digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. As such it was a prime target for the Allied bombing offensive against German oil production. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force also dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on nearby Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

6786 news items

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Sun, 21 Jun 2015 13:48:45 -0700

Aus diesem Anlass hat die InfraLeuna GmbH – Betreiberin von Infrastruktur-Einrichtungen am Chemiestandort – die Talanx eingeladen, eine Auswahl ihrer – man wird es nicht anders formulieren können – erlesenen Sammlung in Leuna auszustellen.

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Tue, 09 Jun 2015 11:56:15 -0700

Ausstellung in der Galerie des cCe Kulturhauses Leuna. In der Tat keine keine runde Zahl, die für eine besondere Jubiläumsfeier sprechen würde. Und doch wurde extravagant gefeiert. Noch nie gab es eine Ausstellungseröffnung fern ab der Bilder.

Phys.Org

Phys.Org
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 03:07:30 -0700

Many products, including food supplements, cosmetics and biodiesel, are made from substances derived from microalgae. A fully automated pilot plant operated by Fraunhofer in Leuna is capable of producing microalgae on pilot scale. The concentration of ...

Energy Voice

Energy Voice
Fri, 19 Jun 2015 02:22:18 -0700

Total has a strong presence in Germany, where it employs 3,500 people and owns 100% of the 12 Mt/y Leuna refinery, one of Europe's most competitive sites. Total is also the country's fourth largest retail operator and continues to expand its network.
 
TankTerminals.com (press release)
Fri, 19 Jun 2015 02:33:45 -0700

June 19, 2015 [OPIS] - Poland is aspiring a place in seaborne crude oil trade and stronger bargaining power versus Russian suppliers with a new oil tank storage farm near a running terminal in the seaport of Gdansk, whose first phase is slated to ...

durhamregion.com

durhamregion.com
Sun, 07 Jun 2015 04:07:47 -0700

Another project partner is the Fraunhofer Centre for Chemical-Biotechnological Processes (CPB) in Leuna, Saxony-Anhalt. Researchers there use hydrogen to transform the gaseous isobutene into liquid iso-octane. Global Bioenergies is building a ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Sat, 04 Jul 2015 09:22:29 -0700

Was Leuna und Buna in die Saale abgaben, vertrieb erst die Fische und dann die Badegäste. Die ersten Bäder schlossen bereits in den 1920er Jahren. Zu Ende ging die Ära 1962. Zu dieser Zeit schwammen wegen zunehmender Belastung mit Schadstoffen ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 23:33:45 -0700

Der Wirtschaftsminister begründete dies mit einer sechswöchigen Abstellung der Raffinerie in Leuna, die ein Prozent Wachstum gekostet hat. Daraufhin entzündete sich, angestoßen durch den Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Oliver Holtemöller, Vize-Präsident des ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight