digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses of "Life support", see Life support (disambiguation).

In human spaceflight, a life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in space. US government space agency NASA,[1] and private spaceflight companies use the term environmental control and life support system or the acronym ECLSS when describing these systems for their human spaceflight missions.[2] The life support system may supply air, water and food. It must also maintain the correct body temperature, an acceptable pressure on the body and deal with the body's waste products. Shielding against harmful external influences such as radiation and micro-meteorites may also be necessary. Components of the life support system are life-critical, and are designed and constructed using safety engineering techniques.

Human physiological and metabolic needs[edit]

A crewmember of typical size requires approximately 5 kg (total) of food, water, and oxygen per day to perform the standard activities on a space mission, and outputs a similar amount in the form of waste solids, waste liquids, and carbon dioxide.[3] The mass breakdown of these metabolic parameters is as follows: 0.84 kg of oxygen, 0.62 kg of food, and 3.52 kg of water consumed, converted through the body's physiological processes to 0.11 kg of solid wastes, 3.87 kg of liquid wastes, and 1.00 kg of carbon dioxide produced. These levels can vary due to activity level, specific to mission assignment, but will correlate to the principles of mass balance. Actual water use during space missions is typically double the specified values mainly due to non-biological use (i.e. personal cleanliness). Additionally, the volume and variety of waste products varies with mission duration to include hair, finger nails, skin flaking, and other biological wastes in missions exceeding one week in length. Other environmental considerations such as radiation, gravity, noise, vibration, and lighting also factor into human physiological response in space, though not with the more immediate effect that the metabolic parameters have.

Atmosphere[edit]

Space life support systems maintain atmospheres composed, at a minimum, of oxygen, water vapor and carbon dioxide. The partial pressure of each component gas adds to the overall barometric pressure.

By reducing or omitting diluents (constituents other than oxygen, e.g., nitrogen and argon) the total pressure can be lowered to a minimum of 21 kPa, the partial pressure of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere at sea level. This can lighten spacecraft structures, reduce leaks and simplify the life support system.

However, the elimination of diluent gases substantially increases fire risks, especially in ground operations when for structural reasons the total cabin pressure must exceed the external atmospheric pressure; see Apollo 1. Furthermore, oxygen toxicity becomes a factor at high oxygen concentrations. For this reason, most modern crewed spacecraft use conventional air (nitrogen/oxygen) atmospheres and use pure oxygen only in pressure suits during extravehicular activity where acceptable suit flexibility mandates the lowest inflation pressure possible.

Water[edit]

Water is consumed by crew members through drinking, cleaning activities, EVA thermal control, and emergency uses. It must be stored, used, and reclaimed (from waste water) efficiently since no on-site sources currently exist for the environments reached in the course of human space exploration.

Food[edit]

Life support systems could include a plant cultivation system which allows food to be grown within buildings and/or vessels. However, no such system has flown in space as yet. Such a system could be designed so that it reuses most (otherwise lost) nutrients. This is done, for example, by composting toilets which reintegrate waste material (excrement) back into the system, allowing the nutrients to be taken up by the food crops. The food coming from the crops is then consumed again by the system's users and the cycle continues.

Microbe detection and control[edit]

The NASA LOCAD (Lab-on-a-Chip Applications Development) project is working on systems to help detect bacterial and fungal growths in spacecraft used for long-duration spaceflight.[4]

Space vehicle systems[edit]

Gemini, Mercury, & Apollo[edit]

American Mercury, Gemini and Apollo spacecraft contained 100% oxygen atmospheres, suitable for short duration missions, to minimize weight and complexity.[5]

Space Shuttle[edit]

The Space Shuttle was the first American spacecraft to have an Earth-like atmospheric mixture, 22% and 78%.[5] For the Space Shuttle, NASA includes in the ECLSS category systems that provide both life support for the crew and environmental control for payloads. The Shuttle Reference Manual contains ECLSS sections on: Crew Compartment Cabin Pressurization, Cabin Air Revitalization, Water Coolant Loop System, Active Thermal Control System, Supply and Waste Water, Waste Collection System, Waste Water Tank, Airlock Support, Extravehicular Mobility Units, Crew Altitude Protection System, and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Cooling and Gaseous Nitrogen Purge for Payloads.[6]

Orion crew module[edit]

The Orion crew module life support system is being designed by Lockheed Martin in Houston, Texas.[citation needed]

Soyuz[edit]

The life support system on the Soyuz spacecraft is called the Kompleks Sredstv Obespecheniya Zhiznideyatelnosti (KSOZh).[citation needed] Vostok, Voshkod and Soyuz contained air-like mixtures at approx 101kPa (14.7 psi).[5]

Plug and play[edit]

The Paragon Space Development Corporation is developing a plug and play ECLSS called commercial crew transport-air revitalization system (CCT-ARS)[7] for future spacecraft partially paid for using NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) money.[8]

The CCR-ARS provides seven primary spacecraft life support functions in a highly integrated and reliable system: Air temperature control, Humidity removal, Carbon dioxide removal, Trace contaminant removal, Post-fire atmospheric recovery, Air filtration, and Cabin air circulation.[9]

Space station systems[edit]

Skylab[edit]

Because of fire risk and potential physiologic effects, Skylab used 28% Oxygen and 72% Nitrogen.[5]

Spacelab[edit]

Mir[edit]

The Mir and Salyut space stations contained an air-like Oxygen and Nitrogen mixture at approximately sea-level pressures 93.1 kPa (13.5psi) to 129 kPa (18.8 psi) with an Oxygen content of 21% to 40%.[5]

International Space Station[edit]

Main article: ISS ECLSS

Bigelow commercial space station[edit]

The life support system for the Bigelow Commercial Space Station is being designed by Bigelow Aerospace in Las Vegas, Nevada. The space station will be constructed of habitable Sundancer and BA 330 expandable spacecraft modules. As of October 2010, "human-in-the-loop testing of the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS)" for Sundancer has begun.[10]

EVA systems[edit]

Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) systems primarily consist of the traditional space suit, but can also include self-contained individual spacecraft.[citation needed]

Space suits[edit]

Both space suit models currently in use, the U.S. EMU and the Russian Orlan, include Primary Life Support Systems (PLSSs) allowing the user to work independently without an umbilical connection from a spacecraft. A space suit must provide life support, either through an umbilical connection or an independent PLSS.[citation needed]

Natural systems[edit]

Natural LSS like the Biosphere 2 in Arizona have been tested for future space travel or colonization. These systems are also known as closed ecological systems. They have the advantage of using solar energy as primary energy only and being independent from logistical support with fuel. Natural systems have the highest degree of efficiency due to integration of multiple functions. They also provide the proper ambience for humans which is necessary for a longer stay in space.

MELiSSA[edit]

Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is a European Space Agency led initiative, conceived as a micro-organisms and higher plants based ecosystem intended as a tool to gain understanding of the behaviour of artificial ecosystems, and for the development of the technology for a future regenerative life support system for long term manned space missions

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  2. ^ Patrick L. Barry (November 13, 2000). "Breathing Easy on the Space Station". Science@NASA. 
  3. ^ F.M. Sulzman & A.M. Genin (1994), Space, Biology, and Medicine, vol. II: Life Support and Habitability, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 
  4. ^ Trudy E. Bell (May 11, 2007). "Preventing "Sick" Spaceships". Science@NASA. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Davis, Jeffrey R.; Johnson, Robert & Stepanek, Jan (2008), Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine XII, Philadelphia PA, USA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 261–264 
  6. ^ "HSF – The Shuttle: Environmental Control and Life Support System". NASA. 
  7. ^ "Paragon Projects". Paragon. January 2011. 
  8. ^ "Commercial Crew and Cargo Paragon CCDev". NASA. November 30, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Press Release – Paragon Space Development Corporation Completes All Development Milestones on the NASA Commercial Crew Development Program". Paragon Space Development Corporation. Retrieved November 25, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Volunteers Test Bigelow Life-Support Gear". Aviation Week. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2010-10-23. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Eckart, Peter. Spaceflight Life Support and Biospherics. Torrance, CA: Microcosm Press; 1996. ISBN 1-881883-04-3.
  • Larson, Wiley J. and Pranke, Linda K., eds. Human Spaceflight: Mission Analysis and Design. New York: McGraw Hill; 1999. ISBN 0-07-236811-X.
  • Reed, Ronald D. and Coulter, Gary R. Physiology of Spaceflight – Chapter 5: 103–132.
  • Eckart, Peter and Doll, Susan. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) – Chapter 17: 539–572.
  • Griffin, Brand N., Spampinato, Phil, and Wilde, Richard C. Extravehicular Activity Systems – Chapter 22: 707–738.
  • Wieland, Paul O., Designing for Human Presence in Space: An Introduction to Environmental Control and Life Support Systems. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Reference Publication RP-1324, 1994

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_support_system — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Vitamin HMC - Life Support System

Vitamin HMC - 100% Juice Label:Music Man Records ‎- MMI 9305 Format:Vinyl, 12", EP, 33 ⅓ RPM Country:Belgium Released:1992 Genre:Electronic Style:Techno, Aci...

Space Station Live: Environmental Control and Life Support System

Robyn Carrasquillo, the Space Station Technology Demonstrations manager from NASA Headquarters, discusses the Environment Control and Life Support System (EC...

DJ HMC juice 01 vitamin hmc and thee - life support system

juice records adelaide australia This release was licensed to Music Man Records and released in Belgium in 1992, with artist mistakenly showing as Damien Don...

Your Life Support System

Vitamin HMC - Life Support System

Vitamin HMC ‎-- The 100% Juice EP Genre: Electronic Style: Techno Year: 1991 Tracklist Life Support System Knowledge Solitude 100%

NASA Now Minute: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen, protectio...

Jean-Michel Cousteau: We are "destroying" our oceans, our life support system

Oceans expert and Green Cross International Board member Jean-Michel Cousteau says our planet's oceans, which cover 70% of the Earth's surface, are our life ...

FAU HBOI OSLS - Understanding the Planetary Life Support System

Florida Atlantic University Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute Ocean Science Lecture Series 2012 January 25th at 4pm & 7pm Understanding the Planetary Lif...

Our World - Life Support System

Over 700 planets have been discovered within and beyond our solar system and none to date has been found to meet the delicate balance of conditions necessary...

Len Faki @ metropolis (Napoli) 01/11/2013 Vitamin HMC - Life Support System

Vitamin HMC - Life Support System.

1000000 videos foundNext > 

396 news items

Times of India

Times of India
Tue, 15 Jul 2014 16:35:34 -0700

The SAC is developing sensors critical to life-support system in the capsule that will carry not one but two astronauts of Indian team on their independent journey into space and back. The recent Union budget that allocated Rs 171 crore for the GSLV ...
 
Space Daily
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 17:11:15 -0700

Beijing (XNA) Jul 01, 2014 China is a step closer to setting up a lunar base after a 105-day manned airtight test, in which the bio-regenerative life support systems of Lunar Palace 1 sustained the lives of three trial volunteers. The three "moon ...

Examiner.com

Examiner.com
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 13:03:45 -0700

Along with the eight other cubesats to be selected by NASA, these probes would ride on the SLS just below the Orion where the space where the life support system would be if the vehicle were crewed. The cubesats would be ejected once the SLS achieves ...
 
Scroll.in
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 17:46:30 -0700

To look at the issue from the viewpoint of the other actor, namely the doctor, we first need to distinguish between passive and active euthanasia. The first entails withdrawing a line of treatment by, for instance, switching off the life-support system ...
 
Parksville Qualicum Beach News
Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:15:00 -0700

I believe I made a point of promoting all sorts of things, from respect for human dignity through caring for the life support system we call earth, to calling for honesty and integrity in our politics. As for leftist tendencies peeping through, I guess ...
 
The Augusta Chronicle
Mon, 28 Jul 2014 15:52:30 -0700

Some were holding wooden crosses, prayer books and other holy objects to ward off the evil spirits. Just when the clock struck 11, Pookie Johnson, the part-time Sunday sweeper, entered the ward and unplugged the life support system so he could use the ...
 
Times of India
Sun, 27 Jul 2014 13:37:30 -0700

JAIPUR: The health department has procured expensive equipment without ascertaining availability of specialized manpower to operate it. A report of the Comptroller & Auditor General (CAG), indicates that the health department had made unfruitful ...
 
Worcester Telegram
Mon, 30 Jun 2014 20:00:00 -0700

PAXTON — The Fire Department has regained the advance life support paramedic-level licenses it lost when it canceled its support arrangement with Spencer Rescue in October. Since, the department had been operating with a basic life support system ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Life support system

You can talk about Life support system with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!