|Locale||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Daily ridership||1.5 million (estimate)|
|Owner||Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)|
|Operator(s)||Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd
|Line length||11.07 km (6.88 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius||100 m|
|Electrification||25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary|
|Operating speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
Line 1, also referred to as Metro I or the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar (VAG) corridor, of the Mumbai Metro is part of the metro system for the city of Mumbai, India. The 11.07 km line is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations from Versova to Ghatkopar. The line connects the eastern and western suburbs of Mumbai. It was built at an estimated cost of 4321 crore (US$690 million) and is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL). The MMOPL is a consortium of Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Reliance Infrastructure and Veolia Transport hold a 74% stake in the consortium, and the rest is held by the MMRDA.
Line 1 is scheduled to begin operations by 31 March 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Cost
- 3 Stations
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Operations
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The Mumbai Suburban Railway connects Mumbai from north to south. However, east-west connectivity is poor. Line 1 provides east-west rail connectivity between the Eastern and Western suburbs of Mumbai. It facilitates interchange between the Mumbai Suburban Railway and Mumbai Metro at Andheri and Ghatkopar stations. The line significantly reduces the journey time from Versova to Ghatkopar from 71 minutes to 21 minutes. It also provides rail connectivity to the MIDC, SEEPZ and other commercial hubs.
The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was secured by the MMOPL, a consortium led by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group's Reliance Infrastructure Ltd, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA. Simplex Infrastractures Ltd was the main technical contractor. The foundation stone for the project was laid by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 21 June 2006, and the work order for the same was issued on 21 January 2008, but actual work on the corridor began only on 8 February 2008. At the time of commencement of work, MMOPL stated that it aimed to complete the project in a record 30 months, although the concession agreement specified the period of construction to be five years. In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-km Versova–DN Nagar–Azad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012. The deadline for completion of Line 1 has been shifted several times. The following months have all, at some point of time, been announced as the deadline for completion of the project - July and September 2010, July 2011, March and November 2012, September 2013 (Phase 1: Versova to Airport Road) and December 2013 (Phase 2: Airport Road to Ghatkopar).
MMOPL blamed the delay in construction on the MMRDA. RInfra officials stated that MMRDA had to acquire land along the route and provide "right of way" to MMOPL by December 2008. Although it was supposed to have been given a 59% right of way with land free of encumbrances, MMOPL started work with right of way being made available only on 45% of the land. As of August 2008, MMRDA had only freed up 20% of required land. The lack of maps of underground utilities made the task more difficult. As per the contract between MMOPL and MMRDA, the MMRDA was supposed to hand over complete right of way to MMOPL by mid-2008. MMOPL eventually received 100% of the land required for the project in December 2011. However, the minaret of a mosque near Andheri metro station and a portion of the roof of Maheshwar Temple near Asalfa station still needed to be demolished. Both impediments were resolved in October 2012 and MMRDA finally obtained 100% right of way along the entire alignment of Line 1.
By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the 12 individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level. However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to summer 2012. In May 2012, the Indian Bank restructured the Mumbai Metro's 1.08 billion (US$17 million) loan account, citing the project's land use problems.
On 1 May 2013, a successful 2 km trial run from Versova to Azad Nagar stations was conducted on Line 1 in the presence of Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, who stated that the line would open to the public from September 2013. However, MMRDA officials told Business Standard in August 2013 that the metro would be delayed further as it had not received approval from the Central Railway Safety Commissioner, and also did not complete various amenities, including lifts, staircases, canteen and seating arrangement for commuters. The first major trial run on Line 1, began at 6:45pm IST on 3 June 2013 from Versova station, and covered the 7 km stretch to Airport station by 7:05pm, according to MMRDA additional commissioner SVR Srinivas, who was on board the train. Trial runs had been conducted for the past month, the most notable being the trial run on 1 May 2013, that was officially flagged off by the Chief Minister. However, trials prior to the June 3 trial, were restricted to the three kilometres between Versova and Azad Nagar stations on JP Road.
Seven metro trains ran the full stretch of Line 1 on 6 December 2013 at high speed to conduct "system integration" checks. The trial run was the first time that several trains ran back-to-back on Line 1. The trains maintained a frequency of three to three-and-a-half minutes and achieved the precision timing of 21 minutes for the full run. MMOPL officials stated that the trial was conducted to check the speed and reliability of the trains, and also the working of the control systems, signals, energy-efficient lighting system, on-board passenger announcement system and train-to-control-room radio communication system. They also tested whether trains stopped properly at platforms and doors opened as desired. Several more tests will be conducted before the metro opens to the public. According to the information given by the MMRDA to an RTI query filed by activist Anil Galgali, around 5% of the civil works of the line were still pending as of December 2013. The reply to the RTI query stated that Versova, DN Nagar, Azad Nagar, Chakala and Airport Road stations were 99% complete as on December 2013. Andheri, Saki Naka, Marol and Western Express Highway stations were in the range of 95-98%. Construction work at Ghatkopar was 90% complete, Asalfa and Jagruti Nagar stations were 80% and 85% complete respectively.
The MMRDA sent a letter to RInfra on 31 December 2013, asking them to change the logo of the metro system from Reliance Metro to Mumbai Metro. The MMRDA insisted that the demand was within the concession agreement signed between the state government and RInfra, in which the fine print stated that the project should be titled the Mumbai Metro. RInfra issued a press statement on 2 January 2014, blaming the MMRDA for having "failed to provide any guidance on this subject during the bidding stage and/or during the implementation stage." RInfra claimed that the logo and brand name Reliance Metro had been finalised in July 2013 as the MMRDA had not responded to the designs and logos submitted. RInfra also stated that it was eligible to name the entire project after the company, as it held a majority stake in the project. Republican Party of India (Athawale) workers protested the name Reliance Metro on 8 January 2014 by blackening boards with Reliance's logo at Chakala metro station. The RPI(A) demanded that metro be renamed as Mumbai Metro. On 11 January, Shiv Sena MLA Subhash Desai sent a letter to Chief Minister Chavan opposing the Reliance Metro name, and expressing support for the name Mumbai Metro. The Mumbai Metro name also received support from Maharashtra's Minority Development Department minister Arif Naseem Khan. In February 2014, UPS Madan, metropolitan commissioner of MMRDA, confirmed that RInfra had agreed to rename the project as Mumbai Metro from Reliance Metro. The changes in project name were subsequently implemented at the stations and other locations.
A 10-member team of the Research, Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) began conducting oscillation trials along the entire 11.4-km stretch of Line 1 on 31 January 2014. The trials included study of train behaviour like acceleration and deceleration, suspension, emergency brake distance and track parameters, and adherence to safety and technical specifications. Oscillation trials were conducted to test the track-worthiness of new or modified design of rolling stock. Emergency braking distance trials aim at testing the braking potential. MMOPL stated that the trials were completed in a record time of 11 days, much ahead of the RDSO's scheduled time of 22 days. MMOPL had sought a maximum speed limit of 90 km/h under test conditions. After completing the tests, the RDSO had to submit it's report to the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety, Lucknow for final certification, after which the MMOPL could approach the Commissioner of Metro Railway Safety (CMRS) for safety trials. However, the submission of the report by the RDSO was delayed a public interest litigation (PIL) filed in the Bombay High Court on the height of Mumbai Suburban Railway station platforms. The RDSO had to divert its resources to inspect the suburban railway platforms, due to commuters falling into the gap between the platform and the trains. After the report is submitted by the RDSO, the MMRDA must receive approval from the CMRS, who may also inspect the site and the infrastructure, before forwarding his report to the railway board, after which final clearance is given by the Ministry of Railways before services can begin.
On 6 February 2014, RInfra announced that construction of the metro line had been completed, along with signal testing and system integration. It also stated that it had already received approvals from relevant authorities including the fire department, and electrical inspector general. However, the construction of approach roads to stations such as Jagruti Nagar and Asalfa Road had not been completed, although this work was to be undertaken by the MMRDA, and not MMOPL.
Line 1 contains a 1284 metre steel bridge, modeled on the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata, crossing the Western Line at Andheri. It is the first steel-and-concrete bridge over the Mumbai Suburban Railway. Construction of the bridge, which is supported by 3 pillars, started in early 2012 and completed on 23 December 2012. The metropolitan administration claims the bridge was built in 288 days which is a record. It cost 350 million (US$5.6 million). The bridge was constructed by Braithwaite Burn & Jessop Construction Company (BBJ), Kolkata. Interestingly, BBJ had also fabricated the Howrah Bridge. Due to restriction in working hours and non-availability of space, the steel girder had to be pre-fabricated at at BBJ's Heavy Plant Yard in Kolkata. It was designed such that it could be disassembled during transportation and reassembled at the site when all four columns of the bridge were ready. It took 6–7 days to transport it to Mumbai on a piecemeal basis. The bridge was initially supposed to be made of concrete but due to changes in plans, it was changed to a steel bridge. The bridge faced several challenges - the biggest being building a pillar in the middle of the tracks without restricting train traffic even for a day.
Another notable bridge on Line 1, is the 175 metre long cable-stayed bridge over the Jogeshwari Flyover on the Western Express Highway. The bridge is the first and highest cable-stay bridge for a metro in Asia. It is also Mumbai's second cable-stayed bridge after the Bandra Worli Sea Link. The Jogeshwari flyover is 13 metres above ground level and the metro line travels at a height of 19.5 metres above ground level. The highest point of the bridge is 39 metres above ground level. Construction on the bridge started in mid-2009. It was expected to be completed by April 2010. Due to delays it was completed on 24 August 2012. The bridge was built by MMOPL with the help of Switzerland based, VSL International Ltd. The steel cables which hold and support the bridge are anchored to two Y-shaped pylons that weigh over 1000 tonnes.
Eight accidents have occurred during the construction of Line 1. The first occurred in May 2008 when 1 person was killed and another injured, when a pile rig collapsed at a construction site in Andheri (West). In 2009, 4 people were injured, when a steel reinforcement cage and temporary scaffolding of a concrete pillar caved in it Andheri (East). In April 2012, a crane at a construction site in Ghatkopar, veered off a truck and crashed on a portion of the nearby Sarvodaya Hospital. No one was injured as the affected portion of the hospital building was empty at the time.
On 5 September 2012, a slab collapsed at the under-construction Subhash Nagar metro station in Andheri, killing one construction worker and injuring 16 people. Following the incident, construction work on the metro was suspended. MMOPL fined the contractor, Hindustan Construction Company, 1 million (US$16,000). On 11 September 2012, MMOPL appointed Geneva-based SGS Consultants as independent safety consultants for the construction of Line 1. Construction resumed on 25 September 2012, under the supervision of SGS Consultants, after the consultant submitted its preliminary report to the MMOPL. The consultant will remain with the project till the completion of Line 1 to help prevent accidents in future. The accident was suspected to have been caused by weak temporary foundation to the under-construction slab and rain when the concrete was being mounted atop. Another report was prepared by an MMRDA appointed independent committee of K.V.K. Rao, IIT Bombay civil engineering professor and S.B. Tamsekar, former PWD chief engineer, revealed that the scaffolding gave way due to a cavity in the soil which had become loose due to heavy rain the previous day. According to SVR Srinivas, additional metropolitan commissioner at MMRDA, "The accident was basically due to voids in the support. The support weakened due to rain and utilities underneath created voids. So, it was basically due to loosening of the soil due to construction activity and its erosion due to heavy rain that the support weakened. If because of any reason a part of the support settles, stress increases on the staging and causes it to fail leading to a cascading effect". The committee recommended that the contractor ascertain stability of the sub-strata before beginning such activities. In case of instability, remedial measures must be taken to fix it before work can start. The report also reiterates safety checklists should be enforced and construction workers strictly wear safety gear. The MMRDA has stated that it would not be able to take action based on the report and its probe was done to understand exactly what had gone wrong, while the MMOPL inquiry was internal.
The original estimated cost of constructing Line 1 was 2356 crore (US$380 million). However, delays increased the cost by 84% over six years, and the project cost was 4321 crore (US$690 million). The information about the cost escalation was obtained under an RTI request on 20 August 2013 by activist Anil Galgali, which stated that the MMOPL board members, in a meeting held in May 2012, had approved a revised budget that cost around 4321 crore (US$690 million). As per the cost sharing formula, the construction cost was funded according to a 70:30 debt equity ratio between the MMOPL and the MMRDA. However, the agreement signed between the Government of Maharashtra and MMOPL, also stated that the MMRDA would not have to share the escalated cost and its cost sharing formula would be the same even after the escalation. The entire escalation was borne by the MMOPL. The Asian Age reported that RInfra had funded almost 60% of the increased cost of 1965 crore (US$310 million) through a loan, and the balance was raised through debt.
To offset the escalation, RInfra-led MMOPL asked for a 130-150% hike in the metro fare structure, which the state government had fixed to be between 9 and 13. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The principal reason for an increase is the inability of MMRDA to provide 100 per cent unencumbered RoW, which was contractually committed by MMRDA to be handed over to MMOPL on or before September 2007. So far, 100 per cent unencumbered RoW is yet to be handed over. The increase in fares is necessitated due to an increase in operating costs, owing to a steep increase in all economic indices; inflation, interest rate, foreign exchange, etc. These factors have also increased the estimated project cost." However, the MMRDA denied the request stating that the cost escalation of the project and the fare hike demand were separate issues. An MMRDA official told Business Standard, "There is no question of any fare hike right now, as the issue will be considered after the service is started by MMOPL. The rise in capital expenditure will not impact fares immediately."
The Union Government had committed viability gap funding (or the public sector's contribution in a public private partnership project), of 471 crore, which amounted to 20% of the project's original cost of 2,356 crore. The Union Government released only 310.5 crore of its share as of June 2012. The final tranche of 160 crore was approved for release only in February 2014. The amount had been pending since 2012. UPS Madan, metropolitan commissioner, MMRDA, stated that the delay was due to procedural issues, saying, "In February or March last year , the UD [Urban Development] ministry had recommended the funds for disbursement to the Department of Economic Affairs. But it could not come up in the budget last year because they had some queries."
The metro railway administration will pay charges equivalent of 99% of the market value of the land, plus nominal charges of 1,000 per annum for a period of 35 years, extendable for a further 35-year period. Overhead crossing charges of 50,000 per annum will be levied for the area of land, and 100,000 per annum will be levied for each 100 metre stretch of crossing.
There are 12 stations on Line 1. All stations have three levels - Road level, Concourse Level and Platform level. At least two sets of covered staircase and up/down escalators on both sides of roads on footpath leading to concourse level are provided at every station. Stations are fully accessible to physically challenged and elderly passengers through the provision of special lifts.
The concourse level area is divided into non-paid area and paid areas. The non-paid area houses facilities like ticketing counters, ticket vending machines, gates for entry/exit and other facilities like retail outlets, ATMs, toilets etc. The paid area is only accessible for valid ticket holders and gives access to platforms. Platforms have polycarbonate roofs which allow them to be natually lit. All stations have public information display systems for info schedule of trains coming on platform.
All signboards on Line 1 are in Marathi, English and Hindi. Baggage screening machines and door frame metal detectors are located at all entry points. All stations are connected through fibre optics for communication. There are 100 staircases, 45 elevators and 95 escalators on the 12 stations of Line 1.
Times Innovative Media (TIM), a subsidiary of Bennett Coleman & Co that operates its out-of-home media business under the brand Times OOH, acquired the advertising rights for Line 1 in December 2013 for a period of 15 years. The company offers advertising on 147 high definition digital screens (both inside and on the stations) and 375 static units at the 12 stations on the line, along with pillar wraps, train wraps, station corridors, train interiors, median junction advertising and naming rights for the stations.
|#||Station Name||Inter-station Distance (km)||Connections|
|2||D.N. Nagar||0.955||Line 2|
|5||Western Express Highway||1.007||None|
RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock. CSR Nanjing was awarded a contract in May 2008 to supply 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of 6 billion (US$96.0 million). The design of the rakes is derived from the Chinese domestic Type A design, with the stainless steel body widened by 200 mm to increase capacity by 72 to 390 passengers. These trains were CSR's first 25 kV AC metro trains, and the first metro trains to be built in China for India. The first rake was shipped from Shanghai on 23 March 2010, and the last rake arrived at Mumbai port by the end of February 2014.
All coaches are air-conditioned, and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They are fire retardant, outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach also contains a black box to assist in accident investigations. The trains are capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.
Line 1 has been allotted 64 compartments. Mumbai Metro is considering the purchase of 44 additional coaches from CSR Nanjing given the growth in the estimated number of commuters.
The ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro. ABB will be responsible for the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of the traction electrification, power supply, power distribution and SCADA system for the first metro corridor. A 30 metre neutral section has been provided between the Chakala and Airport Road metro stations to ensure uninterrupted power supply. This neutral section divides the entire overhead equipment section into two parts - one from Versova to the neutral section at Chakala station, and the other from Ghatkopar to the neutral section at Airport Road station - and makes them function independently. Power, at 25,000V, is fed from the DN Nagar and Marol receiving sub-stations (RSS) for the stretch from Versova to Chakala station, and Ghatkopar to Airport Road respectively. If one RSS fails, the neutral section can be switched on so that either of the substations can run the entire line. Diesel generator sets of 180KV capacity are provided at each station to run the essential load during power failure. Diesel generator sets of 1000KV at DN Nagar Depot work station will run the control rooms and the essential load during power failure. The centralised system will help the technical staff restore power supply as soon as possible
The choice of 25KV alternating current (AC) power supply was criticized by MMRDA director (technical) S P Khade in an article in a railway industry magazine. Khade wrote that the current method of power supply could be dangerous for buildings close to the metro line and a hazard during the monsoon. He also warned that parting of overhead wires and other equipment could be dangerous for those on the road below, as they would hang down from the elevated corridor. He instead favoured 1,500V direct current (DC) power supply, which he claimed was used by 97% of metros around the world. He also argued land required for a DC substation would have been one-third of what is needed for an AC substation, and that DC trains were lighter, leading to higher pick-up speeds, lower power requirements and a lighter load on the elevated structure. Khade explained that he did not take up the issue as MMDRA director, because he claimed that the decision to use 25KV had been made before assumed the post.
Signaling and communications
Line 1 will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.
Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
All facilities of the Mumbai Metro including the stations, metro coaches and toilets, are disabled-friendly. A gradual ramp is provided from road level to the elevator podium below metro stations for use by disable, visually impaired or senior commuters. At the end of the ramp, overhead covers are present to protect against inclement weather. Elevators at stations are large enough to accommodate a wheel chair-bound commuters, and the elevator buttons have information in Braille apart from regular updates of operations by way of announcements.
Tactile paving/flooring has been provided from the elevators at the concourse to the ticket vending machines, and then till the edge of the platform to guide the visually impaired along the route. One of the AFC gates is wide enough to allow entry of people on wheelchairs. The ticket vending machines will also aid passengers with speech impairment and signage design, including pictograms with high contrast levels, which will help those with limited visual capacity and cognitive disabilities. The toilets are specially designed to accommodate wheelchairs and facilitate disabled persons. All coaches have designated space for wheelchairs, alongside the benches, and emergency intercom devices are also installed near the wheelchair space, at a lower height to enable the disabled to use the facility.
MMRDA Commissioner Rahul Asthana has said that there is no chance of having parking facilities on Line 1 since there was no space available.
Water Recycling Plant
MMOPL built a state-of-the-art waste water treatment plant at the Versova car shed where Line 1 trains are housed for repair and cleaning. The plant recycles water used to wash rakes. It has a capacity to recycle 5 lakh litres of water daily. The unit comprehensive waste water treatment plant will ensure that water used in operating the metro gets treated and pumped back into the system thereby achieving zero-waste discharge. The daily water requirement at the Versova car shed is 3 lac litres for domestic usage and another 0.5 lac litres for industrial as well as few additional requirements for other plants and equipments.
A traffic study, undertaken by Metro One and a Hong-Kong-based traffic consultant, MVA Systra, in 2012, showed that in peak hours, 55,000 people were likely to travel per hour in one direction. The daily passenger count was estimated to be 1.5 million.
Line 1 will use an Automatic Fare Collection System (AFC), with options for taking a smart card (for multiple journeys) or single journey tokens. Line 1 is expected to have a three-tier fare structure based on journey distances:
- 9 – up to 3 km
- 11 – between 3 km and 8 km
- 13 – beyond 8 km
Fares will be fixed by the Government of Maharashtra through a notification. The originally agreed tariff hike schedule till 2042-43, based on the fare formula of 1.5 times the BEST fare, provided for a 11% hike after every three years. On 6 June 2013, the MMRDA stated that MMOPL had asked for the fares for Line 1 be increased by more than 50%, even though the metro had not yet been opened. On 11 September 2013, the MMOPL assured its board that the metro would commence operations in December 2013, irrespective of whether the state granted the requested fare hike. However, the MMOPL also requested that the state intervene at the earliest and consider its proposal for a 130 to 150 per cent hike in tariff. As per a notification issued in 2004, the fare as per 2003-04 levels was 6 for three km, 8 for 3 to 8 km and 10 beyond 8 km. In August 2013, under the fare structure decided by the state government, based on an agreement between the concessionaire, the fare was raised to between 9 and 13. If the latest proposed hike is accepted by the government, it will raise the price range to 22-33.
Frequency, speed and operating hours
Trains on Line 1 have a top speed of 80 km/hr, and an average speed of 33 km/hr. The 11.07 km distance is covered in 21 minutes.
The headway of Line 1 is 3.5 minutes, going down to 3 minutes during peak hours. Station dwell time is 30 seconds.
Services will run on Line 1 for 18.5 hours everyday (5:30 AM till midnight).
MMOPL announced on 13 December 2013 that Line 1 will have dedicated sniffer dogs and hand-held explosive detectors at every station, due to heightened security and constant terror threats in Mumbai. MMPOL claims that Line 1 will be the first metro line the world with sniffer dogs patrolling every station. The statement released by MMOPL stated, "Trained sniffer dogs will patrol each of the stations. There will be security guards in civilian dress who will intermingle with the public to check for any suspicious activity outside and inside the station premises." Apart from private security guards deployed by MMOPL, the State Government will also provide security for the metro from the Maharashtra State Security Corporation.
Other security measures on Line 1 include random armed patrolling by Quick Response Team, guards, and designing stations in such a way that there is no hidden place where explosives can be kept. There are 700 real-time CCTV cameras installed at strategic locations on Line 1. Every passenger entering a station is frisked, and their baggage put through X-ray scanners.
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