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Landolt C optotypes in various sizes and orientations

A Landolt C, also known as a Japanese Vision Test, Landolt ring or Landolt broken ring, is an optotype, i.e. a standardized symbol used for testing vision. It was developed by the Swiss-born ophthalmologist Edmund Landolt.

The Landolt C consists of a ring that has a gap, thus looking similar to the letter C. The gap can be at various positions (usually left, right, bottom, top and the 45° positions in between) and the task of the tested person is to decide on which side the gap is. The size of the C and its gap are reduced until the subject makes a specified rate of errors. The minimum perceivable angle of the gap is taken as measure of the visual acuity. It is generally practised in the laboratory.[1]

The stroke width is 1/5 of the diameter, and the gap width is the same.[2] This is identical to the letter C from a Snellen chart. The Landolt C is the standard optotype for acuity measurement in most European countries. It was standardized, together with measurement procedures, by the German DIN, as DIN 58220 (now EN ISO 8596).

See also[edit]


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28 news items


Mon, 15 Sep 2014 14:39:46 -0700

With the implant on, 25 patients had light perception, 17 were able to localize the light source, 15 successfully passed the grating acuity test, 6 had motion perception, and 4 successfully completed the Landolt C-ring task. In addition, 15 were able ...
PR Web (press release)
Wed, 16 Jul 2014 02:56:15 -0700

The LEA symbols tests are the only tests that have been calibrated against the standardized Landolt C vision test symbol. The Landolt C is an optotype that is used throughout most of the world as the standardized symbol for measuring visual acuity.
University of Bristol
Thu, 21 Mar 2013 10:55:22 -0700

Dr Shelby Temple, now at the University of Bristol, and his team at the University of Queensland and the University of Western Australia used a modified version of the Landolt C test to discover just how fine a detail the archerfish could resolve.
Wed, 15 Jan 2014 14:09:56 -0800

... reported that after implantation of the device light perception was restored in 8 of the 9 patients, light localization in 7, motion detection in 5, grating acuity measurement in 6 up to 3.3 cycles per degree, and visual acuity measurement with ...

Le Temps (Abonnement)

Le Temps (Abonnement)
Mon, 06 Oct 2014 08:27:52 -0700

Le président du PBD souhaite créer une force de premier plan au centre de l'échiquier politique. Il espère que son parti décrochera un siège en Suisse romande. Il compte sur une candidature de Christine Bussat dans le canton de Vaud ...

Global Times

Global Times
Thu, 14 Nov 2013 02:07:30 -0800

He said one reason for this was because the test set by the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) uses the Landolt C eye chart which is more difficult than the E chart school students are familiar with. Students who pass the first interview and ...
20 minutes.ch
Sat, 17 Jan 2015 03:23:12 -0800

Fondé en 2008, le PBD est au bénéfice de positions courageuses, d'un profil clair et autonome et il peut désormais attester de plus de six ans de réalisations, a relevé son président Martin Landolt. C'est pourquoi la campagne en vue des élections ...
ScienceBlog.com (blog)
Wed, 16 May 2012 08:19:00 -0700

A method developed at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem for training blind persons to “see” through the use of a sensory substitution device (SSD) has enabled those using the system to actually “read” an eye chart with letter sizes smaller than those ...

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