|Locale||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Daily ridership||1.5 million (estimate)|
|Operator(s)||Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd
|Line length||11.07 km (6.88 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius||100 m|
|Electrification||25 kV, 50 Hz AC through overhead catenary|
Line 1, also referred to as Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar (VAG) corridor, of the Mumbai Metro is part of the rapid transit rail system for the city of Mumbai, India. The 11.07 km line is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations from Versova to Ghatkopar. The line connects the eastern and western suburbs of Mumbai. It will cost approximately 3893 crore (US$600 million) and is operated by Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd. The MMOPL is a consortium of Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA. Reliance Infrastructure and Veolia Transport hold a 74% stake in the consortium, and the rest is held by the MMRDA. The MMOPL board meets quarterly and roughly consists of two representatives of MMRDA, three or four from Reliance Infrastructure, and the principal secretary of the State Urban Development Department. Line 1 is scheduled to begin operations in December 2013.
The following dates represent the dates the section opened to the public, not the private inauguration.
|December 2013||Versova||Airport Road||7|
|March 2014||Airport Road||Ghatkopar||5|
|Total||Versova||Ghatkopar||11.07 kilometers (6.88 mi)||12|
The Mumbai Suburban Railway connects Mumbai from north to south. However, east-west connectivity is poor. Line 1 provides east-west rail connectivity between the Eastern and Western suburbs of Mumbai. It facilitates interchange between the Mumbai Suburban Railway and Mumbai Metro at Andheri and Ghatkopar stations. The line significantly reduces the journey time from Versova to Ghatkopar from 71 minutes to 21 minutes. It also provides rail connectivity to the MIDC, SEEPZ and other commercial hubs.
The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was secured by the MMOPL, a consortium led by Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group's Reliance Infrastructure Ltd, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA. Simplex Infrastractures Ltd was the main technical contractor. The foundation stone laying ceremony was held on 21 June 2006, but actual work on the corridor, a part of Phase I, began only on 8 February 2008. At the time of commencement of work, MMOPL stated that it aimed to complete the project in a record 30 months, although the concession agreement specified the period of construction to be five years. In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-km Versova–DN Nagar–Azad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012. By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the 12 individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level. However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to summer 2012. In May 2012, the Indian Bank restructured the Mumbai Metro's 1.08 billion (US$17 million) loan account, citing the project's land use problems.
On 1 May 2013, a successful 2 km trial run from Versova to Azad Nagar stations was conducted on Line 1 in the presence of Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, who stated that the line would open to the public from September 2013. However, MMRDA officials told Business Standard in August 2013 that the metro would be delayed further as it had not received approval from the Central Railway Safety Commissioner, and also did not complete various amenities, including lifts, staircases, canteen and seating arrangement for commuters. The first major trial run on Line 1, began at 6:45pm IST on 3 June 2013 from Versova station, and covered the 7 km stretch to Airport station by 7:05pm, according to MMRDA additional commissioner SVR Srinivas, who was on board the train. Trial runs had been conducted for the past month, the most notable being the trial run on 1 May 2013, that was officially flagged off by the Chief Minister. However, trials prior to the June 3 trial, were restricted to the three kilometres between Versova and Azad Nagar stations on JP Road.
The deadline for completion of Line 1 has been shifted several times. The following months have all, at some point of time, been announced as the deadline for completion of the project - July 2010, September 2010, July 2011, March 2012, November 2012, August and December 2013. The first section (from Versova To Airport Road) of Line 1 is now expected to open by December 2013 and the second section (from Airport Road to Ghatkopar) is expected to open by March 2014.
MMOPL blamed the delay in construction on the MMRDA. RInfra officials stated that MMRDA had to acquire land along the route and provide "right of way" to MMOPL by December 2008. Although it was supposed to have been given a 59% right of way with land free of encumbrances, MMOPL started work with right of way being made available only on 45% of the land. As of August 2008, MMRDA had only freed up 20% of required land. The lack of maps of underground utilities made the task more difficult. As per the contract between MMOPL and MMRDA, the MMRDA was supposed to hand over complete right of way to MMOPL by mid-2008. MMOPL eventually received 100% of the land required for the project in December 2011. However, the minaret of a mosque near Andheri metro station and a portion of the roof of Maheshwar Temple near Asalfa station still needed to be demolished. Both impediments were resolved in October 2012 and MMRDA finally obtained 100% right of way along the entire alignment of Line 1.
Line 1 contains a 1284 metre steel bridge, modeled on the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata, crossing the Western Line at Andheri. It is the first steel-and-concrete bridge over the Mumbai Suburban Railway. Construction of the bridge, which is supported by 3 pillars, started in early 2012 and completed on 23 December 2012. The metropolitan administration claims the bridge was built in 288 days which is a record. It cost 350 million (US$5.4 million). The bridge was constructed by Braithwaite Burn & Jessop Construction Company (BBJ), Kolkata. Interestingly, BBJ had also fabricated the Howrah Bridge. Due to restriction in working hours and non-availability of space, the steel girder had to be pre-fabricated at at BBJ's Heavy Plant Yard in Kolkata. It was designed such that it could be disassembled during transportation and reassembled at the site when all four columns of the bridge were ready. It took 6–7 days to transport it to Mumbai on a piecemeal basis. The bridge was initially supposed to be made of concrete but due to changes in plans, it was changed to a steel bridge. The bridge faced several challenges - the biggest being building a pillar in the middle of the tracks without restricting train traffic even for a day.
Another notable bridge on Line 1, is the 175 metre long cable-stayed bridge over the Jogeshwari Flyover on the Western Express Highway. The bridge is the first and highest cable-stay bridge for a metro in Asia. It is also Mumbai's second cable-stayed bridge after the Bandra Worli Sea Link. The Jogeshwari flyover is 13 metres above ground level and the metro line travels at a height of 19.5 metres above ground level. The highest point of the bridge is 39 metres above ground level. Construction on the bridge started in mid-2009. It was expected to be completed by April 2010. Due to delays it was completed on 24 August 2012. The bridge was built by MMOPL with the help of Switzerland based, VSL International Ltd. The steel cables which hold and support the bridge are anchored to two Y-shaped pylons that weigh over 1000 tonnes.
Eight accidents have occurred during the construction of Line 1. The first occurred in May 2008 when 1 person was killed and another injured, when a pile rig collapsed at a construction site in Andheri (West). In 2009, 4 people were injured, when a steel reinforcement cage and temporary scaffolding of a concrete pillar caved in it Andheri (East). In April 2012, a crane at a construction site in Ghatkopar, veered off a truck and crashed on a portion of the nearby Sarvodaya Hospital. No one was injured as the affected portion of the hospital building was empty at the time.
On 5 September 2012, a slab collapsed at the under-construction Subhash Nagar metro station in Andheri, killing one construction worker and injuring 16 people. Following the incident, construction work on the metro was suspended. MMOPL fined the contractor, Hindustan Construction Company, 1 million (US$15,000). On 11 September 2012, MMOPL appointed Geneva-based SGS Consultants as independent safety consultants for the construction of Line 1. Construction resumed on 25 September 2012, under the supervision of SGS Consultants, after the consultant submitted its preliminary report to the MMOPL. The consultant will remain with the project till the completion of Line 1 to help prevent accidents in future. The accident was suspected to have been caused by weak temporary foundation to the under-construction slab and rain when the concrete was being mounted atop. Another report was prepared by an MMRDA appointed independent committee of K.V.K. Rao, IIT Bombay civil engineering professor and S.B. Tamsekar, former PWD chief engineer, revealed that the scaffolding gave way due to a cavity in the soil which had become loose due to heavy rain the previous day. According to SVR Srinivas, additional metropolitan commissioner at MMRDA, "The accident was basically due to voids in the support. The support weakened due to rain and utilities underneath created voids. So, it was basically due to loosening of the soil due to construction activity and its erosion due to heavy rain that the support weakened. If because of any reason a part of the support settles, stress increases on the staging and causes it to fail leading to a cascading effect". The committee recommended that the contractor ascertain stability of the sub-strata before beginning such activities. In case of instability, remedial measures must be taken to fix it before work can start. The report also reiterates safety checklists should be enforced and construction workers strictly wear safety gear. The MMRDA has stated that it would not be able to take action based on the report and its probe was done to understand exactly what had gone wrong, while the MMOPL inquiry was internal.
The original estimated cost of constructing Line 1 was 2356 crore (US$360 million). However, delays increased the cost by 84% over six years, and the project cost was 4321 crore (US$660 million). The information about the cost escalation was obtained under an RTI request on 20 August 2013 by activist Anil Galgali, which stated that the MMOPL board members, in a meeting held in May 2012, had approved a revised budget that cost around 4321 crore (US$660 million). As per the cost sharing formula, the construction cost was funded according to a 70:30 debt equity ratio between the MMOPL and the MMRDA. However, the agreement signed between the Government of Maharashtra and MMOPL, also stated that the MMRDA would not have to share the escalated cost and its cost sharing formula would be the same even after the escalation. The entire escalation was borne by the MMOPL. The Asian Age reported that RInfra had funded almost 60% of the increased cost of 1965 crore (US$300 million) through a loan, and the balance was raised through debt.
The Metro Railway Administration will be pay charges equivalent of 99% of the market value of the land, plus nominal charges of 1,000 per annum for a period of 35 years, extendable for a further 35-year period. Overhead crossing charges of 50,000 per annum will be levied for the area of land, and 100,000 per annum will be levied for each 100 metre stretch of crossing, according to Joint Project Director Dilip Kawathkar.
|#||Station Name||Inter-station Distance (km)||Opening||Connections|
|2||D.N. Nagar||0.955||Line 2|
|5||Western Express Highway||1.007||None|
|8||Marol Naka||0.598||Line 3|
RIIL consulted a number of major international rolling stock builders to provide the train fleet for the Mumbai Metro. Bidders for the contract included established metro-vehicle manufacturers such as Kawasaki, Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier, but CSR Nanjing was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock. In May 2008, CSR Nanjing constructed 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of 6 billion (US$91.8 million).
The coaches will be air-conditioned and designed to reduce noise and vibration, and will feature both high seating capacity and ample space for standing passengers. They will be outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including LCD screens, 3D route maps, first-aid kits, wheelchair facilities, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Each coach will furthermore feature a black box to assist in accident investigations. The trains will be capable of carrying over 1,100 passengers in a four-car unit, with each carriage being approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide.
Line 1 has been allotted 64 compartments. Mumbai Metro is considering the purchase of 44 additional coaches from CSR Nanjing given the growth in the estimated number of commuters.
The Swiss-Swedish ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro. ABB will be responsible for the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of the traction electrification, power supply, power distribution and SCADA system for the first metro corridor.
Signaling and communications
Line 1 will feature an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements. A four-minute service interval is anticipated on the route.
Siemens will supply the signaling systems required for the project, while Thales Group will supply the communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
MMRDA Commissioner Rahul Asthana has said that there is no chance of have parking facilities on Line 1 since there was no space available.
Water Recycling Plant
MMOPL built a state-of-the-art waste water treatment plant at the Versova car shed where Line 1 trains are housed for repair and cleaning. The plant recycles water used to wash rakes. It has a capacity to recycle 5 lakh litres of water daily. The unit comprehensive waste water treatment plant will ensure that water used in operating the metro gets treated and pumped back into the system thereby achieving zero-waste discharge. The daily water requirement at the Versova car shed is 3 lac litres for domestic usage and another 0.5 lac litres for industrial as well as few additional requirements for other plants and equipments.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2012)|
- Maximum gradient - 4.0%
- Minimum curvature - 100 m
- Minimum Ground Clearance - 5.5 m
- Platform Length - 135 m
- Car Depot- D.N Nagar
- Length of coach - 22 m.
- Width of coach - 3.2 m.
A traffic study, undertaken by Metro One and a Hong-Kong-based traffic consultant, MVA Systra, in 2012, showed that in peak hours, 55,000 people were likely to travel per hour in one direction. The daily passenger count was estimated to be 1.5 million.
Line 1 is expected to have a three-tier fare structure based on journey distances:
- 9 – up to 3 km
- 11 – between 3 km and 8 km
- 13 – beyond 8 km
Fares will be fixed by the Government of Maharashtra through a notification. The originally agreed tariff hike schedule till 2042-43, based on the fare formula of 1.5 times the BEST fare, provided for a 11% hike after every three years. On 6 June 2013, the MMRDA stated that MMOPL had asked for the fares for Line 1 be increased by more than 50%, even though the metro had not yet been opened. On 11 September 2013, the MMOPL assured its board that the metro would commence operations in December 2013, irrespective of whether the state granted the requested fare hike. However, the MMOPL also requested that the state intervene at the earliest and consider its proposal for a 130 to 150 per cent hike in tariff. As per a notification issued in 2004, the fare as per 2003-04 levels was 6 for three km, 8 for 3 to 8 km and 10 beyond 8 km. In August 2013, under the fare structure decided by the state government, based on an agreement between the concessionaire, the fare was raised to between 9 and 13. If the latest proposed hike is accepted by the government, it will raise the price range to 22-33.
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