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Component City
City of Laoag
Ciudad ti Laoag
Lungsod ng Laoag
Ilocos Norte Capitol at Laoag City
Ilocos Norte Capitol at Laoag City
Official seal of Laoag
Map of Ilocos Norte showing the location of Laoag City
Map of Ilocos Norte showing the location of Laoag City
Laoag is located in Philippines
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 18°11′N 120°35′E / 18.183°N 120.583°E / 18.183; 120.583Coordinates: 18°11′N 120°35′E / 18.183°N 120.583°E / 18.183; 120.583
Country Philippines
Region Ilocos (Region I)
Province Ilocos Norte
Congressional District 1st District
Founded 1580
Cityhood 1965
Barangays 80
 • Mayor Chevylle V. Fariñas
 • Vice Mayor Michael V. Fariñas
 • Total 116.08 km2 (44.82 sq mi)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 104,904
 • Density 900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2900
Dialing code 77
Languages Ilocano, English, Tagalog
Website www.laoagcity.gov.ph

Laoag, officially the City of Laoag (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Laoag; Filipino: Lungsod ng Laoag), is a first class city in the province of Ilocos Norte, Philippines.[2] It is the capital city of Ilocos Norte, and the province's political, commercial, and industrial hub. It is the northernmost city in the Philippines and the location of the Ilocos region's only commercial airport. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 104,904 people.[3]

The municipalities of San Nicolas, Paoay, Sarrat, Vintar, and Bacarra form its boundaries. The foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain range to the east, and the South China Sea to the west are its physical boundaries.

Laoag experiences the prevailing monsoon climate of Northern Luzon, characterized by a dry season from November to April and a wet season from May to October, occasionally visited by powerful typhoons.


Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive region consisting of the present provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra and La Union renowned for its gold mines. Merchants from Japan and China would often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk. The inhabitants of the region, believed to be of Malay origin, called their place “samtoy," from “sao mi itoy," which literally meant “this is our language”.

In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their control, they began looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi’s grandson, Juan de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one of these expeditions. Together with eight armed boats and 45 men, the 22 year old voyager headed north.

On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded towards Laoag, Currimao, and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were surprised to see numerous sheltered coves (“looc”) where the locals lived in harmony. As a result, they named the region “Ylocos” and its people “Ylocanos”.

As the Christianization of the region grew, so did the landscape of the area. Vast tracts of land were utilized for churches and bell towers in line with the Spanish mission of “bajo de las campanas" or 'under the bells'-a proclamation by King Philip's 1573 Law of the Indies. In the town plaza, it was not uncommon to see garrisons under the church bells. The colonization process was slowly being carried out.

The Spanish colonization of the region, however, was never completely successful. Owing to the abusive practices of many Augustinian friars, a number of Ilocanos revolted against their colonizers. Noteworthy of these were the Dingras uprising (1589) and Pedro Almasan revolt in San Nicolas (1660). In 1762, Diego Silang led a series of battles aimed at freeing the Ilocanos from the Spanish yoke. When he died from an assassin’s bullet, his widow Gabriela continued the cause. Unfortunately, she too was captured and hanged. In 1807, the sugar cane (“basi”) brewers of Piddig rose up in arms to protest the government’s monopoly of the wine industry. In 1898, the church excommunicated Gregorio Aglipay for refusing to cut off ties with the revolutionary forces of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Unperturbed, he established the “Iglesia Filipina Independiente." Aglipay’s movement and the national sentiment it espoused helped restore the self-respect of many Filipinos.

“The great increase in population from 1715 to 1818 from 18,980 to 282,845 made the administration of the province very difficult. Due to the excessive monopolies and forced labor, there were several uprisings: first by the people of Dingras in 1589; one that was led by Pedro Almazan in 1616; the revolt of Diego Silang in 1762-1763; by Ambaristo in 1788; by Pedro Mateo in 1808 and uprising of Sarrat in 1815. For this reason, the division of the Ilocos into two provinces was recommended by the local authorities. On February 2, 1818, a Spanish Royal Decree was promulgated dividing the Province of Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur. Laoag City, which was then the biggest center of population, was made the capital of Ilocos Norte.”[4]


Population census of Laoag City
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 83,756 —    
1995 88,336 +1.00%
2000 94,466 +1.45%
2007 102,457 +1.13%
2010 104,904 +0.86%
Source: National Statistics Office[3][5]

Laoag City has a total population of 94,466 for the year 2000 as per NSO official report. In 1995, the total inhabitants of the city was 88,336, an increase of 6,130. Based on the 1995 and 2000 intercensal periods, the Average Annual Growth Rate of the city is 1.35%.

The number of households is 19,751 and the average household size is five (5) persons per household. Male-female ratio is 1:1; Birth rate is 26.44% while Death rate is 4.28%.

In the city of Laoag as of year 2000, Urban barangay San Lorenzo had the largest number of population at 2,883, followed by Rural barangay Buttong at 2,277, and then by Barangay 2 Sta. Joaquina at 2,048. With the least inhabitants was Rural Barangay 39 Sta. Rosa, 592, and then Brgy. 52-A San Mateo, 594. Noticeably, the residents of Brgy. 23 San Matias decreased by 740.

Its ethnic population is overwhelmingly Ilocano. Unlike the rest of the region, however, the Roman Catholic Church does not predominate. The Aglipayan Church which is the majority's religion, Iglesia ni Cristo, and other Protestant groups have strong followings.


Apart from being the provincial capital, Laoag City is also the center of the fast developing North Luzon Growth Quadrangle http://www.northquad.gov.ph/. The city is situated in a strategic area close to the economic centers of East Asia and is reachable in 45 minutes by plane from Manila. Having critical infrastructure such as the Laoag International Airport at Gabu and the Currimao Port makes Laoag the port of entry of goods and services complemented by an extensive road and highway system that connects it to other cities. An extensive banking system is also found in the city with an impressive number of twenty-five different local, domestic, and foreign banks ready to serve any financial needs.

With a 12,747.35m total land area, Laoag City provides a large opportunity for economic expansion. The historic scenic tourist spots, availability of internationally competitive accommodations and facilities, and the presence of supportive national government agencies, makes Laoag an ecotourism center, as classified by the Department of Tourism. The Northwestern Luzon Growth Quadrangle, fondly called the NORTH QUAD, also aims to develop rural areas through an integrated countryside agri-industrial development approach with emphasis/focus in attaining sustainable and equitable growth; increase the productivity of agriculture and fisheries; encourage industrial competitiveness in the local and foreign markets like Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. Plans are also being undertaken for the establishment of an ECO-TOURISM village, which will showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Ilokanos and the local industries.

Laoag and the surrounding municipalities also bolster a strong workforce. A proposed industrial park name "Laoag Ecozone" is set to rise within the city limits to host manufacturing companies. Opposite the industrial site will be housing projects and along the national highway going to the Laoag International Airport are rural barangays to become residential zones. At present, most industries in the city are small-scale consisting of small-scale food processing factories, rice mills, jewelry-making, hollow blocks factories, and metal crafts.

The city is also in the forefront of green-technology after Danish investors set-up the first wind-driven powerplant in Southeast Asia. The 25-megawatt plant cost $47.6 million US Dollars. An $11 million US Dollar expansion is concurrently under construction, which is set to quadruple the capacity.[6]

Local government[edit]

Ilocos Norte Capitol Building in Laoag

Laoag City elected officials, term of office June 30, 2013 - June 30, 2016:[1]

  • Mayor: Chevylle V. Fariñas
  • Vice-Mayor: Michael V. Fariñas
  • Councilors:
    • Jeff Ericson P. Fariñas
    • Donald G. Nicolas
    • Sonia B. Siazon
    • Franklin Dante A. Respicio
    • Derick B. Lao
    • Shirley M. Ong Sin
    • Joseph H. Tamayo
    • Edison H. Bonoan
    • Ferdinand L. Domingo
    • Edison U. Chua
  • "ABC President:" Mary Michelle Louise "Mikee" V. Fariñas
  • "City Administrator" Perry Martinez


Laoag has a tropical savanna climate with warm to hot temperatures year round. Temperatures dips sightly during the winter months between December to February.

Climate data for Laoag City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.4
Average low °C (°F) 18.8
Rainfall mm (inches) 11.8
Avg. rainy days 1 1 1 2 8 15 17 20 15 8 5 2 95
Source: PAG-ASA[7]


As the provincial capital, Laoag is the center of social and economic activity with almost all major commercial and institutional establishments gravitating towards it. The importance of education in socializing its population is shared by both the local government and the private sector, which has invested heavily in the development of the academic infrastructure. The city is home to public and private schools offering elementary, secondary, and tertiary education programs. Current Philippine law requires free compulsory education to the general population from elementary to high school, as well as, subsidized tertiary education in state-ran institutions. Alternative private schools offering parallel programs to government schools are also found with additional programs to cater to students with various needs. These schools are an important component of the educational system and reflect the city's diversity as they include Chinese schools, Catholic schools, all-male and all-female boarding schools, and military schools.

Most of the lower-level schools are government-owned and are divided into three districts comprising a total of thirty three primary and elementary schools. Seven private elementary schools are also present, however, most are sectarian and run by religious organizations. In addition, there are eight private and three public high schools, although the latter has significantly higher number of attendees. The Department of Education, Division of Laoag City is currently supervised by Ms. Aracelli C. Pastor.

In order to provide continuing education to sustain the economic momentum of the region, the government has established tertiary public learning institutions in the city, the College of Teacher Education (CTE) and the College of Industrial Technology (CIT) of the Mariano Marcos State University.

In addition, private colleges and universities are also found in the city, each with their own specialization. Some of private higher education institutions in the city includes Northwestern University, Northern Christian College, and Divine Word College of Laoag.

Also found in Laoag are four private special vocational schools: STI Laoag, the Overseas Technical Institute, the Lazo Fashion School, and the Bel Arte School of Fine Arts. Slated for development in the government's educational plan (2018) is the building of Ateneo de Laoag, UST Up North and the Catholic University of Laoag.


The Tobacco Monopoly monument at the heart of Aurora Park

Tourism has become a major economic driver of Laoag City, paving the way for new commercial investments and infrastructure development. A recent surge in Chinese and Taiwanese tourists have been flocking to splurge in the city's profitable casino located inside the only 5-star hotel in the northern Philippines, Fort Ilocandia Hotel and Resort. Other places of interest include a tour of heritage sites featuring Spanish colonial buildings, Philippine-baroque churches, white-sand beach resorts of Pagudpud, and Marcos-era mansions. The dramatic increase in tourist arrivals also prompted the establishment of a Chinese consulate to oversee the security of Chinese citizens living or visiting the city. A new immigration policy set to simplify entry of Chinese tourists into the country by issuing visitor visas in the airport after arrival is expected to entice more guests to come. To supplement the anticipated growth in tourist-related business activity, the government of Ilocos Norte has started construction on a multimillion dollar convention center and hotel to supply the demand and diversify services. Laoag City has been recently adjudged as the number one tourist destination in Region I and among the top ten in the whole archipelago.


Laoag International Airport services flights to and from Hong Kong and mainland China, as well as, domestic flights by Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. Foreign airlines offer direct charter flights to Laoag as part of travel packages with optional excursions to tourist sites outside of the city. Once in the city, tourists can find travel agencies all over including ticket offices of several airlines in the airport terminal.

Several large bus companies serve Laoag City making connections to major and minor Philippines destinations. These transportation services are provided by GV Florida Transport, Maria de Leon Bus Lines, RCJ Lines, RCJ Trans, Dominion Bus Lines, Partas, Philippine Rabbit, Sta. Lucia Express and Farinas Transit Company. Partas is also a major national bus line and also Autobus Busline. Laoag is a 10-14 hour drive from Manila.

A South Korean airline has recently unveiled plans to open direct flights to Laoag.[when?]


The 80 barangays of the City of Laoag[8]
Long Name
Name Former
Barangay No. 1, San Lorenzo (Poblacion) 1 San Lorenzo Poblacion
Barangay No. 2, Santa Joaquina (Poblacion) 2 Santa Joaquina Poblacion
Barangay No. 3, Nuestra Señora del Rosario (Poblacion) 3 Nuestra Señora del Rosario Poblacion
Barangay No. 4, San Guillermo (Poblacion) 4 San Guillermo Poblacion
Barangay No. 5, San Pedro (Poblacion) 5 San Pedro Poblacion
Barangay No. 6, San Agustin (Poblacion) 6 San Agustin Poblacion
Barangay No. 7-A, Nuestra Señora del Natividad (Poblacion) 7-A Nuestra Señora del Natividad Poblacion
Barangay No. 7-B, Nuestra Señora del Natividad (Poblacion) 7-B Nuestra Señora del Natividad Poblacion
Barangay No. 8, San Vicente (Poblacion) 8 San Vicente Poblacion
Barangay No. 9, Santa Angela (Poblacion) 9 Santa Angela Poblacion
Barangay No. 10, San Jose (Poblacion) 10 San Jose Poblacion
Barangay No. 11, Santa Balbina (Poblacion) 11 Santa Balbina Poblacion
Barangay No. 12, San Isidro (Poblacion) 12 San Isidro Poblacion
Barangay No. 13, Nuestra Señora de Visitacion (Poblacion) 13 Nuestra Señora de Visitacion Poblacion
Barangay No. 14, Santo Tomas (Poblacion) 14 Santo Tomas Poblacion
Barangay No. 15, San Guillermo (Poblacion) 15 San Guillermo Poblacion
Barangay No. 16, San Jacinto (Poblacion) 16 San Jacinto Poblacion
Barangay No. 17, San Francisco (Poblacion) 17 San Francisco Poblacion
Barangay No. 18, San Quirino (Poblacion) 18 San Quirino Poblacion
Barangay No. 19, Santa Marcela (Poblacion) 19 Santa Marcela Poblacion
Barangay No. 20, San Miguel (Poblacion) 20 San Miguel Poblacion
Barangay No. 21, San Pedro (Poblacion) 21 San Pedro Poblacion
Barangay No. 22, San Andres (Poblacion) 22 San Andres Poblacion
Barangay No. 23, San Matias (Poblacion) 23 San Matias Poblacion
Barangay No. 24, Nuestra Señora de Consolacion (Poblacion) 24 Nuestra Señora de Consolacion Poblacion
Barangay No. 25, Santa Cayetana (Poblacion) 25 Santa Cayetana Poblacion
Barangay No. 26, San Marcelino (Poblacion) 26 San Marcelino Poblacion
Barangay No. 27, Nuestra Señora de Soledad (Poblacion) 27 Nuestra Señora de Soledad Poblacion
Barangay No. 28, San Bernardo (Poblacion) 28 San Bernardo Poblacion
Barangay No. 29, Santo Tomas (Poblacion) 29 Santo Tomas Poblacion
Barangay No. 30-A, Suyo 30-A Suyo
Barangay No. 30-B, Santa Maria 30-B Santa Maria
Barangay No. 31, Talingaan 31 Talingaan
Barangay No. 32-A, La Paz East 32-A La Paz East
Barangay No. 32-B, La Paz West 32-B La Paz West
Barangay No. 32-C, La Paz East 32-C La Paz East
Barangay No. 33-A, La Paz Proper 33-A La Paz Proper
Barangay No. 33-B, La Paz Proper 33-B La Paz Proper
Barangay No. 34-A, Gabu Norte West 34-A Gabu Norte West
Barangay No. 34-B, Gabu Norte East 34-B Gabu Norte East
Barangay No. 35, Gabu Sur 35 Gabu Sur
Barangay No. 36, Araniw 36 Araniw
Barangay No. 37, Calayab 37 Calayab
Barangay No. 38-A, Mangato East 38-A Mangato East
Barangay No. 38-B, Mangato West 38-B Mangato West
Barangay No. 39, Santa Rosa 39 Santa Rosa
Barangay No. 40, Balatong 40 Balatong
Barangay No. 41, Balacad 41 Balacad
Barangay No. 42, Apaya 42 Apaya
Barangay No. 43, Cavit 43 Cavit
Barangay No. 44, Zamboanga 44 Zamboanga
Barangay No. 45, Tangid 45 Tangid
Barangay No. 46, Nalbo 46 Nalbo
Barangay No. 47, Bengcag 47 Bengcag
Barangay No. 48-A, Cabungaan North 48-A Cabungaan North
Barangay No. 48-B, Cabungaan South 48-B Cabungaan South
Barangay No. 49-A, Darayday 49-A Darayday
Barangay No. 49-B, Raraburan 49-B Raraburan
Barangay No. 50, Buttong 50 Buttong
Barangay No. 51-A, Nangalisan East 51-A Nangalisan East
Barangay No. 51-B, Nangalisan West 51-B Nangalisan West
Barangay No. 52-A, San Mateo 52-A San Mateo
Barangay No. 52-B, Lataag 52-B Lataag
Barangay No. 53, Rioeng 53 Rioeng
Barangay No. 54-A, Camangaan 54-A Camangaan
Barangay No. 54-B, Lagui-Sail 54-B Lagui-Sail
Barangay No. 55-A, Barit-Pandan 55-A Barit-Pandan
Barangay No. 55-B, Salet-Bulangon 55-B Salet-Bulangon
Barangay No. 55-C, Vira 55-C Vira
Barangay No. 56-A, Bacsil North 56-A Bacsil North
Barangay No. 56-B, Bacsil South 56-B Bacsil South
Barangay No. 57, Pila 57 Pila
Barangay No. 58, Casili 58 Casili
Barangay No. 59-A, Dibua South 59-A Dibua South
Barangay No. 59-B, Dibua North 59-B Dibua North
Barangay No. 60-A, Caaoacan 60-A Caaoacan
Barangay No. 60-B, Madiladig 60-B Madiladig
Barangay No. 61, Cataban 61 Cataban
Barangay No. 62-A, Navotas North 62-A Navotas North
Barangay No. 62-B, Navotas South 62-B Navotas South
Long Name
Name Former

*Note: Italicized names are former names/territories.


Television networks[edit]

Radio networks[edit]

AM stations

  • DZVI: Radyo Iloko 684
  • DZVR: Bombo Radyo 711
  • DZJC: Aksyon Radyo 747
  • DWAR: Sonshine Radio 819
  • DZMT: DZRH Nationwide 990
  • DZLO: DZLO 1230

FM stations

  • DWIL: 90.7 Love Radio
  • DWEL: MOR 95.5 My Only Radio For Life!
  • DZLS: Barangay 97.1
  • DWHP: 99.5 i FM
  • DWPI 103.5 Pinoy FM
  • DWLX 104.3 Ang Astig Ti Amianan
  • DWLT 98.7 Kilig Station of the North
  • DWVI 94.3 The Voice of Ilocandia

News Programs[edit]



  1. ^ a b "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Province: ILOCOS NORTE". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010". 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 September 2013. 
  4. ^ http://inorte.org/?page_id=2948
  5. ^ "Province of Ilocos Norte". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  6. ^ Bangui windmills
  7. ^ "Climatic Normals of the Philippines (1951-1985) (PAGASA 1987)". PAGASSA. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  8. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay:as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines). Retrieved 18 October 2014. 

External links[edit]

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