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Line 1
Mumbai Metro Line 1 logo.png
Overview
Type Metro
System Mumbai Metro
Locale Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Termini Versova
Ghatkopar
Stations 12
Daily ridership 300,000-500,000 (August 2014)
Website reliancemumbaimetro.com
Operation
Opening 8 June 2014
Owner Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)
Operator(s) Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd
(MMOPL)
Character Elevated
Depot(s) D.N. Nagar
Rolling stock CSR Nanjing
Technical
Line length 11.40 km (7.08 mi)
No. of tracks 2
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Minimum radius 100 metres (330 ft)
Electrification 25 kV AC at 50 Hz via overhead catenary
Operating speed 80 km/h (50 mph)
Route map
Versova
D.N. Nagar
Azad Nagar
Andheri Indian Railways Suburban Railway Logo.svg 25 railtransportation.svg
Western Express Highway
Chakala
Airport Road
Marol Naka
Saki Naka
Asalpha
Jagruti Nagar
Ghatkopar Indian Railways Suburban Railway Logo.svg

Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro, also referred to as Metro I or the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar (VAG) corridor, is part of the metro system for the city of Mumbai, India. The 11.40 km line is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations from Versova to Ghatkopar. The line connects the eastern and western suburbs of Mumbai.[1] It was built at an estimated cost of INR4321 crore (US$700 million) and is operated by the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL).[2] The MMOPL is a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).

Line 1 started operations on 8 June 2014.[3]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to Tewet in association with DE-Consult GmbH and Tata Consultancy Services, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by the MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai Metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA).[4] The Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor was chosen as the first line in the master plan to be implemented.

The Mumbai Suburban Railway connects Mumbai from north to south. However, east-west connectivity is poor. The Versova-Ghatkopar route had no suburban rail link and was serviced by either BEST buses, autos or taxis.[5] Line 1 provides east-west rail connectivity between the Eastern and Western suburbs of Mumbai.[6] It facilitates interchange between the Mumbai Suburban Railway and Mumbai Metro at Andheri and Ghatkopar stations. The line significantly reduces the journey time from Versova to Ghatkopar from 90–120 minutes to 21 minutes, and bypasses about 45 traffic signals.[7] It also provides rail connectivity to the MIDC and SEEPZ.[8]

Construction[edit]

Contracts for Line 1[9]
Package Awarded to
Civil Works – Viaduct Simplex Infrastructure Ltd
Civil Works – Stations Sew Infrastructure Ltd
Civil Works – Special Bridges
Civil Works – Depot Earthworks Shyam Narayan & Bros
Rolling stock CSR Nanjing
Signalling system Siemens
Power Supply Traction & SCADA ABB
E&M
Communication system Thales
Trackwork VNC Rail One
Automatic Fare Collection Indra
Escalators Schindler
Lifts OTIS
Depot Machinery & Plant Awarded to various suppliers
Depot Civil Works Ahluwalia Contracts (India) Ltd.
Marol station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.
Jagruti Nagar station under construction in Ghatkopar in August 2012.
Azad Nagar station under construction in Andheri in March 2012.
The Cable-stayed metro bridge over the Western Express Highway under construction in Andheri.
A metro train arriving at the D.N. Nagar station during the trial run in May 2013.

The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was awarded to the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA, in March 2007.[10][11] Simplex Infrastructure Ltd was the main technical contractor.[12] Prime Minister Manmohan Singh laid the foundation stone on 21 June 2006. The work order for the project was issued on 21 January 2008,[13] and work began on 8 February 2008.[12] In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-km Versova–D.N. NagarAzad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012.[14] The deadline for completion of Line 1 has been shifted several times. The following months have all, at some point of time, been announced as the deadline for completion of the project - July and September 2010, July 2011, March and November 2012,[15][16] September 2013 (Phase 1: Versova to Airport Road) and December 2013 (Phase 2: Airport Road to Ghatkopar),[13][17] and 31 March 2014.[18]

The MMOPL blamed the delay in construction on the MMRDA. RInfra officials stated that the MMRDA had to acquire land along the route and provide right of way to the MMOPL by December 2008.[19] As of August 2008, the MMRDA had only freed up 20% of required land. The lack of maps of underground utilities made the task more difficult. As per the contract between the MMOPL and the MMRDA, the MMRDA was supposed to hand over complete right of way to the MMOPL by mid-2008. The MMOPL eventually received nearly 100% of the land required for the project in December 2011, with the exceptions of the minaret of a mosque near Andheri metro station and a portion of the roof of Maheshwar Temple near Jagruti Nagar station that still needed to be demolished.[19] Both impediments were resolved in October 2012 and the MMRDA finally obtained 100% right of way along the entire alignment of Line 1.[20]

By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the 12 individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level.[21] However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to summer 2012.[21][22] In May 2012, the Indian Bank restructured the Mumbai Metro's INR1.08 billion (US$17 million) loan account, citing the project's land use problems.[23]

On 1 May 2013, a successful 2 km trial run from Versova to Azad Nagar stations was conducted on Line 1 in the presence of Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan,[24] who stated that the line would open to the public from September 2013.[25][26] However, MMRDA officials told Business Standard in August 2013 that the metro would be delayed further as it had not received approval from the Central Railway Safety Commissioner, and some of the facilities remained incomplete.[27] The first major trial run on Line 1, began at 6:45pm IST on 3 June 2013 from Versova station, and covered the 7 km stretch to Airport station by 7:05pm, according to MMRDA additional commissioner S.V.R. Srinivas, who was on board the train. Trial runs had been conducted for the past month, the most notable being the trial run on 1 May 2013, that was officially flagged off by the Chief Minister.[24] However, trials prior to the June 3 trial, were restricted to the three kilometres between Versova and Azad Nagar stations on JP Road.[28]

Several tests were conducted before the metro opened to the public.[6] According to the information given by the MMRDA to a Right to Information (RTI) query filed by activist Anil Galgali, around 5% of the civil works of the line were still pending as of December 2013. The reply to the RTI query stated that Versova, D.N. Nagar, Azad Nagar, Chakala and Airport Road stations were 99% complete as of December 2013. Andheri, Saki Naka, Marol and Western Express Highway stations were in the range of 95-98%. Construction work at Ghatkopar was 90% complete, Asalfa and Jagruti Nagar stations were 80% and 85% complete respectively.[29]

The MMRDA sent a letter to RInfra on 31 December 2013, asking them to change the name of the metro system from Reliance Metro to Mumbai Metro. The MMRDA pointed out that the original concession agreement stated that the project would be named as the Mumbai Metro.[30][31] RInfra issued a press statement on 2 January 2014, blaming the MMRDA for having "failed to provide any guidance on this subject during the bidding stage and/or during the implementation stage".[32] Republican Party of India (Athavale) workers protested the name Reliance Metro on 8 January 2014 by blackening boards with Reliance's logo at Chakala metro station.[33][34][35] On 11 January, Shiv Sena MLA Subhash Desai sent a letter to Chief Minister Chavan opposing the Reliance Metro name, and expressing support for the name Mumbai Metro.[36][37] In February 2014, U.P.S. Madan, metropolitan commissioner of MMRDA, confirmed that RInfra had agreed to rename the project as Mumbai Metro from Reliance Metro.[38] However, even by April 2014, the Reliance Metro logos that had been stuck on trains and stations had not been removed. MMOPL officials stated that they had not yet received any new logo design, and were still awaiting the same.[39] On 30 April 2014 The MMOPL unveiled a new logo, which uses the name "Mumbai Metro" but also includes the MMRDA and Reliance Infrastructure.[40] The new name was also confirmed by Chavan at a press conference at Vidhan Bhawan on 14 June 2014. When asked about RInfra posting its "Reliance Metro" branding at some metro stations, he said, "It is 'Mumbai Metro' and we will ensure that it remains the same in future also".[41][42]

On 6 February 2014, RInfra announced that construction was complete, and that some of the regulatory approvals were in place.[43] However, the construction of approach roads to stations such as Jagruti Nagar and Asalfa Road had not been completed,[17] although this work was to be undertaken by the MMRDA, and not MMOPL.[17] A comprehensive fire drill was undertaken by the Mumbai Fire Brigade, Mumbai Police, and MMOPL in March 2014.[44] During trials in mid-March 2014, the Mumbai Metro ran trains at a headway of almost 4 minutes.[45]

Oscillation trials were completed in early 2014.[46][47] However, the submission of the report by the RDSO to the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety was delayed a public interest litigation (PIL) filed in the Bombay High Court on the height of Mumbai Suburban Railway station platforms. The RDSO had to divert its resources to inspecting the suburban railway platforms, because passengers were falling into the gap between the platform and the trains.[48] The MMOPL was granted a "speed certificate" from the RDSO on 2 April.[49] MMRDA and MMOPL authorities jointly applied to the CMRS for safety certification on April 4.[39]

Then CMRS for the western circle P.S. Baghel began physically inspecting the line on 18 April, and completed it on 28 April.[50][51] Following the inspection, Baghel concluded, "Prima facie, I found all the constructions and specifications of the Metro quite satisfactory, but there are a few finishing works remaining which would be taken care of very soon."[51] The CMRS required certain minor improvements to access areas before the metro could begin operations.[52] The CMRS also stated that he would travel to Lucknow to discuss the inspection with RDSO officials and then cross check all the other necessary approvals, including rolling stocks, from the Railway Board.[51] The line received safety clearance from the CMRS on 2 May 2014.[53][54]

The Congress-NCP government had wanted to open the line by 24 April 2014, the voting day in Mumbai for the 2014 general elections.[55] The MMRDA had to obtain approval for the locomotives from the railway board.[55] The MMOPL approached the Railway Board for approval of rolling stock (including the rakes and wheels) on 22 April.[56][57] MMRDA and MMOPL officials stated that the line would open within 7 days of receiving approval from the Railway Board.[58][59] Despite the MMOPL submitting the necessary paperwork on 22 April, the Railway Board did not grant approve until late May 2014. According to railway officials, this was because the rakes and wheels used in the metro were "of a new kind, with newer dimensions".[52] Another reason given for the delay was the change of government at the Centre following the 2014 general elections.[60] Railway Minister D.V. Sadananda Gowda gave the final approval on 5 June.[61][62] MMOPL Chief Executive Abhay Mishra announced on 7 June that the metro would open the following day.[63]

A key proposal of the Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) was the integration of the metro rail system with the BEST. The BEST and the BMC jointly worked towards relocating existing bus stops. BEST bus feeder routes were created along the metro corridor. Bus stops have electronic indicators displaying the expected arrival time of the next train, and information about bus schedules is available inside the metro stations. The MMRDA widened footpaths below metro stations. Parking for bikes and motorbikes is available at all stations.[64][65][66][67]

Accidents[edit]

Eight accidents occurred during the construction of Line 1. The first occurred in May 2008 when 1 person was killed and another injured, when a pile rig collapsed at a construction site in Andheri (West). In 2009, 4 people were injured, when a steel reinforcement cage and temporary scaffolding of a concrete pillar caved in it Andheri (East). In April 2012, a crane at a construction site in Ghatkopar, veered off a truck and crashed on a portion of the nearby Sarvodaya Hospital. No one was injured as the affected portion of the hospital building was empty at the time.[68]

On 5 September 2012, a slab collapsed at the under-construction Subhash Nagar metro station in Andheri, killing one construction worker and injuring 16 people.[69] Following the incident, construction work on the metro was suspended. MMOPL fined the contractor, Hindustan Construction Company, INR10 lakh (equivalent to INR11 lakh or US$19,000 in 2014).[70] On 11 September 2012, MMOPL appointed Geneva-based SGS Consultants as independent safety consultants for the construction of Line 1. Construction resumed on 25 September 2012, under the supervision of SGS Consultants, after the consultant submitted its preliminary report to the MMOPL.[71] The consultant remained with the project until the completion of Line 1 to help prevent future accidents.[72]

According to SVR Srinivas, then additional metropolitan commissioner at MMRDA, "The accident was basically due to voids in the support. The support weakened due to rain and utilities underneath created voids. So, it was basically due to loosening of the soil due to construction activity and its erosion due to heavy rain that the support weakened. If because of any reason a part of the support settles, stress increases on the staging and causes it to fail leading to a cascading effect".[73]

Opening[edit]

The first metro service was flagged off by Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithivraj Chavan, along with Reliance Chairman Anil Ambani and wife Tina Ambani, on 8 June at 10:10 am from Versova station. Chavan's appearance at the inauguration came despite the fact that he had threatened to boycott the ceremony the previous day to protest RInfra's decision to raise fares.[74][75][76] The line was scheduled to open to the public at 12:10pm, with the first service departing from Ghatkopar station.[77] This was delayed by 10 minutes and departed at 12:20 pm. The train was further delayed by nearly half an hour, as it had to halt beyond the planned dwell time at certain stations due to a technical glitch.[78][79] This in turn caused some other trains to also be delayed by 20–30 minutes.[80][81]

MMOPL announced a special introductory fare of INR10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service.[7] The authority also announced that children under the age of 12 years and/or up to 4 feet tall, and accompanied by their parents, could travel for free on opening weekend.[82][83] On opening day, the line was operated for 11 hours, and carried 2.40 lakh commuters. The second day, which saw the line operated for its entire 18.5 hour schedule, saw 2.97 lakh commuters use the line. Line 1 had transported 1 million passengers by 4:30 pm on 11 June or within 59 operating hours; reaching the milestone quicker than any other Indian metro system.[84] In the first week of operations, 21.56 lakh commuters travelled on the line, at an average of 3.08 lakh daily.[85] Within days of the metro's opening, many commuters switched from using BEST buses and autos. Authorities estimated a 25% reduction in BEST commuters along the route as a result of them metro.[86] Ticket sales on BEST Bus Route Number 340, the most popular bus route between Andheri and Ghatkopar, dropped by INR1.5 lakh in the first 3 days of Line 1's opening.[87]

Finances[edit]

Construction cost[edit]

The original estimated cost of constructing Line 1 was INR2356 crore (equivalent to INR39 billion or US$630 million in 2014) when the contract was signed in March 2007.[88] However, delays increased the cost by 84% over six years, and the project cost was INR4321 crore (US$700 million).[89][90]

To offset the escalation, RInfra-led MMOPL asked for a 130-150% increase in fares.[91] An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The principal reason for an increase is the inability of MMRDA to provide 100 per cent unencumbered RoW, which was contractually committed by MMRDA to be handed over to MMOPL on or before September 2007. The increase in fares is necessitated due to an increase in operating costs, owing to a steep increase in all economic indices; inflation, interest rate, foreign exchange, etc. These factors have also increased the estimated project cost." However, the MMRDA denied the request stating that the cost escalation of the project and the fare hike demand were separate issues. An MMRDA official told Business Standard, "There is no question of any fare hike right now, as the issue will be considered after the service is started by MMOPL. The rise in capital expenditure will not impact fares immediately."[92]

Dispute over initial fare[edit]

The state government announced in 2004 that the fare as per 2003-04 levels was fixed as INR6 up to 3 km, INR8 for 3–8 km and INR10 beyond 8 km.[93] The originally agreed tariff hike schedule until 2042-43, based on the fare formula of 1.5 times the BEST fare, provided for an 11% hike after every three years.[94] On 6 June 2013, the MMRDA stated that MMOPL had asked for the fares for Line 1 be increased by more than 50%, even though the metro had not yet been opened.[95] On 5 September 2013, the Chief Minister approved a revision of fares to between INR9 and INR13.[96] The notification allowed for fares to be raised by 11% every four years.[97]

On 11 September 2013, the MMOPL said that the metro would commence operations in December 2013, regardless of whether or not the fare increase was granted.[98] The Union Urban Department Ministry brought the Mumbai Metro under the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act of 1978 on 18 November 2013, thereby granting MMOPL the authority to fix fares. Prior to this notification, Line 1 was under the Indian Tramways Act, 1886, and the Chief Minister had the sole power to decide fare revisions.[96] In a letter to the state government dated 7 February, the Urban Development Ministry stated, "MMOPL can fix the fare afresh after obtaining the recommendation of the Fare Fixation Committee (FFC). However, no FFC recommendation is necessary to fix the initial fare." Fare fixation is governed by relevant provisions of the Metro Railways (operations and maintenance) Act, 2002.[99] The Ministry's notification permits initial fare fixation without an FFC recommendation, but makes it mandatory for subsequent fare revisions.[100]

In an interview with DNA published on 9 May, MMRDA Commissioner U.P.S. Madan declared that the August 2013 fares were final stating, "There is already a fare notification in place about metro, which is final. The notification was issued recently with a revision in ticket prices. The fare notification is final and binding."[101] Anil Galgali, an RTI activist and chairman of the Mumbai-based NGO Athak Seva Sangh, wrote a letter to the Chief Minister on 2 May 2014, urging him to use his special powers to prevent the fare hike. Galgali stated, "The Maharashtra state government should use its special powers and stop the new fares from being implemented. The delay in project and increase in cost is not the fault of Mumbai's citizens. It is the responsibility of the Maharashtra state government to act against MMOPL's demands." He further accused the MMOPL of "blackmailing the government and playing with citizens".[102][103] MMOPL announced the minimum and maximum fares on the line as INR10 and INR40 respectively in early May 2014.[104] However, MMOPL later announced a special introductory fare of INR10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service, i.e. from 8 June to 8 July.[7]

On 9 June 2014, the MMRDA filed a case in the Bombay High Court seeking appointment of an arbitrator for the fare.[105][106]

Stations[edit]

Metro rake arriving at Saki Naka station

There are 12 stations on Line 1. All stations have three levels that are accessed via stairs, escalators, and elevators. Trains leave from the second floor, which is the Platform level.[6] There is a maximum gap of 85 mm between the platform and train doors.[107]

There are 100 staircases (minimum 4 in each station), 45 elevators and 95 escalators on the 12 stations of Line 1.[6][107] Platforms have polycarbonate roofs which allow them to be naturally lit.[6] Stations feature murals created by university students. Metro authorities organised the "Majhi Metro" festival and requested art and architecture students to enter a contest, where the winners were awarded the opportunity to design and style a metro station, based on the theme "Mumbai".[108]

On 3 July 2013, MMOPL announced that Wi-Fi services were enabled at all 12 stations on the line. The facility is expected to be available on moving trains by the end of the month. You Broadband is the service provider.[109][110]

There are no parking facilities available on Line 1. The MMRDA stated that this was because there was no space available.[111] The Ghatkopar station is connected with the western side of the Ghatkopar railway station through a 12-meter wide foot-over-bridge.[112][113][114]

Line 1
# Station Name Inter-station distance (km) Connections
1 Versova 0 None
2 D.N. Nagar 0.955 Line 2 (planned)
3 Azad Nagar 0.796 None
4 Andheri 1.36 Andheri railway station
(Western Line, Harbour Line, Indian Railways)
5 Western Express Highway 1.007 None
6 Chakala 1.264 None
7 Airport Road 0.725 None
8 Marol Naka 0.598 Line 3 (planned)
9 Saki Naka 1.075 None
10 Asalpha 1.123 None
11 Jagruti Nagar 0.862 None
12 Ghatkopar 1.056 Ghatkopar railway station (Central Line)

Infrastructure[edit]

Rolling stock[edit]

A Mumbai Metro train in 2010.

Six international firms - Siemens, Bombardier, Alstom, Rotem-Hyundai, Chunyun, and Nippon Sharyo - were shortlisted to provide rolling stock for the line,[115] but CSR Nanjing was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock.[116] CSR Nanjing was awarded a contract in May 2008 to supply 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of INR6 billion (equivalent to INR9.1 billion or US$150 million in 2014). The first rake was shipped from Shanghai on 23 March 2010,[117] and the last rake arrived at Mumbai port by the end of February 2014.[48][118]

Line 1 was allotted 64 coaches.[119] Fourteen trains (of four cars) are in service during rush hour, and seven or eight in non-peak hours.[120] All coaches are air-conditioned and have humidity control, and designed to reduce noise and vibration.[121] Each coach is approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide[122] and has 48 seats. A coach has a capacity of 375 passengers, and a single four car train has a total capacity of 1500 passengers. The coach body is made of lightweight stainless steel, with fire resistant metal doors. Coaches have metallic silver colour exteriors, and can be covered with vinyl sheets to display advertisements. The interior features anti-skid floors, and longitudinal seats with dedicated space to accommodate wheelchairs.[107] Trains on Line 1 are fitted with the VTS Firetide 7010 video transmission system.[40] Coaches are also fitted with LED displays showing dynamic route map, and LCD TVs for entertainment, information and advertising. Windows in coaches are made of double glazed laminated glass to shut out noise. Each coach has 8 externally hung, sliding bi-parting doors except the pilot cabin which has only 2. Doors are broad to enable wheelchair access. The maximum gap between the station platform and the doors is 85 mm.[107] Trains are outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including 3D route maps, first-aid kits, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver.[21] Each coach contains a black box to assist in accident investigations.[21]

Interiors of the Metro coach

The rolling stock is cleaned daily in an automated washing plant utilizing eco-friendly technology. The washing plant lies on the track leading into the depot, and can be used by all trains entering or exiting the depot. The plant pre-wets the coaches and then adds the water-based detergent. The entire train is washed in one pass. At the final stage of the plant, reverse osmosis removes stains on glass and the smell left after washing. According to an MMOPL official, "The only action the Metro pilot will have to take is slow the train down to under 5 kmph while in the passage of the plant. Any train that does not need to be washed will pass the automated wash plant without any hindrance by moving at a speed of more than 5 kmph. A panel displays all data like the number of trains washed, the process a train is going through, the water and the chemical indicator. The trains can be cleaned in less then three minutes with just 600 litres of water, of which 80% is recyclable." Manual high-pressure washing would require 3 hours and 3,000 litres of water.[123]

Power[edit]

The ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 on 31 July 2008.[124][125]

Signaling and communications[edit]

Line 1 features an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements.[126] Siemens supplied the signalling and train control systems required for the project,[124] while Thales Group supplied the communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.[125]

Bridges[edit]

The cable-stayed metro bridge over the Western Express Highway in Andheri.

Line 1 contains a 1284 metre steel bridge, modeled on the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata,[127] crossing the Western Line at Andheri. Construction of the bridge, which is supported by 3 pillars, started in early 2012 and completed on 23 December 2012. The metropolitan administration claims the bridge was built in 288 days which is a record. It cost INR350 million (equivalent to INR400 million or US$6.5 million in 2014).[128] The bridge, which was initially planned to be made of concrete, was constructed of steel by Braithwaite Burn & Jessop Construction Company (BBJ), Kolkata, who also fabricated the Howrah Bridge. The steel girders were pre-fabricated at BBJ's Heavy Plant Yard in Kolkata. The bridge was then disassembled and transported over the course of a week to the site.[128]

Another notable bridge on Line 1, is the 175 metre long cable-stayed bridge over the Jogeshwari Flyover on the Western Express Highway. The Jogeshwari flyover is 13 metres above ground level, and the metro line travels 6.5 metres above it. The bridge is 39 metres above the ground at its highest point. Construction on the bridge started in mid-2009 and was completed on 24 August 2012. The bridge was built by MMOPL with the help of Switzerland-based VSL International Ltd.[129]

Wastewater treatment[edit]

On 1 October 2012, Xylem, a water technology provider based in the United States, announced that it had been awarded a contract to develop wastewater treatment and recycling systems for the Mumbai Metro. The value of the contract was undisclosed. The system will incorporate a 1.2-million-litre-capacity sewage treatment plant with wastewater recycling capabilities; trials of the plant were expected to be commissioned by late November 2012. The plant will be equipped with Xylem’s Sanitaire wastewater treatment technology, which is expected to help save up to 1.2 million litres of water a day.[130]

Operations[edit]

Operator[edit]

Logo of MMOPL, the joint venture that operates Line 1.

The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was awarded to the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA, in March 2007.[10] The MMOPL is a special purpose vehicle incorporated for the implementation of the Line 1 project. Reliance Infrastructure holds 69% of the equity share capital, while MMRDA holds 26% and remaining 5% is held by Veolia Transport.[131] MMOPL is the first public-private partnership initiative for a metro project in India.[132] The MMOPL is the designated Metro Railway Administrator of Line 1, as defined by the Metro Railway (Operations and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Although the Act requires the administrator to be under the scope of the Right to Information Act, a different mechanism is currently in place. The mechanism permits citizens to file RTI queries concerning Line 1 with the MMRDA, similar to the mechanism used by the privately financed Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon.[133]

Ticketing and fares[edit]

The minimum and maximum fares on the line are INR10 and INR40 respectively, roughly 1.5 times the current unsubsidized BEST bus fare for a given distance.[104] Line 1 utilizes an Automatic Fare Collection System (AFC).[6] Riders can pay their fare using tokens or refillable smart cards. Smart cards can be recharged online.[134]

From 19 June 2014, the MMOPL introduced an off-peak fare of INR5 on Line 1. The fare applies between any two stations, regardless of distance, from 5:30am to 8:00am on weekdays.[135] The relevant token must be purchased during off-peak hours and used within half an hour of purchase. Smartcards automatically deduct the lower fare if a commuter uses his card to exit the metro during off-peak hours.[136]

Frequency[edit]

Services operate on Line 1 for 18.5 hours everyday (5:30AM to midnight). Headway on the line is 4 minutes during peak hours and 7 minutes during non-peak hours.[137] Station dwell time is 30 seconds.[6] Approximately, 200-250 services are operated daily on the line.[138]

Ridership[edit]

A metro train has four coaches and an overall capacity of 1500 passengers (375 per coach).[139][140] The seating capacity of every coach alternates between 48 and 52, of which 4 seats in each coach are reserved for senior citizens and handicapped commuters.[141] From 15 August 2014, following demands by female commuters, 32 of 48 seats in the Versova-end coach of every four coach train is reserved for women. These seats are part of a reserved space for women which is separated from the rest of the coach by a strip separator and can accommodate 150 passengers, including standees. Male children under the age of 12, who are accompanied by female passengers, are permitted in the reserved space.[142][143][144] Prior to the introduction of the reserved space, 6 seats per coach had been reserved for women.[145]

According to the MMOPL, Line 1 has transported 18.5 million passengers as on 10 August 2014, with an average daily ridership of 300,000-500,000.[146]

Speed[edit]

The RDSO had initially permitted a maximum speed of only 50 km/hr. "These tracks have been constructed based on European standards but we follow Indian Railway standards. The two have differences on several technical parameters, including the tolerance limit of tracks and even curves," said a railway official.[147] The slower speed would have added around 7 minutes to the journey time.[147] Another reason why trains on the line operate at slower speeds is because stations are only 800 meters to 1 km, which prevents trains from picking up speed.[147]

Trains operate at an average speed of 35 km/hr,[148] and cover the 11.40 km distance in 21 minutes.[6]

Security[edit]

In a statement on released 13 December 2013, MMOPL announced, "Trained sniffer dogs will patrol each of the stations. There will be security guards in civilian dress who will intermingle with the public to check for any suspicious activity outside and inside the station premises." Security is provided by private security guards deployed by MMOPL and the Maharashtra State Security Corporation.[149]

Other security measures on Line 1 include metal detectors,[107] security cameras, frisking each passenger, and running their luggage through X-ray scanners.[149] All stations are fitted with fire alarm systems and fire safety devices, and trains have fire resistant metal doors.[107] Passengers are prohibited from carrying luggage measuring more than 2 ft x 1.5 ft on the metro.[150]

Stations are actively monitored by security personnel. A senior metro official explained, "The trained unit will keep an eye in the vicinity of Metro stations in plain clothes, posing as common men. The unit will be on the lookout for mischievous activities in Metro stations by miscreants and take necessary action. Depending on the kind and level of trouble and threat posed by such people, action will be taken against them. Senior security personnel will take a call if these persons can be punished or penalised under the Central Metro Act, or should be handed over to the local police for necessary action."[151]

Following an incident on the mostly underground Kolkata Metro Line 1 on 23 June 2014, where a non-AC metro train carrying passengers developed a glitch and got stuck inside a tunnel for an hour and a half, Mumbai Metro officials commented that their system has an emergency evacuation plan in place. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The evacuation process will take two minutes if passengers are asked to alight mid-section and 7-10 minutes if the train has to be taken to the nearest station."[152]

Retail and advertising[edit]

In December 2013, Times Innovative Media OOH acquired the advertising rights for Line 1 for a period of 15 years.[153]

All 12 stations on the line have food and beverage shops, convenience stores, and ATMs. Some stations have mobile accessories stores.[154] Lite Bite Foods Pvt Ltd (LBF) was awarded the food and beverage concessions across all stations on Line 1. LBF supports these outlets from their 6,400 sq ft commissary near the international airport.[155][156]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]


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