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Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
8755 videos foundNext > 

https://youtube.com/devicesupport

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Official Video)

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1kbB3g8 Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/1lrcg8L Beatport: http://btprt.dj/1pDd...

Benzin aus Leuna - Standort mit Zukunft

EME BE Feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muñeca

Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/1lrcg8L Beatport: http://btprt.dj/1pDdkFP Listen/ Escúchalo: Spotify: http://spoti.fi/1pDdoW3 Deezer: http://bit.ly/...

Lets Play Train Simulator 2014 Schweröl nach Leuna mit BR232 (Folge 37)

Hier zeig ich euch das neue AddOn Bahnknoten Seddin mit der Aufgabe Schweröl nach Leuna mit der VR BR232. Es geht vom Güterbahnhof Seddin südlich von Berlin erst über den Berliner ...

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Club Radio Remix) Official Audio

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1pqOdsU Spotify Blanco y Negro Music: http://spoti.fi/TdEXLn Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1rtOLeP Google...

EME BE & Fran Leuna - Hace Calor (Cuando Sale El Sol) Official Video

Buy It On / Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/12mhPKc Google Play: http://bit.ly/ZOUZHS Beatport: http://btprt.dj/ZKj99y Listen / Escúchalo: Spotify: http://spoti.fi/17WA8X1 Deezer: http://bit.ly/...

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca [Official Music Video]

Top House / EDM Dance Party Music by Blanco y Negro Buy this song on iTunes: https://itunes.apple.com/hk/album/mi-muneca-feat.-fran-leuna/id978283890 Listen this song on Spotify: ...

Eme Be Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muneca

Daroo lajki lajki lajki :D.

Flug vom Flugplatz Merseburg - Schkopau - Waldbad Leuna [HD]

Denkt daran den Film in HD QUALITÄT zu schauen. Falls er euch gefällt: Kommentieren, Daumen HOCH, teilen und ABONNIEREN! Danke! Flug vom Flugplatz Merseburg - Schkopau - Waldbad Leuna ...

8755 videos foundNext > 

7974 news items

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Tue, 21 Apr 2015 10:48:45 -0700

Acht Millionen Tonnen Güter werden pro Jahr im Chemiepark Leuna bewegt - ein Großteil auf der Schiene. Die Betreibergesellschaft Infra will die Auswirkungen durch den Lokführerstreik so gering wie möglich halten - und nutzt dafür die eigene Bahnlogistik.

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Fri, 17 Apr 2015 10:03:45 -0700

Auf dem Bronzeplatz stehen sie zur Zeit, und Bronze wollen sie auch am Ende der Saison haben: Für die Hockey-Herren des TSV Leuna beginnt am Sonntag die Rückrunde in der Hockey-Regionalliga Ost. „Platz drei entspricht unseren Erwartungen und ...

Process

Process
Wed, 01 Apr 2015 01:26:15 -0700

Am Chemiestandort Leuna hat Global Bioenergies mit dem Bau einer Isobuten-Demonstrationsanlage begonnen. Die Bauphase für die Anlage zur biologischen Produktion von Isobuten soll ein Jahr dauern. Evry/Frankreich – Seit zwei Jahren arbeitet Global ...
 
MarketWatch
Wed, 22 Apr 2015 09:59:13 -0700

The key companies in this market are Hexion Inc. (U.S), Dow Chemical Company (U.S), Huntsman Incorporation (U.S), Leuna-Harze Gmbh (Germany), SIR Industriale Spa Zaklady Chemiczne Organika-Sarzyna SA (Italy) and Spolek Pro Chemickou a Hutni ...
 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:41:15 -0700

LEUNA, Germany, March 18, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Global Bioenergies and The Linde Group today announce the completion of the basic engineering phase of Global Bioenergies' demo plant. In February 2014, Global Bioenergies entrusted the ...

Nasdaq

Nasdaq
Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:33:45 -0700

The following phase consists in the installation of a demo plant on the petrochemical site of Leuna, near Leipzig in Germany. Global Bioenergies has recently announced having received the corresponding engineering package. The company today ...

Nasdaq

Nasdaq
Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:43:59 -0700

The strongest increase concerns the industrialization studies, which have led to the installation and startup of the industrial pilot in Pomacle-Bazancourt and will lead to the demo plant installation and startup in Leuna, Germany. The German ...
 
Biobased Digest
Mon, 13 Apr 2015 01:37:30 -0700

The strongest increase concerns the industrialization studies, which have led to the installation and startup of the industrial pilot in Pomacle-Bazancourt and will lead to the demo plant installation and startup in Leuna, Germany. Global Bioenergies ...
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