|Locale||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Daily ridership||300,000-500,000 (August 2014)|
|Opening||8 June 2014|
|Owner||Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)|
|Operator(s)||Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd
|Rolling stock||CSR Nanjing|
|Line length||11.40 km (7.08 mi)|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Minimum radius||100 metres (330 ft)|
|Electrification||25 kV AC at 50 Hz via overhead catenary|
|Operating speed||80 km/h (50 mph)|
Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro, also referred to as Metro I or the Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar (VAG) corridor, is part of the metro system for the city of Mumbai, India. The 11.40 km line is fully elevated, and consists of 12 stations from Versova to Ghatkopar. The line connects the eastern and western suburbs of Mumbai. It was built at an estimated cost of 4321 crore (US$700 million) and is operated by the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL). The MMOPL is a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA).
Line 1 started operations on 8 June 2014.
- 1 History
- 2 Finances
- 3 Stations
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Operations
- 6 Retail and advertising
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Government of Maharashtra through the MMRDA, in order to improve the traffic and transportation scenario in Mumbai and to cater to the future travel needs in the next 2-3 decades began exploring the viability of various alternative mass transit systems which are efficient, economically viable and environment friendly. In this context, a detailed feasibility study was carried out under Indo-German technical co-operation by entrusting the consultancy work to Tewet in association with DE-Consult GmbH and Tata Consultancy Services, during 1997–2000. The study recommended a mass transit corridor from Andheri to Ghatkopar as potentially bankable and economically viable, after examining a number of alternative corridors and alignments. This study was updated by the MMRDA in May 2004. Meanwhile, the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) prepared the master plan for Mumbai Metro, wherein they recommended extending the Andheri-Ghatkopar section to Versova as part of the master plan and identified it as a priority corridor for implementation. The State Government declared the project as a "public vital infrastructure project" and designated the MMRDA as the Project Implementation Agency (PIA). The Versova-Andheri-Ghatkopar corridor was chosen as the first line in the master plan to be implemented.
The Mumbai Suburban Railway connects Mumbai from north to south. However, east-west connectivity is poor. The Versova-Ghatkopar route had no suburban rail link and was serviced by either BEST buses, autos or taxis. Line 1 provides east-west rail connectivity between the Eastern and Western suburbs of Mumbai. It facilitates interchange between the Mumbai Suburban Railway and Mumbai Metro at Andheri and Ghatkopar stations. The line significantly reduces the journey time from Versova to Ghatkopar from 90–120 minutes to 21 minutes, and bypasses about 45 traffic signals. It also provides rail connectivity to the MIDC, SEEPZ and other commercial hubs.
|Civil Works – Viaduct||Simplex Infrastructure Ltd|
|Civil Works – Stations||Sew Infrastructure Ltd|
|Civil Works – Special Bridges|
|Civil Works – Depot Earthworks||Shyam Narayan & Bros|
|Rolling stock||CSR Nanjing|
|Power Supply Traction & SCADA||ABB|
|Trackwork||VNC Rail One|
|Automatic Fare Collection||Indra|
|Depot Machinery & Plant||Awarded to various suppliers|
|Depot Civil Works||Ahluwalia Contracts (India) Ltd.|
The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was awarded to the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA, in March 2007. Simplex Infrastructure Ltd was the main technical contractor. The foundation stone for the project was laid by the then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 21 June 2006, and the work order for the same was issued on 21 January 2008, but actual work on the corridor began only on 8 February 2008. At the time of commencement of work, MMOPL stated that it aimed to complete the project in a record 30 months, although the concession agreement specified the period of construction to be five years. In September 2011, MMOPL officials claimed that trial runs on the first section of the corridor, the 3-km Versova–D.N. Nagar–Azad Nagar stretch, would start by February 2012, with a view to opening the stretch to commuters by March or April 2012. The deadline for completion of Line 1 has been shifted several times. The following months have all, at some point of time, been announced as the deadline for completion of the project - July and September 2010, July 2011, March and November 2012, September 2013 (Phase 1: Versova to Airport Road) and December 2013 (Phase 2: Airport Road to Ghatkopar), and 31 March 2014. According to the MMRDA, the main causes for the delays were shifting the utility services, absence of the right of way due to encroachments and obtaining permission from the railway authorities.
The MMOPL blamed the delay in construction on the MMRDA. RInfra officials stated that the MMRDA had to acquire land along the route and provide "right of way" to the MMOPL by December 2008. Although it was supposed to have been given a 59% right of way with land free of encumbrances, the MMOPL started work with right of way being made available only on 45% of the land. As of August 2008, the MMRDA had only freed up 20% of required land. The lack of maps of underground utilities made the task more difficult. As per the contract between the MMOPL and the MMRDA, the MMRDA was supposed to hand over complete right of way to the MMOPL by mid-2008. The MMOPL eventually received nearly 100% of the land required for the project in December 2011, with the exceptions of the minaret of a mosque near Andheri metro station and a portion of the roof of Maheshwar Temple near Jagruti Nagar station that still needed to be demolished. Both impediments were resolved in October 2012 and the MMRDA finally obtained 100% right of way along the entire alignment of Line 1.
By October 2011, the majority of the corridor's track-support pillars and girders had been laid, and the 12 individual stations were 70% complete, with most of the stations rising above platform level. However, land acquisition and right-of-way issues, along with problems with the construction of a Metro-related viaduct, delayed the line's predicted completion to summer 2012. In May 2012, the Indian Bank restructured the Mumbai Metro's 1.08 billion (US$17 million) loan account, citing the project's land use problems.
On 1 May 2013, a successful 2 km trial run from Versova to Azad Nagar stations was conducted on Line 1 in the presence of Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, who stated that the line would open to the public from September 2013. However, MMRDA officials told Business Standard in August 2013 that the metro would be delayed further as it had not received approval from the Central Railway Safety Commissioner, and also did not complete various amenities, including lifts, staircases, canteen and seating arrangement for commuters. The first major trial run on Line 1, began at 6:45pm IST on 3 June 2013 from Versova station, and covered the 7 km stretch to Airport station by 7:05pm, according to MMRDA additional commissioner S.V.R. Srinivas, who was on board the train. Trial runs had been conducted for the past month, the most notable being the trial run on 1 May 2013, that was officially flagged off by the Chief Minister. However, trials prior to the June 3 trial, were restricted to the three kilometres between Versova and Azad Nagar stations on JP Road.
Seven metro trains ran the full stretch of Line 1 on 6 December 2013 at high speed to conduct "system integration" checks. The trial run was the first time that several trains ran back-to-back on Line 1. The trains maintained a frequency of three to three-and-a-half minutes and achieved the precision timing of 21 minutes for the full run. MMOPL officials stated that the trial was conducted to check the speed and reliability of the trains, and also the working of the control systems, signals, energy-efficient lighting system, on-board passenger announcement system and train-to-control-room radio communication system. They also tested whether trains stopped properly at platforms and doors opened as desired. Several more tests were conducted before the metro opened to the public. According to the information given by the MMRDA to a Right to Information (RTI) query filed by activist Anil Galgali, around 5% of the civil works of the line were still pending as of December 2013. The reply to the RTI query stated that Versova, D.N. Nagar, Azad Nagar, Chakala and Airport Road stations were 99% complete as of December 2013. Andheri, Saki Naka, Marol and Western Express Highway stations were in the range of 95-98%. Construction work at Ghatkopar was 90% complete, Asalfa and Jagruti Nagar stations were 80% and 85% complete respectively.
The MMRDA sent a letter to RInfra on 31 December 2013, asking them to change the logo of the metro system from Reliance Metro to Mumbai Metro. The MMRDA insisted that the demand was within the concession agreement signed between the state government and RInfra, in which the fine print stated that the project should be titled the Mumbai Metro. RInfra issued a press statement on 2 January 2014, blaming the MMRDA for having "failed to provide any guidance on this subject during the bidding stage and/or during the implementation stage". RInfra claimed that the logo and brand name Reliance Metro had been finalised in July 2013 as the MMRDA had not responded to the designs and logos submitted. RInfra also stated that it was eligible to name the entire project after the company, as it held a majority stake in the project. Republican Party of India (Athavale) workers protested the name Reliance Metro on 8 January 2014 by blackening boards with Reliance's logo at Chakala metro station. The party demanded that the metro be renamed as "Mumbai Metro". On 11 January, Shiv Sena MLA Subhash Desai sent a letter to Chief Minister Chavan opposing the Reliance Metro name, and expressing support for the name Mumbai Metro. The Mumbai Metro name also received support from Maharashtra's Minority Development Department minister Arif Naseem Khan. In February 2014, U.P.S. Madan, metropolitan commissioner of MMRDA, confirmed that RInfra had agreed to rename the project as Mumbai Metro from Reliance Metro. However, even by April 2014, the Reliance Metro logos that had been stuck on trains and stations had not been removed. MMOPL officials stated that they had not yet received any new logo design, and were still awaiting the same. The MMOPL unveiled a new logo in a press briefing held on 30 April 2014 at the Azad Nagar car depot in Andheri (West). The new logo, displayed at all stations on the line, features the name "Mumbai Metro" more prominently, than the names of Reliance Infrastructure and the MMRDA, which are also included in the new logo. The new name was also confirmed by Chavan at a press conference at Vidhan Bhawan on 14 June 2014. When asked about RInfra posting its "Reliance Metro" branding at some metro stations, he said, "It is 'Mumbai Metro' and we will ensure that it remains the same in future also".
On 6 February 2014, RInfra announced that construction of the metro line had been completed, along with signal testing and system integration. It also stated that it had already received approvals from relevant authorities including the fire department, and electrical inspector general. However, the construction of approach roads to stations such as Jagruti Nagar and Asalfa Road had not been completed, although this work was to be undertaken by the MMRDA, and not MMOPL. Engineers used over 210 different designs to construct the pillars on the corridor. The MMOPL along with the Mumbai Fire Brigade and the Mumbai Police jointly conducted a fire mock drill successfully at the Airport Road station on 14 March 2014. The purpose of the mock drill was to assess the preparedness of the three agencies in case of an emergency. The drill was the last one conducted as part of a joint Central Disaster Management Plan, prepared through MCGM to take care of passengers and property in situation of eventuality. During trials in mid-March 2014, the Mumbai Metro ran time-tabled trains at a headway of almost 4 minutes. The trials were a part of reliability, availability, maintainability and sustainability (RAMS) tests that are a part of any normal railway operations network.
A 10-member team of the Research, Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) began conducting oscillation trials along the entire 11.4-km stretch of Line 1 on 31 January 2014. The trials included study of train behaviour like acceleration and deceleration, suspension, emergency brake distance and track parameters, and adherence to safety and technical specifications. Oscillation trials were conducted to test the track-worthiness of new or modified design of rolling stock. Emergency braking distance trials aim at testing the braking potential. MMOPL stated that the trials were completed in a record time of 11 days, much ahead of the RDSO's scheduled time of 22 days. After completing the tests, the RDSO had to submit it's report to the Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety, Lucknow for final certification, after which the MMOPL could approach the Commissioner of Metro Railway Safety (CMRS) for safety trials. However, the submission of the report by the RDSO was delayed a public interest litigation (PIL) filed in the Bombay High Court on the height of Mumbai Suburban Railway station platforms. The RDSO had to divert its resources to inspect the suburban railway platforms, due to commuters falling into the gap between the platform and the trains. The MMOPL was granted a "speed certificate" from the RDSO on 2 April. MMRDA and MMOPL authorities jointly applied to the CMRS for safety certification on April 4.
Then CMRS for the western circle P.S. Baghel began physically inspecting the line on 18 April, and completed it on 28 April. Baghel inspected the entire metro system including the rolling stock, workshops, depot, operation control centre, corridor, stations, tracks and overhead equipment. Following the inspection, Baghel concluded, "Prima facie, I found all the constructions and specifications of the Metro quite satisfactory, but there are a few finishing works remaining which would be taken care of very soon." The CMRS required certain minor changes such as levelling of the access area at the Jagruti Nagar station (towards Ghatkopar), and improving the quality of elevators and stairs. These conditions had to be accepted and implemented before the metro could begin operations. The CMRS also stated that he would travel to Lucknow to discuss the inspection with RDSO officials and then cross check all the other necessary approvals, including rolling stocks, from the Railway Board. The line received safety clearance from the CMRS on 2 May 2014. On the same day that the CMRS awarded the certificate for commercial operation, the MMRDA in reply to an RTI query stated that 98% of the project work was complete and some minor works were still in progress. The MMOPL clarified that the RTI information provided by MMRDA was based on the monthly progress report of January 2014, and that all project works had been completed as had been announced in February.
The CMRS safety check is the last statutory certification requirement before the line is opened to the public. However, the MMRDA had to also obtain approval for the locomotives from the railway board. The Congress-NCP government had wanted to open the line by 24 April 2014, the voting day in Mumbai for the 2014 general elections, with Chief Minister Prithviraj Chavan, who was also the MMRDA chairperson, especially keen on the date. Congress candidates Gurudas Kamat and Priya Dutt, and NCP candidate Sanjay Dina Patil also wanted the line to open then, so as to gain political mileage. The MMOPL approached the Railway Board for approval of rolling stock (includes the rakes and wheel) on 22 April. MMRDA and MMOPL officials stated that the line would open within 7 days of receiving approval from the Railway Board. Despite the MMOPL submitting the necessary paperwork on 22 April, the Railway Board did not grant approve until late May 2014. According to railway officials, this was because the rakes and wheels used in the metro were "of a new kind, with newer dimensions", and required close inspection. Another reason given for the delay was the change of government at the Centre following the 2014 general elections. Railway Minister D.V. Sadananda Gowda gave the final approval on 5 June. MMOPL Chief Executive Abhay Mishra announced on 7 June that the metro would open the following day.
Even prior to the opening of the metro line, pedestrians, commuters and some media outlets expressed major concerns about the dispersal of pedestrian and vehicular traffic under the metro stations. This prompted the MMRDA to take up the development of Station Area Traffic Improvement Scheme (SATIS) throughout the route. A key proposal of the SATIS was the integration of the metro rail system with the BEST. The BEST and the BMC jointly worked towards relocating existing bus stops. Dedicated bus stops were built, and BEST bus feeder routes were created along the metro corridor. These stops have indicators that flash timings of next metro train's arrival. Similarly, indicators were provided inside the metro coaches that flash information about BEST bus routes for onward journey from respective stations. The MMRDA widened the 1.8 m-2.5 m footpaths below metro stations by an additional 1.5 metres, and declared a 330 metre area around the stations as a "Metro-Influence-Zone" where illegal parking and hawking are prohibited. The Mumbai traffic police will ensure that there is no illegal parking around the station areas, and the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) will prevent illegal hawking along the metro stations. Other steps taken under SATIS included provision of a uniform two-plus-two lane traffic that will be kept open at all times, dedicated two wheeler parking at all stations, and railings along the foot path to prevent jaywalking below metro stations.
Eight accidents occurred during the construction of Line 1. The first occurred in May 2008 when 1 person was killed and another injured, when a pile rig collapsed at a construction site in Andheri (West). In 2009, 4 people were injured, when a steel reinforcement cage and temporary scaffolding of a concrete pillar caved in it Andheri (East). In April 2012, a crane at a construction site in Ghatkopar, veered off a truck and crashed on a portion of the nearby Sarvodaya Hospital. No one was injured as the affected portion of the hospital building was empty at the time.
On 5 September 2012, a slab collapsed at the under-construction Subhash Nagar metro station in Andheri, killing one construction worker and injuring 16 people. Following the incident, construction work on the metro was suspended. MMOPL fined the contractor, Hindustan Construction Company, 10 lakh (equivalent to 11 lakh or US$19,000 in 2014). On 11 September 2012, MMOPL appointed Geneva-based SGS Consultants as independent safety consultants for the construction of Line 1. Construction resumed on 25 September 2012, under the supervision of SGS Consultants, after the consultant submitted its preliminary report to the MMOPL. The consultant remained with the project until the completion of Line 1 to help prevent future accidents. The accident was suspected to have been caused by weak temporary foundation to the under-construction slab and rain when the concrete was being mounted atop.
Another report, prepared by an MMRDA appointed independent committee of IIT Bombay civil engineering professor K.V.K. Rao and S.B. Tamsekar former PWD chief engineer, revealed that the scaffolding gave way due to a cavity in the soil which had become loose due to heavy rain the previous day. According to SVR Srinivas, then additional metropolitan commissioner at MMRDA, "The accident was basically due to voids in the support. The support weakened due to rain and utilities underneath created voids. So, it was basically due to loosening of the soil due to construction activity and its erosion due to heavy rain that the support weakened. If because of any reason a part of the support settles, stress increases on the staging and causes it to fail leading to a cascading effect". The committee recommended that the contractor ascertain stability of the sub-strata before beginning such activities. In case of instability, remedial measures must be taken to fix it before work can start. The report also reiterated that safety checklists should be enforced and construction workers strictly wear safety gear. The MMRDA stated that it would not be able to take action based on the report and that it's probe was done to understand exactly what had gone wrong, while the MMOPL inquiry was internal.
The first metro service was flagged off by Maharashtra Chief Minister Prithivraj Chavan, along with Reliance Chairman Anil Ambani and wife Tina Ambani, on 8 June at 10:10 am from Versova station. Chavan's appearance at the inauguration came despite the fact that he had threatened to boycott the ceremony the previous day to protest RInfra's decision to raise fares. The line was scheduled to open to the public at 12:10pm, with the first service departing from Ghatkopar station. This was delayed by 10 minutes and departed at 12:20 pm. The train was further delayed by nearly half an hour, as it had to halt beyond the planned dwell time at certain stations due to a technical glitch. This in turn caused some other trains to also be delayed by 20–30 minutes.
MMOPL announced a special introductory fare of 10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service. The authority also announced that children under the age of 12 years and/or up to 4 feet tall, and accompanied by their parents, could travel for free on opening weekend. On opening day, the line was operated for 11 hours, and carried 2.40 lakh commuters. The second day, which saw the line operated for its entire 18.5 hour schedule, saw 2.97 lakh commuters use the line. Line 1 had transported 1 million passengers by 4:30 pm on 11 June or within 59 operating hours; reaching the milestone quicker than any other Indian metro system. In the first week of operations, 21.56 lakh commuters travelled on the line, at an average of 3.08 lakh daily. Within days of the metro's opening, there was a considerable drop in the number of commuters travelling by BEST buses and autos. BEST stated that at least 11,000 of its daily commuters between Versova and Ghatkopar had switched to the metro. Buses plying the more than 20 routes that the company operated both from Andheri bus stations (west and east) and Ghatkopar ran empty during morning and evening peak hours. Authorities estimated a 25% reduction in BEST commuters along the route as a result of them metro. Ticket sales on BEST Bus Route Number 340, the most popular bus route between Andheri and Ghatkopar, dropped by 1.5 lakh in the first 3 days of Line 1's opening.
On 14 June 2014, a bird hit one of the overhead wires at Marol station causing a spark at the overhead lines. Due to the monsoon season, the MMOPL took a precautionary measure and delayed trains by more than half an hour on both sides. This was the first disruption of metro services since the line's opening.
The original estimated cost of constructing Line 1 was 2356 crore (equivalent to 39 billion or US$630 million in 2014) when the contract was signed in March 2007. However, delays increased the cost by 84% over six years, and the project cost was 4321 crore (US$700 million). The project was funded by nearly 2,000 crore of bank loans, 650 crore as viability gap funding from the Government of Maharashtra, and the balance of around 1,350 crore contributed by Reliance. Loans were obtained through a consortium of 10 banks. IDBI Bank was the lead bank, and the others included Canara Bank, Indian Bank, Karur Vyasya Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Central Bank of India, Corporate Bank, State Bank of Hyderabad, Bank of Maharashtra and IIFC-UK. Interest cost of the project was at 13.25% at the end of April 2014, a sharp increase from 10% in 2007-2008. The information about the cost escalation was obtained under an RTI request on 20 August 2013 by activist Anil Galgali, which stated that the MMOPL board members, in a meeting held in May 2012, had approved a revised budget that cost around 4321 crore (equivalent to 49 billion or US$800 million in 2014). As per the cost sharing formula, the construction cost was funded according to a 70:30 debt equity ratio between the MMOPL and the MMRDA. However, the agreement signed between the Government of Maharashtra and MMOPL, also stated that the MMRDA would not have to share the escalated cost and its cost sharing formula would be the same even after the escalation. The entire escalation was borne by the MMOPL. The Asian Age reported that RInfra had funded almost 60% of the increased cost of 1965 crore (US$320 million) through a loan, and the balance was raised through debt.
To offset the escalation, RInfra-led MMOPL asked for a 130-150% hike in the metro fare structure, which the state government had fixed to be between 9 and 13. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The principal reason for an increase is the inability of MMRDA to provide 100 per cent unencumbered RoW, which was contractually committed by MMRDA to be handed over to MMOPL on or before September 2007. So far, 100 per cent unencumbered RoW is yet to be handed over. The increase in fares is necessitated due to an increase in operating costs, owing to a steep increase in all economic indices; inflation, interest rate, foreign exchange, etc. These factors have also increased the estimated project cost." However, the MMRDA denied the request stating that the cost escalation of the project and the fare hike demand were separate issues. An MMRDA official told Business Standard, "There is no question of any fare hike right now, as the issue will be considered after the service is started by MMOPL. The rise in capital expenditure will not impact fares immediately."
MMOPL signed loan agreements to raise debts totaling 1,194 crore, and achieved the financial closure for Line 1 in October 2008. In a uniquely structured project financing model, MMOPL raised this debt from a group of banks led by IDBI, Corporation Bank, Karur Vyasa Bank, Canara Bank, Indian Bank and Oriental Bank of Commerce. IDBI Bank contributed 300 crore for the project, IIFCL UK contributed US$ 70 million (around 287 crore) as a foreign currency loan for the project, and the rest was contributed by the remaining banks. As per the original project cost of 2,356 crore, the project would have had a debt component of 1,194 crore, while the equity would have been 512 crore, and the MMRDA, the concessioning authority would provide a capital grant 650 crore. The cost of borrowing for the rupee component, which constituted about 75% of the total debt, was 12.25%, while the foreign currency loan was at 3.5% above LIBOR. The debt was raised amidst a tight global liquidity position, based on a unique funding model, where the only recourse available to the lenders is to the cash flow generated from the project instead of the project assets. According to then MMOPL Director K.P. Maheshwari, "The repayment model is also unique as for the first time the project's assets are not charged to the lender as security."
The Union Government had committed viability gap funding (or the public sector's contribution in a public private partnership project), of 471 crore, which amounted to 20% of the project's original cost of 2,356 crore. The Union Government released only 310.5 crore of its share as of June 2012. The final tranche of 160 crore was approved for release only in February 2014. The amount had been pending since 2012. UPS Madan, metropolitan commissioner, MMRDA, stated that the delay was due to procedural issues, saying, "In February or March last year , the UD [Urban Development] ministry had recommended the funds for disbursement to the Department of Economic Affairs. But it could not come up in the budget last year because they had some queries."
Dispute over initial fare
As per a notification issued by the state government in 2004, the fare as per 2003-04 levels was fixed as 6 up to 3 km, 8 for 3–8 km and 10 beyond 8 km. The originally agreed tariff hike schedule until 2042-43, based on the fare formula of 1.5 times the BEST fare, provided for an 11% hike after every three years. On 6 June 2013, the MMRDA stated that MMOPL had asked for the fares for Line 1 be increased by more than 50%, even though the metro had not yet been opened. On 5 September 2013, the Chief Minister approved a revision of fares to between 9 and 13. The decision was based on the 2004 tariff for BEST buses. The notification allowed for fares to be raised by 11% every four years, meaning that at the end of the 35-year concession period in 2044-45, the minimum fare would have been a minimum of 24 and maximum of 37.
On 11 September 2013, the MMOPL assured its board that the metro would commence operations in December 2013, irrespective of whether the state granted the requested fare hike. However, the MMOPL also requested that the state intervene at the earliest and consider its proposal for a 130 to 150 per cent hike in tariff. MMOPL officials pointed out that BEST fares increased by 140% since 2004, apart from being highly subsidized. The Union Urban Department Ministry brought the Mumbai Metro under the Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act of 1978 on 18 November 2013, thereby granting MMOPL the authority to fix fares. Prior to this notification, Line 1 was under the Indian Tramways Act, 1886, and the Chief Minister had the sole power to decide fare revisions. In a letter to the state government dated 7 February, the Urban Development Ministry stated, "MMOPL can fix the fare afresh after obtaining the recommendation of the Fare Fixation Committee (FFC). However, no FFC recommendation is necessary to fix the initial fare." Fare fixation is governed by relevant provisions of the Metro Railways (operations and maintenance) Act, 2002. The Ministry's notification permits initial fare fixation without an FFC recommendation, but makes it mandatory for subsequent fare revisions.
The MMOPL told the press in April 2014 that the state government notification for the implementation of the project under the Tramways Act was "deemed to have been superseded with effect from November 18, 2013". According to the MMOPL, this meant that the initial fares would be governed by sections 33 and 34 of the Metro Railway Act. In an interview with DNA published on 9 May, MMRDA Commissioner U.P.S. Madan declared that the August 2013 fares were final stating, "There is already a fare notification in place about metro, which is final. The notification was issued recently with a revision in ticket prices. The fare notification is final and binding." Madan further claimed that even though RInfra was the Metro Railway Administrator (MRA) under the Metro Railway Act, 2002, it was subject to the terms and conditions mentioned in the concession agreement. Anil Galgali, an RTI activist and chairman of the Mumbai-based NGO Athak Seva Sangh, wrote a letter to the Chief Minister on 2 May 2014, urging him to use his special powers to prevent the fare hike. Galgali stated, "The Maharashtra state government should use its special powers and stop the new fares from being implemented. The delay in project and increase in cost is not the fault of Mumbai's citizens. It is the responsibility of the Maharashtra state government to act against MMOPL's demands." He further accused the MMOPL of "blackmailing the government and playing with citizens". MMOPL announced the minimum and maximum fares on the line as 10 and 40 respectively in early May 2014. However, MMOPL later announced a special introductory fare of 10, regardless of distance, for the first 30 days of service, i.e. from 8 June to 8 July.
There are 12 stations on Line 1. All stations have three levels - Road level, Concourse Level and Platform level. At least two sets of covered staircase and up/down escalators on both sides of roads on footpath leading to concourse level are provided at every station. Stations are fully accessible to physically challenged and elderly passengers through the provision of special lifts. The Concourse level area is divided into non-paid area and paid areas. The non-paid area houses facilities like ticketing counters, ticket vending machines, gates for entry/exit and other facilities like retail outlets, ATMs, toilets etc. The paid area is only accessible for valid ticket holders and gives access to platforms. Trains leave from the second floor which is the Platform level. There is a maximum gap of 85 mm between the platform and train doors.
All stations have public information display systems for info schedule of trains coming on platform. All signboards on Line 1 are in Marathi, English and Hindi. Baggage screening machines and door frame metal detectors are located at all entry points. All stations are connected through fibre optics for communication. There are 100 staircases (minimum 4 in each station), 45 elevators and 95 escalators on the 12 stations of Line 1. Platforms have polycarbonate roofs which allow them to be naturally lit. Stations feature murals and their interior walls are embellished with graffiti and doodles. Metro authorities organised the "Majhi Metro" festival and requested art and architecture students to enter a contest, where the winners were awarded the opportunity to design and style a metro station, based on the theme "Mumbai". The designs depict various aspects of life in the city such as overcrowding, price rise, migration and construction sites.
On 3 July 2013, MMOPL announced that Wi-Fi services were enabled at all 12 stations on the line. The facility is expected to be available on moving trains by the end of the month. You Broadband is the service provider.
There are no parking facilities available on Line 1. The MMRDA stated that this was because there was no space available. The Ghatkopar station is connected with the western side of the Ghatkopar railway station through a 12-meter wide foot-over-bridge. As per the station area improvement plan, a 100-metre space outside metro stations are termed as "influence zones". Parking, hawkers and encroachments are prohibited in these zones.
All facilities of the Mumbai Metro including the stations, metro coaches and toilets, are disabled-friendly. A gradual ramp is provided from road level to the elevator podium below metro stations for use by disabled, visually impaired or senior commuters. At the end of the ramp, overhead covers are present to protect against inclement weather. Elevators at stations are large enough to accommodate wheel chair-bound commuters, and the elevator buttons have information in Braille apart from regular updates of operations by way of announcements. Tactile paving/flooring has been provided from the elevators at the concourse to the ticket vending machines, and then till the edge of the platform to guide the visually impaired along the route. One of the AFC gates is wide enough to allow entry of people on wheelchairs. The ticket vending machines will also aid passengers with speech impairment and signage design, including pictograms with high contrast levels, intended to help those with limited visual capacity and cognitive disabilities. The toilets are specially designed to accommodate wheelchairs and facilitate disabled persons. All coaches have designated space for wheelchairs, alongside the benches, and emergency intercom devices are also installed near the wheelchair space, at a lower height to enable the disabled to use the facility.
|#||Station Name||Inter-station distance (km)||Connections|
|2||D.N. Nagar||0.955||Line 2 (planned)|
|4||Andheri||1.36||Andheri railway station
(Western Line, Harbour Line, Indian Railways)
|5||Western Express Highway||1.007||None|
|8||Marol Naka||0.598||Line 3 (planned)|
|12||Ghatkopar||1.056||Ghatkopar railway station (Central Line)|
Six international firms - Siemens, Bombardier, Alstom, Rotem-Hyundai, Chunyun, and Nippon Sharyo - were shortlisted to provide rolling stock for the line, but CSR Nanjing was ultimately chosen to supply rolling stock. CSR Nanjing was awarded a contract in May 2008 to supply 16 trains of 4 cars each for a total fee of 6 billion (equivalent to 9.1 billion or US$150 million in 2014). The design of the rakes is derived from the Chinese domestic Type A design, with the stainless steel body widened by 200 mm to increase capacity by 72 to 390 passengers. These trains were CSR's first 25 kV AC metro trains, and the first metro trains to be built in China for India. The first rake was shipped from Shanghai on 23 March 2010, and the last rake arrived at Mumbai port by the end of February 2014.
Line 1 was allotted 64 coaches, making up a total of 16 four-coach trains of which 14 operate on the line. The remaining two trains are kept on standby - one in maintenance standby (cold standby) which is in the yard and the other on operation standby (hot standby) which is the line. All coaches are air-conditioned and have humidity control, and designed to reduce noise and vibration. Each coach is approximately 2.9 metres (9.5 ft) wide and has 48 seats. A coach has a capacity of 375 passengers, and a single four car train has a total capacity of 1500 passengers. The coach body is made of lightweight stainless steel, with fire resistant metal doors. Coaches have metallic silver colour exteriors, and can be covered with vinyl sheets to display advertisements. The interior features anti-skid floors, and longitudinal seats with dedicated space to accommodate wheelchairs. Trains on Line 1 are fitted with the VTS Firetide 7010 video transmission system. Coaches are also fitted with LED displays showing dynamic route map, and LCD TVs for entertainment, information and advertising. Windows in coaches are made of double glazed laminated glass to shut out noise. Each coach has 8 externally hung, sliding bi-parting doors except the pilot cabin which has only 2. Doors are broad to enable wheelchair access. The maximum gap between the station platform and the doors is 85 mm. Trains are outfitted with a number of features for safety and convenience, including 3D route maps, first-aid kits, fire-fighting equipment and intercom systems permitting communication with the train driver. Passengers can press a button inside each coach to directly communicate with the train pilot in case of an emergency. Each coach also contains a black box to assist in accident investigations.
The rolling stock is cleaned daily in an automated washing plant utilizing eco-friendly technology. The washing plant lies on the track leading into the depot, and can be used by all trains entering or exiting the depot. The plant pre-wets the coaches, before mixing the chemicals in water. It then cleans takes 3 minutes to clean the coaches evenly from all sides. According to an MMOPL official, "The only action the Metro pilot will have to take is slow the train down to under 5 kmph while in the passage of the plant. Any train that does not need to be washed will pass the automated wash plant without any hindrance by moving at a speed of more than 5 kmph. A panel displays all data like the number of trains washed, the process a train is going through, the water and the chemical indicator. The trains can be cleaned in less then three minutes with just 600 litres of water, of which 80% is recyclable." Manual washing with pressure pipes would require 3 hours and 3,000 litres of water. The entire train can be washed in one pass due to precise brush arrangements. Reverse osmosis removes stains on glass and the smell left after washing, at the final stage of the plant. According to the MMOPL, the process uses no acid, less water and a chemical-free, natural and water-based detergent.
If a metro train pilot is incapacitated due to any reason, a "dead man device" is activated within a few seconds bringing the train to a halt. A train pilot also has the option to switch the train to auto mode in case he/she is unwell. The Operation Control Centre (OCC) immediately receives information that the train has stopped between stations, and will dispatch a station controller to the stalled train, who can then drive it to the next station. The OCC will also control the movement of other trains on the same line to avoid any accidents.
The ABB Group was awarded the contract for supplying power systems to Line 1 on 31 July 2008. ABB will be responsible for the supply, installation, testing and commissioning of traction electrification, power supply, power distribution and SCADA system for the first metro corridor. A 30 metre neutral section has been provided between the Chakala and Airport Road stations to ensure uninterrupted power supply. This neutral section divides the entire overhead equipment section into two parts - one from Versova to the neutral section at Chakala station, and the other from Ghatkopar to the neutral section at Airport Road station - and makes them function independently. Power, at 25,000V, is fed from the D.N. Nagar and Marol receiving sub-stations (RSS) for the stretch from Versova to Chakala station, and Ghatkopar to Airport Road respectively. If one RSS fails, the neutral section can be switched on so that either of the substations can run the entire line. Diesel generator sets of 180KV capacity are provided at each station to run the essential load during power failure. Diesel generator sets of 1000KV at DN Nagar Depot work station will run the control rooms and the essential load during power failure. The centralised system will help the technical staff restore power supply as soon as possible
The choice of 25KV alternating current (AC) power supply was criticized by MMRDA director (technical) S P Khade in an article in a railway industry magazine. Khade wrote that the current method of power supply could be dangerous for buildings close to the metro line and a hazard during the monsoon. He also warned that parting of overhead wires and other equipment could be dangerous for those on the road below, as they would hang down from the elevated corridor. He instead favoured 1,500V direct current (DC) power supply, which he claimed was used by 97% of metros around the world. He also argued land required for a DC substation would have been one-third of what is needed for an AC substation, and that DC trains were lighter, leading to higher pick-up speeds, lower power requirements and a lighter load on the elevated structure. Khade explained that he did not take up the issue as MMDRA director, because he claimed that the decision to use 25KV had been made before assumed the post.
Signaling and communications
Line 1 features an advanced signaling system, including an automatic train protection system (ATPS) and automated signaling to control train movements. Siemens supplied the signalling and train control systems required for the project, while Thales Group supplied the communication systems. The network's signaling and train control systems will be based on LZB 700M technology.
Line 1 contains a 1284 metre steel bridge, modeled on the Howrah Bridge in Kolkata, crossing the Western Line at Andheri. It is the first steel-and-concrete bridge over the Mumbai Suburban Railway. Construction of the bridge, which is supported by 3 pillars, started in early 2012 and completed on 23 December 2012. The metropolitan administration claims the bridge was built in 288 days which is a record. It cost 350 million (equivalent to 400 million or US$6.5 million in 2014). The bridge was constructed by Braithwaite Burn & Jessop Construction Company (BBJ), Kolkata. Interestingly, BBJ had also fabricated the Howrah Bridge. Due to restriction in working hours and non-availability of space, the steel girder had to be pre-fabricated at BBJ's Heavy Plant Yard in Kolkata. It was designed such that it could be disassembled during transportation and reassembled at the site when all four columns of the bridge were ready. It took 6–7 days to transport it to Mumbai on a piecemeal basis. The bridge was initially supposed to be made of concrete but due to changes in plans, it was changed to a steel bridge. The bridge faced several challenges - the biggest being building a pillar in the middle of the tracks without restricting train traffic even for a day.
Another notable bridge on Line 1, is the 175 metre long cable-stayed bridge over the Jogeshwari Flyover on the Western Express Highway. The bridge is the first and highest cable-stay bridge for a metro in Asia. It is also Mumbai's second cable-stayed bridge after the Bandra Worli Sea Link. The Jogeshwari flyover is 13 metres above ground level and the metro line travels at a height of 19.5 metres above ground level. The highest point of the bridge is 39 metres above ground level. Construction on the bridge started in mid-2009. It was expected to be completed by April 2010. Due to delays it was completed on 24 August 2012. The bridge was built by MMOPL with the help of Switzerland based, VSL International Ltd. The steel cables which hold and support the bridge are anchored to two Y-shaped pylons that weigh over 1000 tonnes.
The contract for cable stay bridge over the Western Express Highway and two other cantilever bridges over Andheri and Mithi River were awarded to SEW Constructions Limited.
Water recycling plant
MMOPL built a state-of-the-art waste water treatment plant at the Versova car shed where Line 1 trains are housed for repair and cleaning. The plant recycles water used to wash rakes. It has a capacity to recycle 5 lakh litres of water daily. The unit comprehensive waste water treatment plant will ensure that water used in operating the metro gets treated and pumped back into the system thereby achieving zero-waste discharge. The daily water requirement at the Versova car shed is 3 lac litres for domestic usage and another 0.5 lac litres for industrial as well as few additional requirements for other plants and equipments.
On 1 October 2012, Xylem, a water technology provider based in the United States, announced that it had been awarded a contract to develop wastewater treatment and recycling systems for the Mumbai Metro. The value of the contract was undisclosed. The system will incorporate a 1.2-million-litre-capacity sewage treatment plant with wastewater recycling capabilities; trials of the plant were expected to be commissioned by late November 2012. The plant will be equipped with Xylem’s Sanitaire wastewater treatment technology, which is expected to help save up to 1.2 million litres of water a day.
The contract for the Versova–Andheri–Ghatkopar corridor was awarded to the Mumbai Metro One Pvt Ltd (MMOPL), a joint venture company owned by Reliance Infrastructure, Veolia Transport and the MMRDA, in March 2007. The MMOPL is a special purpose vehicle incorporated for the implementation of the Line 1 project. Reliance Infrastructure holds 69% of the equity share capital, while MMRDA holds 26% and remaining 5% is held by Veolia Transport. MMOPL is the first public-private partnership initiative for a metro project in India. The MMOPL is the designated Metro Railway Administrator of Line 1, as defined by the Metro Railway (Operations and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Although the Act requires the administrator to be under the scope of the Right to Information Act, a different mechanism is currently in place. The mechanism permits citizens to file RTI queries concerning Line 1 with the MMRDA, similar to the mechanism used by the privately financed Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon.
Ticketing and fares
The minimum and maximum fares on the line are 10 and 40 respectively, roughly 1.5 times the current unsubsidized BEST bus fare for a given distance. Line 1 utilizes an Automatic Fare Collection System (AFC). Tickets are sold in the form of tokens and smart cards over the counter and also through ticket vending machines installed at all stations on the line. Similar to the Mumbai Monorail, the ticket vending machines (TVMs) on the metro do not accept the new 1 coins that are smaller in size and the old 2 coins, due to non-availability of software with the Reserve Bank of India for these coins. However, TVMs accept 5 and 10 coins. The smart cards system is intended to provide for quick entry and exit of commuters through the automatic fare collection gates. The maximum credit a smart card can hold is 10,000. Card holders have the option to get the cards personalised with their names and photographs printed on them. Smart cards can be recharged online.
From 19 June 2014, the MMOPL introduced an off-peak fare of 5 on Line 1. The fare applies between any two stations, regardless of distance, from 5:30am to 8:00am on weekdays. The fare was announced on trial basis for a week. This made Mumbai Metro the first metro system in the country to introduce "time of the day" tariff in an AFC system. Commuters purchasing tokens must purchase the token during off-peak hours, and then use the token with half an hour of purchase to avail the benefit. On the other hand, smartcards automatically deduct the lower fare, if a commuter uses his card to exit the metro during off-peak hours.
Services operate on Line 1 for 18.5 hours everyday (5:30AM to midnight). Headway on the line is 4 minutes during peak hours and 7 minutes during non-peak hours. Station dwell time is 30 seconds. Approximately, 200-250 services are operated daily on the line.
A metro train has four coaches and an overall capacity of 1500 passengers (375 per coach). The seating capacity of every coach alternates between 48 and 52, of which 4 seats in each coach are reserved for senior citizens and handicapped commuters. From 15 August 2014, following demands by female commuters, 32 of 48 seats in the Versova-end coach of every four coach train is reserved for women. These seats are part of a reserved space for women which is separated from the rest of the coach by a strip separator and can accommodate 150 passengers, including standees. Male children under the age of 12, who are accompanied by female passengers, are permitted in the reserved space. Prior to the introduction of the reserved space, 6 seats per coach had been reserved for women.
According to the MMOPL, Line 1 has transported 18.5 million passengers as on 10 August 2014, with an average daily ridership of 300,000-500,000.
The MMOPL had sought approval from the Research, Design and Standards Organisation (RDSO) to operate trains at a maximum speed limit of 90 km/h under test conditions. The RDSO permitted trains to operate at 80 km/hr on straight sections (subject to certain conditions), and 50 kmph at curves. In addition, metro trains will be permitted to operate at a maximum speed of 50 km/hr on the 300-metre radius between Sarvodaya and Ghatkopar. The maximum speed of 80 kmph would be allowed on straight stretches, only if a rail stress management system (RSMS) and a wheel impact load detection (WILD) system were installed. The RSMS system determines rail stress and temperature, so that flaws in rails due to wheel impact or temperature fluctuation due to weather conditions can be monitored and removed. WILD is a safety system that is used to identify wheels defects in wheels, that occur due to overload or defect in the suspension system, measuring its impact on the track, thereby avoiding derailments.. These standards were specified because the rails installed for the metro project are of European standards, and the government had not specified any uniform standards. MMOPL duly installed the systems, prior to the metro's opening.
The RDSO had initially permitted a maximum speed of only 50 km/hr. The speed was reduced due to the steel tracks and supporting infrastructure. According to a railway official, "These tracks have been constructed based on European standards but we follow Indian Railway standards. The two have differences on several technical parameters, including the tolerance limit of tracks and even curves." The slower speed would have added around 7 minutes to the journey time. Another reason why trains on the line operate at slower speeds is because the average distance between two metro stations is about 800 meters to 1 km which prevent them from picking up speed.
MMOPL announced on 13 December 2013 that Line 1 will have dedicated sniffer dogs and hand-held explosive detectors at every station, due to heightened security and constant terror threats in Mumbai. MMOPL claims that Line 1 will be the first metro line the world with sniffer dogs patrolling every station. The statement released by MMOPL stated, "Trained sniffer dogs will patrol each of the stations. There will be security guards in civilian dress who will intermingle with the public to check for any suspicious activity outside and inside the station premises." Apart from private security guards deployed by MMOPL, the State Government will also provide security for the metro from the Maharashtra State Security Corporation.
Other security measures on Line 1 include Door Frame Metal Detectors, baggage screening machines, random armed patrolling by Quick Response Team, guards, and designing stations in such a way that there is no hidden place where explosives can be kept. There are 700 real-time CCTV cameras installed at strategic locations on Line 1. Every passenger entering a station is frisked, and their baggage put through X-ray scanners. All stations are fitted with fire alarm systems, fire safety devices and trains have fire resistant metal doors. Passengers are prohibited from carrying luggage measuring more than 2 ft x 1.5 ft on the metro.
The MMOPL created a security team called the Intelligence Gathering Unit (IGU) to provide security to the metro system and its passengers. A senior metro official explained, "The trained unit will keep an eye in the vicinity of Metro stations in plain clothes, posing as common men. The unit will be on the lookout for mischievous activities in Metro stations by miscreants and take necessary action. Depending on the kind and level of trouble and threat posed by such people, action will be taken against them. Senior security personnel will take a call if these persons can be punished or penalised under the Central Metro Act, or should be handed over to the local police for necessary action." At least 2 IGU personnel, of which at least one is female, are present at each metro station at any given time. IGU personnel are monitored by the Quick Reaction Team (QRT) or security staff in the station.
Following an incident on the mostly underground Kolkata Metro Line 1 on 23 June 2014, where a non-AC metro train carrying passengers developed a glitch and got stuck inside a tunnel for 90 minutes, Mumbai Metro officials stated that that they had prepared a comprehensive plan to evacuate commuters from trains, stations and midway in the event of an emergency. An MMOPL spokesperson stated, "The evacuation process will take two minutes if passengers are asked to alight mid-section and 7-10 minutes if the train has to be taken to the nearest station."
Retail and advertising
MMOPL possesses 15 crore worth of media assets including static signs at the platform and concourse (both "high dwell time" places) wraps at the entry and exit gates, a connected digital network across all nine stations, branding on the backside of train passes/tickets, branding passage gates, and train wrap branding. Brands can also obtain station naming rights for a minimum period of 5 years. The rights will allow companies to display their name signage at the entry point and numerous exits, apart from branding across the station. The station can also be fully designed in the brand's trademark colours. Other advertising methods include public announcements in and outside the train, as well as on the MMOPL website. MMOPL will also allow for branding inside the trains by playing digital movies/upcoming movie trailers and TVCs in the train, similar to BEST buses in the city, but with more sophisticated technology.
Times Innovative Media (TIM), a subsidiary of Bennett Coleman & Co that operates its out-of-home media business under the brand Times OOH, acquired the advertising rights for Line 1 in December 2013 for a period of 15 years. The company offers advertising on 147 high definition digital screens (both inside and on the stations) and 375 static units at the 12 stations on the line, along with pillar wraps, train wraps, station corridors, train interiors, median junction advertising and naming rights for the stations.
Times OOH published a newspaper advertisement on 4 April 2014 stating that it was e-auctioning the naming rights for 12 stations of Line 1. The advertising agency plans to mention the highest-bidder’s brand on the main signage at stations, in public announcements, on the main entry signage and route maps. While the names of the stations would remain essentially the same, these would be accompanied with a prefix of the highest-bidder’s brand name. However, the MMRDA Commissioner UPS Madan stated that the MMOPL had never discussed the move with the development authority, stating, “I was surprised to learn about it. It was never discussed with us directly or indirectly. We will take it up with them. They do have rights for commercial exploitation of station areas and can engage a third-party agency for it, but we had thought it would be just boards, hoardings and illumination. I am not sure if this is permissible.” The MMOPL insisted that the advertising would not violate provisions of the concession agreement. A company spokesperson stated, "There is no change in the name of the station. The prospective advertisers will use their brand name or appearance at various locations without violating any applicable provisions in the concession agreement". If the e-auction is implemented, the Mumbai Metro will become the only the second metro system in the country, after Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon, to auction naming rights for its stations.
All 12 stations on the line have food and beverage (F&B) shops, convenience stores and ATMs. ATMs are located on each side of the concourse level. Some leading fast-food, icecream, mobile accessories, stationery and confectionery chains operate outlets at stations. Mobile accessories stores are located at eight stations (excluding Azad Nagar, Chakala, Western Express Highway and Jagruti Nagar). Lite Bite Foods Pvt Ltd (LBF) was awarded the F&B concessions across all stations on Line 1. Each of the stations are equipped with two food outlets, one of Street Foods of India and one of Baker's Street. Baker's Street serves a wide array of coffees, smoothies, shakes, cakes and confectioneries freshly baked at the premises. Street Foods of India offers Indian street food. LBF supports these outlets from their 6400 sq ft commissary near the international airport.
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