digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the fruit, see Lime (fruit). For the mathematical concept, see Limit (mathematics).
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Frontiers of the Roman Empire
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Limes Germanicus 2nd c.png
The limes Germanicus, 2nd century
Type Rural
Criteria ii, iii, iv
Reference 430
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1987 (11th Session)
Extensions 2005; 2008

A limes /ˈlmz/[1] was a border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome. It marked the boundaries of the Roman Empire.

The Latin noun limes had a number of different meanings: a path or balk delimiting fields, a boundary line or marker, any road or path, any channel, such as a stream channel, or any distinction or difference. In Latin, the plural form of limes is limites.

The word limes was utilized by Latin writers to denote a marked or fortified frontier. This sense has been adapted and extended by modern historians concerned with the frontiers of the Roman Empire: e.g. Hadrian's Wall in the north of England is sometimes styled the Limes Britannicus, the frontier of the Roman province of Arabia facing the desert is called the Limes Arabicus, and so forth.

This was the traditional definition and usage of the term. It is now more common to accept that limes was not a term used by the Romans for the imperial frontier, fortified or not. This is a modern, anachronistic interpretation. The term became common after the 3rd century AD, when it denoted a military district under the command of a dux limitis. [2]

Some limites[edit]

The limites represented the border line of the Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the 2nd century AD. It stretched over 5,000 km from the Atlantic coast of northern Britain, through Europe to the Black Sea, and from there to the Red Sea and across North Africa to the Atlantic coast. The remains of the limites today consist of vestiges of walls, ditches, forts, fortresses and civilian settlements. Certain elements of the line have been excavated, some reconstructed, and a few destroyed. The two sections of the limes in Germany cover a length of 550 km from the north-west of the country to the Danube in the south-east. The 118 km long Hadrian's Wall was built on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian c. AD 122 at the northernmost limits of the Roman province of Britannia. It is a striking example of the organization of a military zone and illustrates the defensive techniques and geopolitical strategies of ancient Rome. The Antonine Wall, a 60 km-long fortification in Scotland, was started by Emperor Antonius Pius in AD 142 as a defense against the "Barbarians" of the north. It constitutes the northwestern-most portion of the Roman Limes.

The most notable examples of Roman limites are:

A mediaeval limes is the Limes Saxoniae in Holstein.

Etymology and sentiment[edit]

The stem of limes, limit-, which can be seen in the genitive case, limitis, marks it as the ancestor of an entire group of important words in many languages, for example, English limit. Modern languages have multiplied its abstract formulations. For example, from limit comes the abbreviation lim, used in mathematics to designate the limit of a sequence or a function: see limit (mathematics). In metaphysics, material objects are limited by matter and therefore are delimited from each other. In ethics, men must know their limitations and are wise if they do.

An etymology was given in some detail by Julius Pokorny, Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. According to him, it comes from Indo-European el-, elei-, lei-, "to bow", "to bend", "elbow". The Latin meaning was discussed in detail by W. Gebert.[5]

The sense is that a limit bends across one in some way. The limes was a cross-path or a cross-wall, which the Romans meant to throw across the path of invaders to hinder them. It is a defensive strategy. The Romans never built limites where they considered themselves free to attack. As the emperor had ordered the army to stay within the limites except for punitive expeditions, they were as much a mental barrier as material. The groups of Germanic warriors harrying the limes during summer used the concept to full advantage, knowing that they could concentrate and supply themselves outside the limes without fear of preemptive strikes.

In a few cases, they were wrong. The limit concept engendered a sentiment among the soldiers that they were being provoked by the Germanic raiders and were held back from just retaliation by a weak and incompetent administration: they were being sold out. So they mutinied. The best remedy for a mutiny was an expedition across the limes. Toward the later empire, the soldiers assassinated emperors who preferred diplomacy and put their own most popular officers into the vacant office.

Reconstructed east gate at Welzheim
Reconstructed wooden tower nearby Rainau, Germany

Roman writers and subsequent authors who depended on them presented the limes as some sort of sacred border beyond which human beings did not transgress, and if they did, it was evidence that they had passed the bounds of reason and civilization. To cross the border was the mark of a savage. They wrote of the Alemanni disrespecting it as though they had passed the final limitation of character and had committed themselves to perdition. The Alemanni, on the other hand, never regarded the border as legitimate in the first place. The Romans were foreigners changing native place names and intruding on native homes and families (see under Alemanni), only to be tolerated at all because they were willing to pay cash for the privilege and offered the blandishments of civilized life.

According to Pokorny, Latin limen, "threshold", is related to limes, being the stone over which one enters or leaves the house, and some have gone so far as to view the frontier as a threshold[dead link] . The Merriam–Webster dictionaries take this view, as does J. B. Hofmann in Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Griechischen under leimon. The White Latin Dictionary denies any connection, deriving limen from *ligmen, as in lien from *leig-[dead link], "tie". The threshold ties together the doorway. The American Heritage Dictionary refuses to go further than Latin limes. .

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (1989)
  2. ^ Benjamin Isaac, The Meaning of "Limes" and "Limitanei" in Ancient Sources, Journal of Roman Studies, 78(1988), 125–147; Benjamin Isaac, The Limits of Empire: the Roman Army in the East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, revised edition 1992.
  3. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. New Inscribed Properties
  4. ^ "Wall gains World Heritage status'" BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  5. ^ W. Gebert, Limes. Untersuchungen zur Erklärung des Vortes und seiner Anwendung, Bonner Jahrbücher Bd. 119, No. 2, 1910, 158–205.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limes — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
82389 videos foundNext > 

Der Limes - Gefahr an Roms Grenze @ HD

Der Limes: Gefahr an Roms Grenze Der Limes sollte Roms Bollwerk gegen die Barbaren bilden. Blühende Metropolen entstanden, gegründet von den römischen Erober...

DETOX WATER WITH LEMONS,LIMES,CUCUMBER & MINT | EASY DETOX WATER

DETOX WATER WITH LEMONS,LIMES,CUCUMBER &MINT | EASY DETOX WATER In this detox water video I will share with you a water detox that uses limes,lemons, cucumbe...

Was ist ein Limes?, I: bestes Beispiel um zu verstehen was dass mit dem Limes soll.

ein "versteh" Video.

Bob Tulap's Radio Spots: Limes

http://liamshow.com Bob is really pissed off about this one. Voice over by the amazing David Rothblum http://drama34.com.

Grenzwert, Grenzverhalten bei ganzrationalen Funktionen, Limes, Mathehilfe online

ALLE Videos auf www.beck-up-elearning.com (werbefrei, kategorisiert) Grenzwert, Grenzverhalten bei ganzrationalen Funktionen, Limes, Mathehilfe online Wo "ko...

Lower Blood Pressure with Limes

I will be drinking warm lime and water in the mornings to see if my arthritis pain,weight loss and my blood pressure will stay stable...lime is filled with n...

Limes niza 01

U ovom videopredavanju pokazat ćemo na jednostavnom primjeru što je limes (granična vrijednost) niza. Komentari koje ostavite pomoći će nam da sljedeće lekci...

Der Limes - Teil 1/2

Eine schwer befestigte Grenzanlage zieht sich vor beinahe 2000 Jahren quer durch ganz Europa - der Limes. Kriegsschiffe sichern die Flussgrenzen Rhein und Do...

Die Germanen - Folge 03 - Entscheidung am Limes

Nach der verheerenden Niederlage in der Varusschlacht haben die Römer sich hinter den Rhein zurückgezogen. Die Grenze zum Barbaricum sichern sie mit dem Lime...

Was soll dieser Limes in Mathe?

Wozu braucht man den Limes in der Mathematik? Hier kurz erklärt. Interaktive Aufgaben, mehr Hilfe und weitere Videos in Koonys Schule auf http://www.koonys.d...

82389 videos foundNext > 

26128 news items

 
New Hampshire Public Radio
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 13:48:45 -0700

Desrosiers is the bar manager at Poco's Bow Street Cantina in Portsmouth. Every week, Poco's goes through about 15 cases of 250 limes each. “We heard all kinds of rumors around town,” he continues. “That people were charging per slice, that some limes ...

SF Weekly

SF Weekly
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 17:17:07 -0700

"We definitely plan to discontinue using the term when we promote the limes or their leaves in our markets," Rogers says. " We are not currently carrying them, but will be certain to use either the alternate name, makrut, or refer to them generically ...

Yahoo Food

Yahoo Food
Wed, 02 Jul 2014 14:53:35 -0700

“Kaffir” limes are apparently responsible: The knobby fruit and its leaves are commonly used in Southeast Asian and Indian recipes, and the Oxford Companion to Food suggests its common name (botanically, it goes by Citrus hystrix) probably originated ...
 
KGBT-TV
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 10:26:15 -0700

Authorities are investigating the activities of a drug smuggling organization after discovering more than $1.5 million dollars worth of marijuana hidden inside a shipment of limes from Mexico. It all happened at the Pharr-Reynosa International Bridge ...
 
WRAL.com
Mon, 14 Jul 2014 22:37:30 -0700

This week you can save 20% off any single purchase of loose lemons and limes at participating retailers! Valid on purchases up to $10 (maximum $2 reward). Offer valid until 7/21/14. This offer is not eligible on produce weighed and tagged using a ...

Stuff.co.nz

Stuff.co.nz
Sat, 19 Jul 2014 09:52:30 -0700

Spring is on my mind. Everything that happens now in the garden or in the house is about getting ready for spring and summer, be it planting or mulching, holiday plans or even just sorting and cleaning. Now is the time when I start thinking about tomatoes.

News & Observer

News & Observer
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 07:37:30 -0700

SavingStar.com has released its new weekly coupon on produce -- this week on lemons and limes. The new offer will save you 20 percent on lemons and limes purchased through Monday, July 21, at participating stores. The discount is valid on up to $10 ...

Creative Loafing Tampa

Creative Loafing Tampa
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 07:03:45 -0700

After the long holiday weekend, the Street Team is back at it, making a scene and giving away so much free stuff. This weekend, we'll be out and about promoting Margarita Wars at your favorite Tampa Bay restaurants—all of which are either providing ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Limes

You can talk about Limes with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!