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Leningrad Oblast
Ленинградская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 60°03′N 31°45′E / 60.050°N 31.750°E / 60.050; 31.750Coordinates: 60°03′N 31°45′E / 60.050°N 31.750°E / 60.050; 31.750
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Northwestern[1]
Economic region Northwestern[2]
Established August 1, 1927
Administrative center None
Government (as of August 2010)
 - Governor[4] Alexander Drozdenko[3]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[5]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[6]
 - Total 84,500 km2 (32,600 sq mi)
Area rank 38th
Population (2010 Census)[7]
 - Total 1,716,868
 - Rank 26th
 - Density[8] 20.32 /km2 (52.6 /sq mi)
 - Urban 65.7%
 - Rural 34.3%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[9]
ISO 3166-2 RU-LEN
License plates 47
Official languages Russian[10]
Official website

Leningrad Oblast (Russian: Ленингра́дская о́бласть, Leningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It was established on August 1, 1927, although it was not until 1946 that the oblast's borders had been mostly settled in their present position. The oblast was named after the city of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg).

The oblast overlaps the historic region of Ingria and bordered by Finland in the northwest, Estonia in the west, as well as five federal subjects of Russia: the Republic of Karelia in the northeast, Vologda Oblast in the east, Novgorod Oblast in the south, Pskov Oblast in the southwest, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg in the west.

The first governor of Leningrad Oblast was Vadim Gustov (in 1996–1998). Since 1999 he has been succeeded by Valery Serdyukov, who was replaced by Alexander Drozdenko, since 2012.

The oblast has an area of 84,500 square kilometers (32,600 sq mi) and a population of 1,716,868 (2010 Census);[7] up from 1,669,205 recorded in the 2002 Census.[11] The most populous town of the oblast is Gatchina, with 88,659 inhabitants (as of the 2002 Census).[11] Leningrad Oblast is highly industrialized.

History[edit]

Pre-Leningrad Oblast[edit]

The territory of present-day Leningrad Oblast was populated shortly after the end of the Weichsel glaciation and hosts numerous archaeological remnants.[12][13][14] The Volga trade route and trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks crossed the territory. Staraya Ladoga, the first capital of legendary Rurik, founded in the 8th-9th century, is situated in the east of the oblast, on the River Volkhov.

In the 12th-15th century, the territory was divided between the Kingdom of Sweden and Novgorod Republic (see Swedish-Novgorodian Wars) and mostly populated mostly by various Baltic Finns people such as Karelians (northwest), Izhorians and Votes (west), Vepsians (east), as well as Ilmen Slavs of Novgorod (south). During the Russo-Swedish Wars of the 15th-17th centuries, the border moved back and forth over the land.

The central part of the territory is known as the historical region of Ingria (or the land of Izhora) and in the 17th century, after most of the present-day territory of Leningrad Oblast was captured by Sweden with the Treaty of Stolbovo of 1617, became subject to substantial Finnish Lutheran population influx from Finnish Karelia (which included Karelian Isthmus, the northwestern part of present-day Leningrad Oblast) and Savonia. Ingrian Finns soon became the dominant ethnic group.

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721) the territory of what is now Leningrad Oblast was returned from Sweden by Russia under Peter the Great, who founded Saint Petersburg amidst the land in 1703, which soon became the capital of the Russian Empire. In 1708, most of the territory was organized into Ingermanland Governorate under Governor General Alexander Menshikov. It was renamed Saint Petersburg Governorate in 1710 (the borders of that governorate, however, differed very significantly from those of the present-day oblast). In 1721, the territorial concessions of Sweden were confirmed with the Treaty of Nystad.

The life of the countryside was greatly influenced by the vicinity of the imperial capital, which became a growing market for its agricultural production as well as the main consumer of its mineral and forest resources. In 1719–1810, Ladoga Canal was dug between the River Svir and the River Neva as part of the Volga-Baltic waterway to bypass stormy waters of Lake Ladoga. Since the advent of the rail transport in the late 19th century, the areas in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg had been a popular summer resort destinations (dachas) for its residents. However, while Saint Petersburg itself from the very beginning was populated mostly by Russians, it was not until the 20th century that its surrounding population was Russified.

In 1914, with the beginning of World War I, Saint Petersburg was renamed Petrograd and the governorate was accordingly renamed Petrograd Governorate. After the Russian Revolution, in 1918, the capital was transferred from Petrograd to Moscow, farther from the borders of the country. In 1919, during the Russian Civil War, the Northwestern White Army advancing from Estonia and led by Nikolai Yudenich tried to capture Petrograd and even managed to reach its southern outskirts, but the attack against the Red Army under Leon Trotsky ultimately failed, and Yudenich retreated back. The border with Estonia was established in the Russian-Estonian Treaty of Tartu of 1920. Ingrian Finns of North Ingria attempted to secede in 1918–1920, but were incorporated back with the Russian-Finnish Treaty of Tartu, which settled the border between Finland and Soviet Russia. In 1924, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad and Petrograd Governorate was again renamed accordingly (Leningrad Governorate).

Leningrad Oblast[edit]

Leningrad Oblast and Leningrad in 1940

Leningrad Oblast was established on August 1, 1927 by the resolutions of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On the Establishment of Leningrad Oblast" and "On the Borders and Composition of the Okrugs of Leningrad Oblast"[15] by merging Cherepovets, Leningrad, Murmansk, Novgorod, and Pskov Governorates. The territory of the oblast corresponded to the modern territories of the present-day Leningrad Oblast (with the exception of the Karelian Isthmus and the territories along the border with Estonia), Novgorod Oblast, Pskov Oblast, parts of Vologda Oblast, most of Murmansk Oblast, and the federal city of Saint Petersburg. The total area of the oblast was 360,400 square kilometres (139,200 sq mi);[16] more than four times larger than the modern entity. Administratively, the oblast was divided into nine okrugs (Borovichi, Cherepovets, Leningrad, Lodeynoye Pole, Luga, Murmansk, Novgorod, Pskov, and Velikiye Luki), each of which was in turn subdivided into districts.[16]

In 1929, Velikoluksky District was transferred to newly formed Western Oblast. Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast in December 1931. In 1935 five southernmost districts were made part of Kalinin Oblast. In 1936 some parts of the territory of Leningrad Suburban District of Leningrad was returned to Leningrad Oblast and divided into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944). Vologda Oblast, which has included the easternmost districts of Leningrad Oblast (former Cherepovets Governorate), was created in 1937. Murmansk Oblast was excluded from Leningrad Oblast in 1938.

In the fall of 1934, the Forbidden Border Zone along the western border of the Soviet Union was established, where nobody could appear without special permission issued by the NKVD. It was officially only 7.5 km deep initially, but along the Estonian border it extended to as much as 90 km. The zone was to be free of Finnic and some other peoples, who were considered politically unreliable.[17][18] Starting from the 1929, the Soviet authorities carried out mass deportations of the Ingrian Finnish population of the oblast, which constituted majority in many rural localities as late as in the beginning of the century, to the east, replacing them with people from other parts of the Soviet Union.

On November 30, 1939, the Soviet Union waged the Winter War against neighboring Finland and with the Moscow Peace Treaty in 1940 gained some territories, including Karelian Isthmus. Their Karelian population was hastily evacuated to inner Finland and later replaced with people from other parts of the Soviet Union. A small part of the territory (the municipalities of Kanneljärvi, Koivisto and Rautu) was incorporated into Leningrad Oblast, the rest being included within the Karelo-Finnish SSR.

In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union in the Operation Barbarossa, and shortly thereafter the territory became place of the Battle of Leningrad. Wehrmacht captured the southwestern part of the oblast and reached Tikhvin in the east, while Finnish troops quickly recaptured the ceded territories in the Continuation War, encircling Leningrad from the land. In 1944 Soviet offensives managed to expel Wehrmacht and put military pressure on Finland, which ceded Karelian Isthmus again with the Moscow Armistice of September 19, 1944. This time the gained territories of the isthmus was incorporated within Leningrad Oblast (Vyborgsky and Priozersky Districts). In 1947 the territorial gains were confirmed with the Paris Peace Treaty. Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts were formed out of the southern parts of Leningrad Oblast in 1944. In January 1945 a small part of the Estonian SSR to the east of the River Narva with the town of Jaanilinn (now Ivangorod) was transferred to the Russian SFSR and incorporated into Leningrad Oblast. Since then, the territory of Leningrad Oblast hasn't changed much, although some suburbs of Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) have been excluded from the oblast and incorporated into the city.[19] In October 1946 Leningrad gained from the oblast some former Finnish territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District, including the town of Terijoki.

In 1953, Pavlovsky District of the oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory including Pavlovsk were made subordinate to Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny were also transferred to Leningrad. In 1956 Boksitogorsky District of Leningrad Oblast gained a small territory of Novgorod Oblast. Uritsk was transferred from the oblast to the city of Leningrad in 1963, Krasnoye Selo and several settlements nearby—in 1973, Lomonosov—in 1978.

After a referendum in 1991, the city of Leningrad was renamed back to Saint Petersburg, but Leningrad Oblast retained its name.

Politics[edit]

Executive[edit]

The Leningrad Region Administration headed by the Governor exercises executive authority in the region. The head of the Administration is elected for a four-year term and represents the region both within Russia and abroad. In addition, he also independently forms various executive bodies and bears personal responsibility for the results of their activities. Under the powers granted to him by the region’s Statute, the Governor is authorized to:[20]

  • present a draft of the regional budget to the Legislative Assembly for approval and ensure its implementation;
  • appoint and dismiss the heads of non-municipal territorial administrative formations in Leningrad Region;
  • suspend acts of the Leningrad Regional Government if they contradict existing legislation;
  • decide questions of the formation, reorganization, and dissolution of territorial agencies of federal government executive bodies in the region and appoint the appropriate officials;
  • settle disputes arising between the Government and the Legislative Assembly of the region.

Legislature[edit]

The Leningrad Regional Legislative Assembly is the standing regional parliament, a local legislature. It autonomously exercises its function using the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal legislation, the Statute of Leningrad Region, and regional laws as guides. The Legislative Assembly is a legal entity. Acts passed by it are binding on all bodies and officials of state authorities and local governments of Leningrad Region, organizations, and private citizens.[20]

Nature[edit]

Flora[edit]

The most taxonomically diverse vascular plant families are Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Rosaceae. By far the most diverse genus is Carex (68 species). The diversity in genera Hieracium (with Pilosella), Ranunculus (with Batrachium), Alchemilla, Galium, Potamogeton, Salix, Veronica, Viola, Juncus, Artemisia, Potentilla, Rumex, Festuca, Epilobium, Poa, Trifolium, Campanula, Vicia, Lathyrus, Geranium is also considerable. The territory has no endemic plant taxa. Vascular plant species of Leningrad Oblast listed in the red data book of Russia are Botrychium simplex, Cephalanthera rubra, Cypripedium calceolus, Epipogium aphyllum, Lobelia dortmanna, Myrica gale, Ophrys insectifera, Orchis militaris, Pulsatilla pratensis, Pulsatilla vernalis. [1]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,716,868 (2010 Census);[7] 1,669,205 (2002 Census);[21] 1,661,173 (1989 Census).[22]

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 15 611 (9.0 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 25 396 (14.7 per 1000) [23]
  • Total fertility rate:[24]

2009 - 1.18 | 2010 - 1.17 | 2011 - 1.16 | 2012 - 1.22 | 2013 - 1.23(e)

Leningrad Oblast currently has the lowest fertility rate in all of Russia. While birth rates have risen considerably elsewhere, they have remained stuck at a very low level in Leningrad Oblast.

Ethnic groups: according to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition was:[7]

Religion[edit]


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Leningrad Oblast (2012)[26][27]

  Russian Orthodox (55.1%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (4%)
  Muslim (1%)
  Rodnover (1%)
  Old Believers (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (20%)
  Atheist (8%)
  Other or undeclared (9.9%)

According to a 2012 official survey[26] 55.1% of the population of Leningrad Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims, 1% of the population adheres to Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), 1% to Starovery (Old Believers). In addition, 20% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 8% is atheist, and 9.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[26]

Twin regions[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Leningrad Oblast. A. Drozdenko, Governor of Leningrad Oblast (Russian)
  4. ^ Charter, Article 18.1
  5. ^ Charter, Article 25.1
  6. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  8. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ a b "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  12. ^ Лапшин В. А. "Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 1: Западные районы". Ленинград, 1990.
  13. ^ Лапшин В. А. "Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 2: Восточные и северные районы". Санкт-Петербург: Изд. СПбГУ, 1995. ISBN 5-87403-052-2.
  14. ^ Лебедев Г. С. "Археологические памятники Ленинградской области". Ленинград: Лениздат, 1977.
  15. ^ Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 33–34
  16. ^ a b Administrative-Territorial Division of Leningrad Oblast, p. 10
  17. ^ Matley, Ian M. (1979). The Dispersal of the Ingrian Finns. Slavic Review 38.1, 1-16.
  18. ^ Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70.4, 813-861.
  19. ^ Ленинградская область в целом: Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области
  20. ^ a b Leningrad Region
  21. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  22. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  23. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  24. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  25. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  26. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  27. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Sources[edit]

  • Закон №6-оз от 27 октября 1994 г. «Устав Ленинградской области», в ред. Закона №51-оз от 5 июня 2009 г. «О внесении изменения в областной закон "Устав Ленинградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального публикования. Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №1, 12 января 1995 г. (Law #6-oz of October 27, 1994 Charter of Leningrad Oblast, as amended by the Law #51-oz of June 5, 2009 On Amending the Oblast Law "Charter of Leningrad Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Архивный отдел Администрации Мурманской области. Государственный Архив Мурманской области. (1995). Административно-территориальное деление Мурманской области (1920–1993 гг.). Справочник. Мурманск: Мурманское издательско-полиграфическое предприятие "Север". 
  • В. В. Груздев и А. Т. Русов (1973). Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области. Ленинград: Лениздат. 

Further reading[edit]

Nature[edit]

  • Айрапетьянц А.Э., Стрелков П.П., Фокин И.М. Звери. [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1987.
  • Балашова Н.Б., Никитина В.Н. Водоросли [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1989. ISBN 5-289-00344-4
  • Биоразнообразие Ленинградской области (Водоросли. Грибы. Лишайники. Мохообразные. Беспозвоночные животные. Рыбы и рыбообразные) / Под. ред. Н.Б.Балашовой, А.А.Заварзина. - (Труды Санкт-Петербургского общества естествоиспытателей. Серия 6. Том 2.). – Saint Petersburg: Изд-во СПб. университета, 1999.
  • Бобров Р.В. Леса Ленинградской области. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1979.
  • Бродский А.К., Львовский А.Л. Пауки, насекомые [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1990. ISBN 0528900617
  • Иллюстрированный определитель растений Ленинградской области / Под ред. А. Л. Буданцева, Г. П. Яковлева. Moscow: КМК, 2006. ISBN 5-87317-260-9
  • Кириллова М.А., Распопов И.М. Озера Ленинградской области. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1971.
  • Красная Книга природы Ленинградской области. Том 1. Особо охраняемые природные территории. Отв. ред. Г.А. Носков, М. С. Боч [Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region. Vol. 1. Protected Areas]. Saint Petersburg: Акционер и К, 1998. ISBN 5-87401-072-6
  • Красная Книга природы Ленинградской области. Том 2. Растения и грибы. Отв. ред. Г.А. Носков [Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region. Vol. 2. Plants and Fungi]. Saint Petersburg: Мир и Семья, 2000. ISBN 5-94365-001-6
  • Красная Книга природы Ленинградской области. Том 3. Животные. Отв. ред. Г.А. Носков [Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region. Vol. 3. Animals]. Saint Petersburg: Мир и Семья, 2002. ISBN 5-94365-021-0
  • Леса Ленинградской области: современное состояние и пути их возможного развития. Saint Petersburg, 1998. ISBN 5-230-10457-0
  • Мальчевский А. С., Пукинский Ю. Б. Птицы Ленинградской области и сопредельных территорий. История, биология, охрана. Т.1-2. Leningrad: Изд-во ЛГУ, 1983.
  • Наумов Н.А. Флора грибов Ленинградской области. Том 1. Архимицеты и фикомицеты [The Fungus Flora of the Leningrad Region. Vol. 1. Archimycetes, Phycomycetes]. Moscow – Leningrad: Изд-во АН СССР, 1954.
  • Наумов Н.А. Флора грибов Ленинградской области. Том 2 [The Fungus Flora of the Leningrad Region. Vol. 2]. Moscow – Leningrad: Наука, 1964.
  • Неелов, А.В. Рыбы [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1987.
  • Покровская Г.В., Бычкова А.Т. Климат Ленинграда и его окрестностей. Leningrad: Гидрометеоиздат, 1967.
  • Природа Ленинградской области и ее охрана / Ред. Т.И. Миронова, Э.И. Слепян. - Leningrad: Лениздат, 1983.
  • Пукинский Ю. Б. Птицы [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1988.
  • Свидерская М.Д., Храбрый В.М. Сохраним для потомков: Особо охраняемые природные территории Ленинградской области. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1985.
  • Старобогатов Я.И. Раки, моллюски [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1988. ISBN 5-289-00125-5
  • Филимонов Р.В., Удалов С.Г. Жуки-усачи Ленинградской области. Атлас-определитель. [Longhorn Beetles of the St. Petersburg Region: An Identification Atlas]. Saint Petersburg: Петроглиф, 2001. ISBN 5-902094-05-4
  • Флора Ленинградской области / Под ред. Б. К. Шишкина. Вып. 1-4. Leningrad: Изд. ЛГУ, 1955–1965.
  • Хазанович К. К. Геологические памятники Ленинградской области. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1982.
  • Черепанова Н.П., Пшедецкая Л.И. Грибы. [Природа Ленинградской области]. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1990.

History[edit]

  • Лапшин В. А. Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 1: Западные районы. Leningrad, 1990.
  • Лапшин В. А. Археологическая карта Ленинградской области. Часть 2: Восточные и северные районы. Saint Petersburg: Изд. СПбГУ, 1995. ISBN 5-87403-052-2
  • Лебедев Г. С. Археологические памятники Ленинградской области. Leningrad: Лениздат, 1977.

External links[edit]


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