|Patrick Lafcadio Hearn
Koizumi Yakumo (小泉八雲)
June 27, 1850|
Lefkada, United States of the Ionian Islands
|Died||26 September 1904
|Pen name||Koizumi Yakumo|
|Nationality||Irish, Greek, Japanese|
|Alma mater||Ushaw College|
|Spouse(s)||Alethea ("Mattie") Foley
Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (27 June 1850 – 26 September 1904), known also by the Japanese name Koizumi Yakumo (小泉 八雲), was an international writer, known best for his books about Japan, especially his collections of Japanese legends and ghost stories, such as Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things. In the United States, Hearn is also known for his writings about the city of New Orleans based on his ten-year stay in that city.
Early life 
Hearn was born in Lefkada (the origin of his middle name), one of the Greek Ionian Islands. He was the son of Sergeant Major Charles Bush Hearn (of County Offaly, Ireland) and Rosa Antoniou Kassimati, a Greek woman of noble Kytheran lineage through her father, Anthony Kassimati. His father was stationed in Lefkada during the British occupation of the islands. Lafcadio was baptized Patricio Lefcadio Hearn in the Greek Orthodox Church. It is not known whether Hearn's parents were ever legally married, and the Irish Protestant relatives on his father's side considered him to have been born out of wedlock. This may, however, have been because they did not recognize the legitimacy of a Greek Orthodox marriage ceremony for a Protestant.
Hearn relocated to Dublin, Ireland, at the age of two years, where he was brought up in the suburb of Rathmines. Other members of his family also had artistic interest. His father's brother Richard was at one time a well-known member of the Barbizon set of artists, although he did not become well known as a painter, possibly due to a lack of personal ambition. Young Hearn had a rather casual education, but in 1865 was attending the Roman Catholic Ushaw College, Durham. He was injured in a playground accident during his teens, suffering loss of vision in his left eye.
The religious faith in which he was educated was soon lost, and at 19 he was sent to live in the United States, where he settled in Cincinnati, Ohio. For a time, he was impoverished. He eventually befriended the English printer and communalist Henry Watkin. With Watkin's help, Hearn did low-grade journalism work.
By the strength of his talent as a writer, Hearn soon obtained a job as a reporter for the Cincinnati Daily Enquirer, working for the newspaper from 1872 to 1875. Writing with creative freedom in one of Cincinnati's largest circulating newspapers, he became known for his lurid accounts of local murders, developing a reputation as the paper's premier sensational journalist, as well as the author of sensitive accounts of some of the disadvantaged people of Cincinnati. The Library of America selected one of these murder accounts, "Gibbeted," for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American True Crime, published in 2008.
Hearn continued to occupy himself with journalism and with observation and reading, and meanwhile his erratic, romantic, and rather morbid idiosyncrasies developed. While in Cincinnati, he married Alethea ("Mattie") Foley, a black American woman, an illegal act at the time. When the scandal was discovered and publicized, he was dismissed from the Enquirer and went to work for the rival newspaper The Cincinnati Commercial. Hearn divorced in 1877.
In 1874 Hearn and the young Henry Farny, later a renowned painter of the American West, wrote, illustrated, and published a weekly journal of art, literature and satire they titled Ye Giglampz that was published for nine issues. (The Cincinnati Public Library reprinted a facsimile of all nine issues in 1983).
New Orleans 
During the autumn of 1877, Hearn left Cincinnati for New Orleans, Louisiana, where he initially wrote dispatches on his discoveries in the "Gateway to the Tropics" for the Cincinnati Commercial.
He lived in New Orleans for nearly a decade, writing first for the newspaper Daily City Item and later for the Times Democrat. The vast number of his writings about New Orleans and its environs, many of which have not been collected, include the city's Creole population and distinctive cuisine, the French Opera, and Louisiana Voodoo. His writings for national publications, such as Harper's Weekly and Scribner's Magazine, helped create the popular reputation of New Orleans as a place with a distinct culture more akin to that of Europe and the Caribbean than to the rest of North America. His best-known Louisiana works are Gombo Zhèbes, Little Dictionary of Creole Proverbs in Six Dialects (1885); La Cuisine Créole (1885), a collection of culinary recipes from leading chefs and noted Creole housewives who helped make New Orleans famous for its cuisine; and Chita: A Memory of Last Island, a novella based on the hurricane of 1856 first published in Harper's Monthly in 1888. He also published in Harper's Weekly the first known written article (1883) about Filipinos in the United States, the Manilamen or Tagalags, one of whose villages he had visited at Saint Malo, southeast of Lake Borgne in Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana.
Hearn was little known then, and even now he is little known for his writing about New Orleans, except by local cultural devotees. However, more books have been written about him than any former resident of New Orleans except Louis Armstrong.
Hearn's writings for the New Orleans newspapers included impressionistic descriptions of places and characters and many stern, vigorous editorials denouncing political corruption, street crime, violence, intolerance, and the failures of public health and hygiene officials. Despite the fact that he is credited with "inventing" New Orleans as an exotic and mysterious place, his obituaries of the vodou leaders Marie Laveau and Doctor John Montenet are matter-of-fact and debunking. A selection of Hearn's writings was collected in S. Fredrick Starr's book Inventing New Orleans: Writings of Lafcadio Hearn, published by the University Press of Mississippi.
Harper's sent Hearn to the West Indies as a correspondent in 1887. He spent two years in Martinique and produced two books: Two Years in the French West Indies and Youma, The Story of a West-Indian Slave, both in 1890.
Later life in Japan 
In 1890, Hearn went to Japan with a commission as a newspaper correspondent, which was quickly terminated. It was in Japan, however, that he found a home and his greatest inspiration. Through the goodwill of Basil Hall Chamberlain, Hearn gained a teaching position during the summer of 1890 at the Shimane Prefectural Common Middle School and Normal School in Matsue, a town in western Japan on the coast of the Sea of Japan. The Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum and his old residence are still two of Matsue's most popular tourist attractions. During his fifteen-month stay in Matsue, Hearn married Koizumi Setsu, the daughter of a local samurai family, with whom he had four children. He became a naturalized Japanese, assuming the name Koizumi Yakumo, in 1896 after accepting a teaching position in Tokyo.
During late 1891, Hearn obtained another teaching position in Kumamoto, Kyūshū, at the Fifth Higher Middle School, where he spent the next three years and completed his book Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (1894). In October 1894, he secured a journalism job with the English-language newspaper Kobe Chronicle, and in 1896, with some assistance from Chamberlain, he began teaching English literature at Tokyo Imperial University, a job he had until 1903. In 1904, he was a professor at Waseda University. On 26 September 1904, he died of heart failure at the age of 54 years. His grave is at the Zōshigaya Cemetery in Toshima, Tokyo.
In the late 19th century, Japan was still largely unknown and exotic to Westerners. However, with the introduction of Japanese aesthetics, particularly at the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900, Japanese styles became fashionable in Western countries. Consequently, Hearn became known to the world by his writings concerning Japan. In later years, some critics would accuse Hearn of exoticizing Japan, but because he offered the West some of its first descriptions of pre-industrial and Meiji Era Japan, his work has historical value.
The Japanese director Masaki Kobayashi adapted four Hearn tales into his 1965 film, Kwaidan. Some of his stories have been adapted by Ping Chong into his puppet theatre, including the 1999 Kwaidan and the 2002 OBON: Tales of Moonlight and Rain.
Hearn's life and works were celebrated in The Dream of a Summer Day, a play that toured Ireland during April and May 2005, which was staged by the Storytellers Theatre Company and directed by Liam Halligan. It is a detailed dramatization of Hearn's life, with four of his ghost stories included.
There is also a cultural center named for Hearn at the University of Durham.
In Ian Fleming's 1964 novel You Only Live Twice, James Bond retorts to his nemesis Blofeld's comment of "Have you ever heard the Japanese expression kirisute gomen?" with "Spare me the Lafcadio Hearn, Blofeld."
Books written by Hearn on Japanese subjects 
- Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (1894)
- Out of the East: Reveries and Studies in New Japan (1895)
- Kokoro: Hints and Echoes of Japanese Inner Life (1896)
- Gleanings in Buddha-Fields: Studies of Hand and Soul in the Far East (1897)
- The boy who drew cats (1897; Houghton Mifflin, Boston)
- Exotics and Retrospectives (1898)
- Japanese Fairy Tales (1898) and sequels
- In Ghostly Japan (1899)
- Shadowings (1900)
- Japanese Lyrics (1900) - on haiku
- A Japanese Miscellany (1901)
- Kottō: Being Japanese Curios, with Sundry Cobwebs (1902)
- Kwaidan: Stories and Studies of Strange Things (1903) (which was later made into the movie Kwaidan by Masaki Kobayashi)
- Japan: An Attempt at Interpretation (1904; published just after his death)
- The Romance of the Milky Way and other studies and stories (1905; published posthumously)
- Japan's Religions: Shinto and Buddhism (no date)
See also 
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Cott, Jonathan (2001), Wandering Ghost: The Odyssey of Lafcadio Hearn, Kodansha, ISBN 477001659 Check
- Hearn, Lafcadio; Starr, S. Frederick (2001), Inventing New Orleans: Writings of Lafcadio Hearn, University Press of Mississippi, ISBN 1-57806-353-1
- Grace, Kevin (Jan 4, 2012). "Legendary Locals of Cincinnati". Arcadia Publishing. p. 25. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- A chronicle of Creole cuisine | Chron.com - Houston Chronicle
- Kazuo, Iwao, Kiyoshi, and Suzuko: Katharine Chubbuck, ‘Hearn, (Patricio) Lafcadio Carlos (1850–1904)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- Komakichi, Nohara, The True Face of Japan, (1936, 1st ed.)
- William MacAdams, Ben Hecht,Barricade Books, 1995. ISBN 1-56980-028-6 .(p.34)
- Malcolm Cowley, "Introduction", in Henry Goodman (ed.) The Selected Writings of Lafcadio Hearn. Citadel Press, 1949.
- Yone Noguchi
- Lafcadio Hearn Bibliography
Further reading 
- Benfey, Christopher, ed. (2009). Lafcadio Hearn: American Writings (Library of America). ("Some Chinese Ghosts" • "Chita" • "Two Years in the French West Indies" • "Youma" • "Selected Journalism and Letters")
- Bisland, Elizabeth. (1906). The Life and Letters of Lafcadio Hearn, Vol. I. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
- -----. (1906). The Life and Letters of Lafcadio Hearn, Vol. II. New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company.
- Bronner, Milton, editor, Letters from the Raven: Being the Correspondence of Lafcadio Hearn with Henry Watkin (1907)
- Cott, Jonathan. Wandering Ghost: The Odyssey of Lafcadio Hearn (1991)
- Gould, G. M. Concerning Lafcadio Hearn (1908)
- Hearn, Lafcadio, Inventing New Orleans: Writings of Lafcadio Hearn,S. Frederick Starr, editor (University Press of Mississippi, 2001)
- Hearn, Lafcadio. Lafcadio Hearn's America, Simon J. Bronner, editor (2002)
- Kennard, Nina H., Lafcadio Hearn; containing some letters from Lafcadio Hearn to his half-sister, Mrs. Atkinson (New York, D. Appleton and company, 1912) 
- Lurie, David. "Orientomology: The Insect Literature of Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904)", in JAPANimals: History and Culture in Japan's Animal Life, ed. Gregory M. Pflugfelder and Brett L. Walker, University of Michigan Press, 2005.
- Narita, Tatsushi.T. S. Eliot and his Youth as 'A Literary Columbus'. Nagoya: Kougaku Shuppan, 1911.
- Noguchi, Yone. Lafcadio Hearn in Japan (1910)
- Pulvers, Roger. Lafcadio Hearn: interpreter of two disparate worlds, Japan Times, January 19, 2000
- Rexroth, Kenneth, The Buddhist Writings of Lafcadio Hearn (1977)
- Rothman, Adam, "Lafcadio Hearn in New Orleans and the Caribbean," Atlantic Studies 5:2 (2008); republished in New Orleans in the Atlantic World: Between Land and Sea (Routledge, 2013)
- Starrs, Roy "Lafcadio Hearn as Japanese Nationalist", in "Nichibunken Japan Review: Journal of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies", Number 18, 2006, pp. 181–213.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Lafcadio Hearn|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lafcadio Hearn|
- Works by Lafcadio Hearn at Project Gutenberg
- Works by Lafcadio Hearn at LibriVox (audiobooks)
- Lafcadio Hearn and Haiku
- Hearn's influence in literature
- essay by Roy Starrs on "Lafcadio Hearn as a Japanese Nationalist"
- 1905 Magazine Article with photos
- A Journey to Lefcadio Hearn's birthplace
- "The Ghost Stories of Lafcadio Hearn" by Michael Dirda
- Lafcadio Hearn's papers at the Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library, University of Virginia