Chagas Filho, physician and physiologist, former presidente of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, former president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Son of Carlos Chagas.
- Carlos Chagas, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; public health worker
- Carlos Paz de Araújo, Brazilian scientist and inventor, he holds nearly 600 patents in the area of nanotechnology
- Celso Furtado, noted economist and ideologue of economy of developing nations
- César Lattes, experimental physicist, co-discoverer of the pion, a type of subatomic particle, first president of the Brazilian National Research Council
- Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Brazilian biologist; biochemist
- Domingos Soares Ferreira Penna, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; naturalist
- Eduardo Krieger, physician and physiologist, former president of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences
- Emmanuel Dias-Neto, Brazilian biologist and geneticist; described the sequencing methodology ORESTES
- Émil Göldi, Swiss-Brazilian biologist; zoologist; naturalist
- Ennio Candotti, physicist and scientific leader
- Euryclides Zerbini, heart surgeon, pioneer of first heart transplant in Brazil
- Evandro Chagas, physician and biomedical scientist specialized in tropical medicine. Son of Carlos Chagas.
- Fernando Flávio Marques de Almeida, Brazilian geologist
- Fernando Henrique Cardoso, sociologist and former President
- Florestan Fernandes (1920–1995), father of Brazilian sociology
- Fritz Müller, German-Brazilian biologist; zoologist; botanist; naturalist; entomologist
- Gauss Moutinho Cordeiro, Brazilian mathematician and statistician
- Gilberto Freyre (1900–1987), historiographer and sociologist
- Gilberto Righi, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; specialist on earthworms
- Helmut Sick, German-Brazilian biologist; zoologist; ornithologist
- Henrique da Rocha Lima was a Brazilian physician, pathologist and infectologist, he discovered Rickettsia prowazekii, the pathogen of epidemic typhus
- Hércules Florence, pioneer of photography
- Ivan Izquierdo, physician and neuroscientist. Discovered neural mechanisms of memory
- Jacob Palis, mathematician of international fame, current president of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences
- Jacques Hüber, Swiss-Brazilian biologist; botanist
- Jayme Tiomno, experimental and theoretical nuclear physicist
- Jean Paul Jacob, Brazilian electronic engineer, researcher and professor, research manager at the Almaden IBM Research Center, California
- Jorge Stolfi, computer scientist, professor at UNICAMP
- José Aristodemo Pinotti, physician and gynecologist, former president of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics
- José Cândido de Melo Carvalho, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; entomologist
- José Goldemberg, physicist, former Minister of Science & Technology and Dean of the University of São Paulo
- José Leite Lopes, theoretical physicist
- José Lutzenberger (1926–2002), ecologist and zoologist
- José Márcio Ayres, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; primatologist
- José Reis, biologist, greatest Brazilian science writer
- Lotar Siewerdt, Brazilian agronomist; forage production
- Manuel de Abreu, physician, inventor of abreugraphy (mass radiography of the lungs for screening tuberculosis)
- Manuel Augusto Pirajá da Silva, he was responsible for the identification and complete description of the pathogenic agent and the pathophysiological cycle of Schistosomiasis disease
- Marcelo Gleiser, physicist, writer and professor of physics and astronomy at the Dartmouth College since 1991
- Marcia Barbosa, Brazilian physicist
- Marcos Pontes, first Brazilian astronaut, Expedition 13
- Mário Schenberg, theoretical physicist
- Maurício Rocha e Silva, physician and pharmacologist, discovered bradykinin, an active cardiovascular peptide
- Maurício Peixoto, he was a Brazilian engineer who pursued a bright career as a mathematician, he pioneered the studies on structural stability, and is the author of Peixoto's theorem.
- Mayana Zatz, biologist and geneticist
- Miguel Nicolelis, neuroscientist, one of Scientific American's best scientists of 2004
- Milton Santos (1926–2001), geographer, he won the Vautrin Lud International Geography Prize- the highest award that can be gained in the field of geography.
- Newton da Costa (1929), mathematician and logician, recognised for his works in paraconsistent logic
- Nise da Silveira (1905–1999), psychiatrist and mental health reformer
- Oswaldo Cruz, physician and public health champion, eliminated yellow fever, bubonic plague and smallpox in Rio de Janeiro at the turn of the 20th century
- Paulo Emílio Vanzolini, Brazilian biologist; zoologist; herpetologist
- Roberto Landell de Moura, pioneer of telephony
- Sérgio Henrique Ferreira, physician and pharmacologist, discovered the active principle of a drug for hypertension
- Thaisa Storchi Bergmann, astrophysicist at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
- Vera Cordeiro, social entrepreneur and physician
- Vital Brazil, physician and scientist, discoverer of the antivenom for snakes and other venomous animals
- Wagner Farid Gattaz, physician and scientist, member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.
- Warwick Estevam Kerr, geneticist, researcher on the biology and genetics of bees
- Wilson Teixeira Beraldo, co-discoverer of bradykinin
Foreign scientists and engineers who lived or live in Brazil
- Carl August Wilhelm Schwacke, German botanist
- Charles Frederick Hartt, Canadian-American geologist and paleontologist
- Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist
- Émil Goeldi, Swiss naturalist
- Emmanuel Liais, French astronomer and naturalist
- Friedrich Sellow, German botanist
- Fritz Müller, German naturalist
- Fritz Köberle, Austrian physician and pathologist
- Gregory Chaitin, Argentine-American mathematician
- Grigori Ivanovitch Langsdorff, German/Russian naturalist
- Giuseppe Occhialini, Italian physicist
- Gleb Wataghin, Ukrainian/Italian physicist
- Heinz Ebert, German geologist
- Helmut Sick, German zoologist
- Hermann von Ihering, German naturalist
- Louis Couty, French physiologist and pharmacologist
- Lucien Lison, Belgian anatomist
- Ludwig Riedel, German botanist
- Miguel Rolando Covian, Argentinian physiologist
- Orville Adalbert Derby, American geologist
- Oscar Sala, Italian nuclear physicist
- Richard Feynman, American physicist
- David Bohm American physicist
- Luigi Fantappiè Italian mathematician
- Peter Szatmari Hungarian geologist
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