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Leuna
Coat of arms of Leuna
Coat of arms
Leuna   is located in Germany
Leuna
Leuna
Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017Coordinates: 51°19′N 12°01′E / 51.317°N 12.017°E / 51.317; 12.017
Country Germany
State Saxony-Anhalt
District Saalekreis
Municipal assoc. Leuna-Kötzschau
Subdivisions 5
Government
 • Mayor Dietlind Hagenau
Area
 • Total 83.41 km2 (32.20 sq mi)
Elevation 99 m (325 ft)
Population (2012-12-31)[1]
 • Total 13,981
 • Density 170/km2 (430/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 06237
Dialling codes 03461
Vehicle registration SK
Website www.leuna-stadt.de

Leuna is a town in the Saalekreis, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern Germany, south of Merseburg and Halle. It is known for the Leunawerke (English: Leuna works), at 13 km2 one of the biggest chemical industrial complexes in Germany,[2] where a very wide range of chemicals and plastics is produced. In 1960, the town's population was nearly 10,000, but high unemployment rates and poor living conditions, including pollution from nearby industries, has caused significant outward migration. Before the 31 December 2009 incorporation of neighbouring municipalities, its population had sunk to 6670.

Leunawerke[edit]

View from Bad Dürrenberg

Origins[edit]

The first chemical plant in Leuna was built in 1916 by BASF, and produced ammonia, at first for use in the manufacture of explosives and, after 1919, fertilizers. The site was chosen for its proximity to lignite (brown coal) mines; the chemical plants at the site were based mainly on syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide). In 1920, the Leuna plant was commissioned for the commercial hydrogenation of lignite,[3] and production began on April 1, 1927.[4] The site (property of IG Farben after 1926) was rapidly expanded in the 1920s and 1930s, with plants producing methanol, synthetic petrol derived from the hydrogenation of lignite, amines and detergents.[5]

World War II[edit]

The IG Farben Leuna works was headed by Heinrich Bütefisch[6] and was Nazi Germany's second largest synthetic oil plant and second biggest chemical operation. Leuna was the first plant to test the Bergius process that synthesized oil products from lignite (brown coal tar in 1944).[7] Leuna covered three square miles of land with 250 buildings, including decoy buildings outside the main plant, and employed 35,000 workers (including 10,000 prisoners and slave laborers). The 14th Flak Division responsible for protecting Leuna had 28,000 troops, 18,000 RAD personnel, 6,000 male and 3,050 female auxiliaries, 900 Hungarian and Italian 'volunteers', 3,600 Russian Hiwis, and 3,000 others, thus making up a total of 62,550 persons.[8] More than 19,000 of Leuna's workers were members of the air raid protection organization which operated over 600 radar-directed guns (the fire-fighting force consisted of 5,000 men and women). A total of 6,552 bomber sorties over 20 Eighth Air Force and 2 RAF attacks dropped 18,328 tons of bombs on Leuna.[9] As the most heavily defended industrial target in Europe, Leuna would become so dark from flak, German smoke pots, and exploding oil tanks that "we had no idea how close our bombs came to the target." (Tom Landry, B-17 co-pilot and later Dallas Cowboy coach). On clear days, only 29% of the bombs aimed at Leuna landed inside the plant gates; on radar raids the number dropped to 5.1%. During the first raid of the Oil Plan, 126 Leuna workers were killed. However, after defenses were increased, only 175 additional workers were killed in 21 subsequent raids. Leuna bombing from May 12, 1944 to April 5, 1945 cost the Eighth Air Force 1,280 airmen. In three separate attacks by the Eighth, 119 planes were lost and not one bomb fell on the Leuna works.[10] The Eighth Air Force dropped 12,953 tons of explosives on Merseburg.

For a sortable list of air operations against Leuna, see Oil Campaign of World War II.

Ray Bowden Merseburg: Blood, Flak & Oil. A study of the USAAF daylight air raids against Leuna with detailed analysis sourced from official records and veterans' accounts. See www.usaaf-noseart.co.uk for fuller details.

Post-war[edit]

Leuna-Werke in 1991

After partial destruction in World War II and shipment of several plants to the Soviet Union as war reparations, the Leuna site was gradually rebuilt and further expanded, as the "VEB Leuna-Werke Walter Ulbricht". In the 1950s an oil refinery was built, which processed Russian crude oil. This offered the opportunity to produce a whole range of oil-based chemicals and plastics.

Since Reunification[edit]

After German reunification in 1990, the Leuna works were divided into several smaller companies that were sold to a.o. Total S.A. (which built a completely new oil refinery in Leuna), BASF, Linde AG, and Belgian DOMO Group. Common utilities for the companies are provided by InfraLeuna.[11] QUINN Chemicals invested in a plant to manufacture methylmethacrylate (MMA) but construction has been put on ice as of January 2009 due to 'heavy cost overruns' and 'deteriorating market conditions'.[12]

References[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leuna — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
9569 videos foundNext > 

Benzin aus Leuna - Standort mit Zukunft

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (Official Video)

Subscribe to Blanco y Negro and get the latest updates - http://bit.ly/1kbB3g8 Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/...

Eme Be Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muneca

EME BE & Fran Leuna - Hace Calor (Cuando Sale El Sol) Official Video

Buy It On / Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/12mhPKc Google Play: http://bit.ly/ZOUZHS Beatport: http://btprt.dj/ZKj99y Listen / Escúchalo: Spotify: http://sp...

EME BE Feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muñeca

Buy It On/ Cómpralo: iTunes: http://bit.ly/1nGpKvo Google Play: http://bit.ly/1lrcg8L Beatport: http://btprt.dj/1pDdkFP Listen/ Escúchalo: Spotify: http://sp...

EME BE feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou Mi Muneca Latin Radio Edit

Descargar: http://migueltemazos.blogspot.com/2014/07/eme-be-feat-fran-leuna-henry-rou-mi.html.

Eme Be feat Fran Leuna & Henry Rou- Mi Muñeca (Kalpo Lòpez y Dj Neptuno Remix 2k14)

Por aqui os dejo un remix a un tema que nos a gustado y hemos decidido hacerle un remix para que mole mas espero que lo disfruteis para mas novedades musical...

DDR 1987 Umweltverschmutzung - Ein Film von Peter Wensierski

Dies sind die ersten Aufnahmen, die von Oppositionellen in der DDR im Winter 1986/87 gedreht wurden.Gezeigt werden Industriegebiete um Dresden, Berlin, Leuna...

EME BE Feat. Fran Leuna & Henry Rou - Mi Muñeca (DJ Vauban mix)

New hot remix by DJ Vauban.

EME BE & Fran Leuna - Hace Calor (Cuando Sale El Sol) Radio Edit

descargar: http://mp3factory.org/download.php?u=aHR0cDovL21lZGlhLnNvdW5kY2xvdWQuY29tL3N0cmVhbS9OMkNmR0tNZkFGN00/c3RyZWFtX3Rva2VuPUlGeG1R&n=RU1FIEJFIFx1MDAyNm...

9569 videos foundNext > 

7696 news items

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

ISA-GUIDE.de
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 05:39:06 -0800

Leuna-Günthersdorf/Espelkamp. Die Merkur Spielbank Sachsen-Anhalt in Leuna-Günthersdorf nimmt am Montagabend, 22. Dezember, um 18 Uhr ihren Probebetrieb auf. Ab dann können Gäste sich von der Kombination aus Klassischem Spiel und ...

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Sat, 13 Dec 2014 08:09:48 -0800

Ein gewaltsam zerstörtes Wahlplakat des SPD-Kandidaten Uwe Berthold hat in den vergangenen Wochen für Furore in der Stadt Leuna gesorgt. Sogar die Staatsanwaltschaft führte Ermittlungen, stellte diese jetzt aber ein.
 
Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Tue, 02 Dec 2014 05:08:39 -0800

„Impressionen 2015“ , so lautet der Titel des Kalenders, den die cCe Kulturhaus Leuna GmbH mit finanzieller Unterstützung des Fördervereins und der Stadt Leuna herausgegeben hat. Er zeigt Arbeiten der Mitglieder des Malzirkels der Galerie, der seit ...

ISA-GUIDE.de

ISA-GUIDE.de
Fri, 28 Nov 2014 03:53:22 -0800

Die Chips und Plaques für die neue Merkur Spielbank Sachsen-Anhalt in Leuna-Günthersdorf sind verplombt und werden bis zur Eröffnung an einem externen Ort gelagert. Spielbankdirektorin Claudia Bieling zeigt einige der Spezialanfertigungen.

BizNews

BizNews
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 01:02:55 -0800

“The story of Leuna is illustrative. Leuna was the largest of the synthetic plants…. Leuna was hit on May 12 and put out of production. However, investigation of plant records and interrogation of Leuna's officials established that a force of several ...

Freie Presse

Freie Presse
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 18:26:15 -0800

Mitteldeutsche Oberliga, Damen: SV Motor Meerane gegen TSV Leuna 3:0 (1:0), SV Motor Meerane gegen HC Lindenau-Grünau Leipzig II 4:1 (3:1). Die Hockeyspielerinnen des SV Motor konnten beim zweiten Punktspielturnier erneut überzeugen.

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung

Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 05:30:00 -0800

Bei der Arbeiterwohlfahrt in Leuna leitet sie einen Malzirkel mit acht Mitgliedern, die zwischen 30 und 70 Jahre alt sind. Diese treffen sich jeden Mittwochabend zwischen 18 und 20 Uhr, um gemeinsam zu arbeiten und ein Schwätzchen zu halten. Anett ...
 
Mitteldeutsche Zeitung
Fri, 19 Dec 2014 04:56:15 -0800

Am Rohbau der Schwimmhalle gebe es allerdings noch einiges zu tun, sagte Projektleiter Jörg Wahren vom Ingenieurbüro Plingel beim Besuch des zeitweiligen Schwimmhallenausschusses des Stadtrates Leuna auf der Baustelle. In der Halle selbst sind ...
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