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Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Subdivisions 5
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Elevation 99 m (325 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (#MaximaFM 2014 Radio Edit)

Mi Muñeca es la nueva canción de Eme Be (Jordi MB) con la colaboración de Fran Leuna & Henry Rou exclusivamente en MaximaFmEspana2014, ℗ & © 2014, Blanco Y N...

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New hot remix by DJ Vauban.

EME BE Feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muñeca

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443 news items

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 03:30:33 -0700

Der Förderverein Kulturhaus Leuna veranstaltet am 5. November mit Unterstützung der cCe Kulturhaus Leuna GmbH im cCe Kulturhaus Leuna eine Buchlesung mit Bildervortrag. Diese Veranstaltung beginnt um 16.30 Uhr. Nils Wiesner präsentiert an diesem ...
 
Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 03:41:09 -0700

Klasse für die große Nacht der Ausbildung bei der Infra Leuna anmelden. Bei der für Mittwoch, 6. November, geplanten Veranstaltung soll den Schulen eine Berufsorientierung der etwas anderen Art geboten werden, wie die Infra Leuna in Zusammenarbeit ...
 
Stefan Schroeter, Energiejournalist
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 09:12:35 -0700

Dieses System dient dazu, Dampf aus der hier von MVV betriebenen Thermischen Restabfall-Behandlungs-Anlage Trea Leuna auszukoppeln und an Unternehmen des Standorts zu liefern. Dafür war es notwendig, das Müllverbrennungs-Kraftwerk technisch ...

MDR

MDR
Tue, 07 Oct 2014 20:11:15 -0700

Verseuchte Böden, stinkende Abgase und saure Abwässer. Das verband man früher mit Leuna. Um 95 Prozent konnte die Umweltbelastung seit der Wiedervereinigung reduziert werden. Heute nun kommt eine neue Öko-Anlage hinzu. von Ralf Geißler, MDR ...
 
bulletins-electroniques.com
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 15:09:20 -0700

Le Centre Fraunhofer pour les processus chimiques et biotechnologiques (CBP) de Leuna (Saxe-Anhalt) a développé au cours des quatre dernières années une installation pilote de bio-raffinage du bois pour la production de lignine permettant la synthèse ...

ISA-GUIDE.de

ISA-GUIDE.de
Thu, 02 Oct 2014 06:51:33 -0700

Leuna-Günthersdorf/Espelkamp. Die Merkur Spielbanken Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH & Co. KG hat die Baugenehmigung für die neue Spielbank in Leuna-Günthersdorf erhalten, und somit einen weiteren Meilenstein auf dem Weg zur Eröffnung der modernsten ...

CHEMIE TECHNIK online

CHEMIE TECHNIK online
Mon, 13 Oct 2014 22:03:45 -0700

Der Chemieparkbetreiber Infraleuna in Leuna hat ein neues Mitteldruckdampfversorgungssystems im Chemiepark Leuna in Betrieb genommen. Dabei wird die Wärme aus der thermischen Abfallverwertung des MVV-Kraftwerks Trea Leuna genutzt.
 
Wochenspiegel
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 04:15:00 -0700

Leuna (red). Am Donnerstag nahmen Dr. Reiner Haseloff, Ministerpräsident des Landes Sachsen-Anhalt, Franzjosef Schafhausen, Abteilungsleiter Kli-maschutzpolitik Europa und Internationales des Bundesministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und ...
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