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Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Subdivisions 5
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Elevation 99 m (325 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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Dies sind die ersten Aufnahmen, die von Oppositionellen in der DDR im Winter 1986/87 gedreht wurden.Gezeigt werden Industriegebiete um Dresden, Berlin, Leuna...

Brandschutz am Arbeitsplatz - DDR Schulungsfilm vom FDGB

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EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Official Video)

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1kbB3g8 Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/...

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (#MaximaFM 2014 Radio Edit)

Mi Muñeca es la nueva canción de Eme Be (Jordi MB) con la colaboración de Fran Leuna & Henry Rou exclusivamente en MaximaFmEspana2014, ℗ & © 2014, Blanco Y N...

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Denkt daran den Film in HD QUALITÄT zu schauen. Falls er euch gefällt: Kommentieren, Daumen HOCH, teilen und ABONNIEREN! Danke! Überflug Leuna -Leuna Werk -S...

EME BE Fran Leuna - Hace Calor (Cuando Sale El Sol)

Temazo de EME BE y Fran Leuna #HaceCalor ;) SoundCloud :https://soundcloud.com/sufian-musicatv Twitter : @Sufian9SMTV.

Tag der offenen Tür 2012 - Chemiestandort Leuna

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Leuna

Tarifaktion am 17.5. in Leuna.

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195 news items

Gamesundbusiness.de

Gamesundbusiness.de
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:41:15 -0700

Erstklassiger Service, bestens geschulte MitarbeiterInnen und ein breit gefächertes Spiel- und Unterhaltungsangebot – bestehend aus Automatencasino, klassischem Spiel und Entertainment – zeichnen die Merkur Spielbank Sachsen-Anhalt in Leuna aus, ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:28:13 -0700

Denn der 34-Jährige feierte in Leuna gemeinsam mit den ebenfalls wiedergenesenen Daniel Ziebig und Tony Schmidt sein Comeback und spielte eine gute Stunde mit. Außerdem setzte Trainer Sven Köhler zu Beginn der Partie die beiden Probespieler Juri ...

Gamesundbusiness.de

Gamesundbusiness.de
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:52:30 -0700

Das Direktorium der neuen Merkur Spielbank Sachsen-Anhalt, die Ende des Jahres in Leuna eröffnet wird, ist komplett: Spielbankdirektorin Claudia Bieling wird von Reinhard Wehner und Peter Laschkowsky unterstützt. Reinhard Wehner wird für den ...
 
Wall Street Journal
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 23:56:15 -0700

The companies have renewed the contract for technical maintenance and managed operations at Total's Leuna site in Germany. The value of the deal is not disclosed. The contract covers all technical systems in the non-production areas of the ...

Vertikal.net

Vertikal.net
Tue, 05 Aug 2014 13:03:45 -0700

It will have offices in Mainz and Leuna. Uwe Wenzel. The company said: “The aim of this business development is so that investors, engineering companies and companies specialising in piping and machinery assembly can depend on us as a fully reliable ...
 
Wochenspiegel
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 02:33:45 -0700

Leuna (rp). Am Samstag, dem 6. September, findet zwischen Frankleben und dem Weinberg „Goldener Steiger“ des Winzers Lars Reifert der 3. Berganstiegslauf für Skiroller in der klassischen Technik statt. Veranstalter ist die Abteilung Ski des TSV Leuna ...

Deutsche Mittelstands Nachrichten

Deutsche Mittelstands Nachrichten
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 15:12:16 -0700

Auch die Bundesregierung schiebt die Entwicklung von Bioplastik mit Fördermitteln in Millionenhöhe an. Der Anschluss an einen milliardenschweren Industriezweig der Zukunft soll nicht verpasst werden. Ein Vorzeigeprojekt steht in Leuna in Sachsen-Anhalt.
 
Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:11:15 -0700

Zu der Auffassung war es bei Facebook gekommen, nachdem sich am späten Mittwochabend ein Verkehrsunfall auf der A 9 ereignete, viele Kraftfahrer daraufhin in Weißenfels auf die B 91 auffuhren, um nahe Leuna wieder auf die Autobahn 38 aufzufahren.
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