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Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Subdivisions 5
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Elevation 99 m (325 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
8125 videos foundNext > 

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Official Video)

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1kbB3g8 Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/1lrcg8L Beatport: http://btprt.dj/1pDd...

Benzin aus Leuna - Standort mit Zukunft

EME BE Feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muñeca

Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/1lrcg8L Beatport: http://btprt.dj/1pDdkFP Listen/ Escúchalo: Spotify: http://spoti.fi/1pDdoW3 Deezer: http://bit.ly/...

Lets Play Train Simulator 2014 Schweröl nach Leuna mit BR232 (Folge 37)

Hier zeig ich euch das neue AddOn Bahnknoten Seddin mit der Aufgabe Schweröl nach Leuna mit der VR BR232. Es geht vom Güterbahnhof Seddin südlich von Berlin erst über den Berliner ...

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Club Radio Remix) Official Audio

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1pqOdsU Spotify Blanco y Negro Music: http://spoti.fi/TdEXLn Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1rtOLeP Google...

EME BE & Fran Leuna - Hace Calor (Cuando Sale El Sol) Official Video

Buy It On / Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/12mhPKc Google Play: http://bit.ly/ZOUZHS Beatport: http://btprt.dj/ZKj99y Listen / Escúchalo: Spotify: http://spoti.fi/17WA8X1 Deezer: http://bit.ly/...

Eme Be Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muneca

Daroo lajki lajki lajki :D.

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (DJ Vauban mix)

New hot remix by DJ Vauban.

EME BE feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muneca Latin Radio Edit

Descargar: http://migueltemazos.blogspot.com/2014/07/eme-be-feat-fran-leuna-henry-rou-mi.html.

Eme Be feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou- Mi Muñeca (Kalpo Lòpez y Dj Neptuno Remix 2k14)

Por aqui os dejo un remix a un tema que nos a gustado y hemos decidido hacerle un remix para que mole mas espero que lo disfruteis para mas novedades musicales podeis seguirnos en twitter....

8125 videos foundNext > 

10676 news items

 
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:41:15 -0700

LEUNA, Germany, March 18, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Global Bioenergies and The Linde Group today announce the completion of the basic engineering phase of Global Bioenergies' demo plant. In February 2014, Global Bioenergies entrusted the ...
 
Chemie.de (press release)
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 22:37:30 -0700

Global Bioenergies: Completion of the basic engineering phase of the Leuna Demo Plant. 20-Mar-2015. Global Bioenergies and The Linde Group today announce the completion of the basic engineering phase of Global Bioenergies' demo plant. In February ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Tue, 24 Mar 2015 05:00:00 -0700

Die Verkehrsunfallkommission im Saalekreis will sich zwei Kreuzungen in Merseburg und Leuna näher betrachten. Das betrifft einerseits den Kötzschener Weg/Friedrich-Ebert-Straße in Leuna (Sky-Hotel bis Star-Tankstelle) sowie in Merseburg den Abzweig ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Mon, 23 Mar 2015 23:00:00 -0700

Die beiden 35-jährigen Männer waren auf dem Gelände eines Autohauses in Leuna gegen 19 Uhr von einer Mitarbeiterin beobachtet worden, wie sie diverse Autoteile, wie Stoßfänger, Kühler und Motorhauben, auf einen Kleintransporter luden. Während die ...

Leipziger Volkszeitung

Leipziger Volkszeitung
Mon, 02 Mar 2015 02:33:34 -0800

Leuna. In der Total Raffinerie Mitteldeutschland in Leuna ist es am Montag zu einem Gasaustritt gekommen. Bei dem Zwischenfall sei niemand verletzt worden, sagte ein Total-Sprecher. Auch habe zu keinem Zeitpunkt Gefahr für die Anwohner bestanden.

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Thu, 19 Mar 2015 03:30:00 -0700

Nach einem technischen Defekt ist eine Anlage von Sachsen-Anhalts umsatzstärkstem Unternehmen repariert worden. Anfang März war hier Gas ausgetreten. Leuna. Die ausgefallene Entschwefelungsanlage der Total-Raffinerie Mitteldeutschland ist wieder ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Thu, 26 Feb 2015 06:48:45 -0800

In Leuna, so Berthold, gebe es so gut wie keine altengerechte Wohnungen, was dazu führe, dass viele ältere Menschen, die jahrelang in Leuna gearbeitet und gelebt haben, die Stadt verlassen. Um diesen Weggang zu stoppen, müsste die kommunale ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Sun, 15 Mar 2015 07:08:53 -0700

... oder die Adresse falsch war. Fast 300 Wahlbriefe gingen an das Wahlbüro zurück. In der Stadt Leuna, wo Dietlind Hagenau (parteilos) und Uwe Berthold (SPD) gegeneinander antreten, lag die Wahlbeteiligung um 10 Uhr bei 3,31 Prozent um 14 Uhr bei 17 ...
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