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"Jane Grey" redirects here. For other uses, see Jane Grey (disambiguation).
Lady Jane Grey
Streathamladyjayne.jpg
The Streatham portrait, discovered at the beginning of the 21st century and believed to be a copy of a contemporary portrait of Lady Jane Grey.[1]
Queen of England and Ireland (more...)
(Disputed)
Reign 10 July 1553 – 19 July 1553[2]
Predecessor Edward VI
Successor Mary I
Spouse Lord Guildford Dudley
House Grey family (by birth)
Dudley family (by marriage)
Father Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk
Mother Lady Frances Brandon
Born 1536/1537
Died 12 February 1554 (aged 16–17)
Tower of London, London
Burial St Peter ad Vincula, London
Signature

Lady Jane Grey (1536/1537 – 12 February 1554(1554-02-12)), also known as Lady Jane Dudley[3] or The Nine Days' Queen,[4] was an English noblewoman and de facto monarch of England from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

The great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, Jane was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI. In May 1553, she was married to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. When the 15-year-old king lay dying in June 1553, he nominated Jane as successor to the Crown in his will, thus subverting the claims of his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth under the Third Succession Act. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower of London when the Privy Council decided to change sides and proclaim Mary as queen on 19 July 1553. Jane was convicted of high treason in November 1553, which carried a sentence of death, although her life was initially spared. Wyatt's rebellion of January and February 1554 against Queen Mary I's plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the execution of both Jane and her husband.

Lady Jane Grey had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day.[5] A committed Protestant, she was posthumously regarded as not only a political victim but also a martyr.

Early life and education[edit]

Arms of Grey: Barry of six argent and azure

Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and his wife, Lady Frances Brandon. The traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October 1537, while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier, possibly in London, in late 1536 or in the spring of 1537.[6][7] Lady Frances was the daughter of Mary Tudor, Queen of France, the younger sister of Henry VIII. Jane had two younger sisters, Lady Catherine Grey and Lady Mary Grey; through their mother, the three sisters were great-granddaughters of Henry VII, grandnieces of Henry VIII, and first cousins once removed of Edward VI. Jane received a first-rate humanist education, studying Latin, Greek and Hebrew with John Aylmer, and Italian with Michelangelo Florio.[8] Through the influence of her father and her tutors, she became a committed Protestant and also corresponded with the Zürich reformer Heinrich Bullinger.[9]

Jane preferred book studies to hunting parties[10] and regarded her strict upbringing, which was well-meant and typical of the time,[11] as harsh. To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading Plato, she is said to have complained:

For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand or go, eat, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, playing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight, measure and number, even so perfectly as God made the world; or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, nips and bobs and other ways (which I will not name for the honour I bear them) ... that I think myself in hell.[12]

In early February 1547, Jane was sent to live in the household of Thomas Seymour, who soon married Henry VIII's widow, Catherine Parr. Jane lived with the couple until the death of Queen Catherine in childbirth in September 1548.[13]

Contracts for marriage[edit]

Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine Parr's funeral, and Thomas Seymour showed continued interest in her, and she was again in his household for about two months when he was arrested at the end of 1548.[14] Seymour's brother, the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, felt threatened by Thomas' popularity with the young King Edward. Among other things, Thomas Seymour was charged with proposing Jane as a royal bride.[15]

In the course of Thomas Seymour's following attainder and execution, Jane's father was lucky to stay largely out of trouble. After his fourth interrogation by the Council, he proposed his daughter Jane as a bride for the Protector's eldest son, Lord Hertford.[16] Nothing came of this, however, and Jane's next engagement, in the spring of 1553, was to Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland.[17] Her prospective father-in-law was then the most powerful man in the country.[18] On 25 May 1553, the couple were married at Durham House in a triple wedding, in which Jane's sister Catherine was matched with the heir of the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert; and another Katherine, Lord Guildford's sister, with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir.[19]

Claim to the throne and accession[edit]

"My devise for the Succession" by Edward VI. The draft will was the basis for the letters patent which declared Lady Jane Grey successor to the Crown.[20] Edward's autograph shows his alteration of his text, from "L Janes heires masles" to "L Jane and her heires masles".[21]

The Third Succession Act of 1544 restored Henry VIII's daughters Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, although the law regarded them as illegitimate. Furthermore, this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. Henry's will reinforced the succession of his three children, and then declared that, should none of them leave heirs, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, Mary Tudor, which included Jane (for unknown reasons, Henry excluded Jane's mother, Frances Grey, from the succession[22]). Henry's will excluded the descendants of his elder sister Margaret Tudor, owing in part to Henry's desire to keep the English throne out of the hands of the Scots monarchs, and in part to a previous Act of Parliament of 1431 that barred foreign-born persons, including royalty, from inheriting property in England.

When the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in the early summer of 1553, his Catholic half-sister Mary was still the heiress presumptive to the throne. However, Edward, in a draft will composed earlier in 1553, had first restricted the succession to (non-existent) male descendants of Frances Brandon and her daughters, before he named his Protestant cousin Jane Grey as his successor on his deathbed,[21] perhaps under the persuasion of Northumberland.[23] Edward VI personally supervised the copying of his will which was finally issued as letters patent on 21 June and signed by 102 notables, among them the whole Privy Council, peers, bishops, judges, and London aldermen.[24] Edward also announced to have his "declaration" passed in parliament in September, and the necessary writs were prepared.[25]

The King died on 6 July 1553. On 9 July Jane was informed that she was now queen, and according to her own later claims, accepted the crown only with reluctance. The next day, she was officially proclaimed Queen of England after she had taken up secure residence in the Tower of London, where English monarchs customarily resided from the time of accession until coronation. Jane refused to name her husband Dudley as king by letters patent and deferred to Parliament. She offered to make him Duke of Clarence instead.

Official letter of Lady Jane Grey signing herself as "Jane the Quene"

Northumberland faced a number of key tasks to consolidate his power after Edward's death. Most importantly, he had to isolate and, ideally, capture Lady Mary to prevent her from gathering support. As soon as Mary was sure of King Edward's demise, she left her residence at Hunsdon and set out to East Anglia, where she began to rally her supporters. Northumberland set out from London with troops on 14 July; in his absence the Privy Council switched their allegiance from Jane to Mary, and proclaimed her queen in London on 19 July among great jubilation of the populace. Jane was imprisoned in the Tower's Gentleman Gaoler's apartments, her husband in the Beauchamp Tower. The new queen entered London in a triumphal procession on 3 August, and the Duke of Northumberland was executed on 22 August 1553. In September, Parliament declared Mary the rightful queen and denounced and revoked Jane's proclamation as that of a usurper.

Trial and execution[edit]

Jane and Lord Guildford Dudley were both charged with high treason, together with two of Dudley's brothers and the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Their trial, by a special commission, took place on 13 November 1553, at the Guildhall in the City of London. The commission was chaired by Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London, and Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Other members included Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby and John Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Bath. As was to be expected, all defendants were found guilty and sentenced to death. Jane was found guilty of having signed a number of documents as "Jane the Queen;" her sentence was to "be burned alive on Tower Hill or beheaded as the Queen pleases" (the traditional English punishment for treason committed by women).[26] However, the imperial ambassador reported to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, that her life was to be spared.[3]

The Protestant rebellion of Thomas Wyatt the Younger in January 1554 sealed Jane's fate, although she had nothing to do with it. Wyatt's rebellion was a revolt precipitated by Queen Mary's planned marriage to the future Philip II of Spain. Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, and his two brothers joined the rebellion, which caused the government to go through with the verdict against Jane and Guildford. Their execution was first scheduled for 9 February 1554, but was then postponed for three days so that Jane should get a chance to be converted to the Catholic faith. Mary sent her chaplain John Feckenham to Jane, who was initially not pleased about this.[27] Though she would not give in to his efforts "to save her soul", she became friends with him and allowed him to accompany her to the scaffold.[28]

The Execution of Lady Jane Grey, by the French painter Paul Delaroche, 1833

On the morning of 12 February 1554, the authorities took Guildford from his rooms at the Tower of London to the public execution place at Tower Hill, where he was beheaded. A horse and cart brought his remains back to the Tower, past the rooms where Jane was staying. Seeing her husband's corpse return, Jane is reported to have exclaimed: "Oh, Guildford, Guildford."[29] She was then taken out to Tower Green, inside the Tower, to be beheaded.

According to the account of her execution given in the anonymous Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary, which formed the basis for Raphael Holinshed's depiction, Jane gave a speech upon ascending the scaffold:

Good people, I am come hither to die, and by a law I am condemned to the same. The fact, indeed, against the Queen's highness was unlawful, and the consenting thereunto by me: but touching the procurement and desire thereof by me or on my behalf, I do wash my hands thereof in innocency, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day.[30]

She then recited Psalm 51 (Have mercy upon me, O God) in English, and handed her gloves and handkerchief to her maid. The executioner asked her forgiveness, which she granted him, pleading: "I pray you dispatch me quickly." Referring to her head, she asked, "Will you take it off before I lay me down?", and the axeman answered: "No, madam." She then blindfolded herself. Jane then failed to find the block with her hands, and cried, "What shall I do? Where is it?" Probably Sir Thomas Brydges, the Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower, helped her find her way. With her head on the block, Jane spoke the last words of Jesus as recounted by Luke: "Lord, into thy hands I commend my spirit!"[30]

Jane and Guildford are buried in the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula on the north side of Tower Green. Jane's father, Duke of Suffolk, was executed 11 days after Jane, on 23 February 1554.[31] Her mother, the Duchess of Suffolk, married her Master of the Horse and chamberlain, Adrian Stokes in March 1555 (not, as often said, three weeks after the execution of the Duke of Suffolk).[32] She was fully pardoned by Mary and allowed to live at Court with her two surviving daughters. She died in 1559.

Legacy[edit]

"The traitor-heroine of the Reformation", as historian Albert Pollard called her,[33] was only 16 or 17 years old at the time of her execution. During and in the aftermath of the Marian persecutions, Jane became viewed as a Protestant martyr for centuries, featuring prominently in the several editions of the Book of Martyrs by John Foxe. The tale of Lady Jane grew to legendary proportions in popular culture, producing romantic biographies, novels, plays, paintings, and films, one of which was the 1986 production Lady Jane, starring Helena Bonham Carter.

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (16 January 2006). "Is this the true face of Lady Jane?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  2. ^ Williamson, David (2010). Kings & Queens. National Portrait Gallery Publications. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-85514-432-3
  3. ^ a b Plowden, Alison (23 September 2004). "Grey, Lady Jane (1534–1554), noblewoman and claimant to the English throne". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861362-8. 
  4. ^ Ives 2009, p. 2
  5. ^ Ascham 1863, p. 213
  6. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 36, 299
  7. ^ de Lisle 2008, pp. 5–8
  8. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 51, 65
  9. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 63–67
  10. ^ Ives 2009, p. 51
  11. ^ Ives 2009, p. 53
  12. ^ Ives 2009, p. 52
  13. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 42–45
  14. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 45–47
  15. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 47–49
  16. ^ Ives 2009, p. 47
  17. ^ Loades 1996, pp. 238–239
  18. ^ Loades 1996, p. 179
  19. ^ de Lisle 2008, pp. 93, 304; Ives 2009, p. 321.
  20. ^ Ives 2009, p. 137
  21. ^ a b Alford 2002, pp. 171–172
  22. ^ Ives 2009, p. 35
  23. ^ Loades 1996, p. 240
  24. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 145, 165–166
  25. ^ Dale Hoak: "Edward VI (1537–1553)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, online edn. Jan 2008, Retrieved 2010–04–04 (subscription required)
  26. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 251–252, 334; Bellamy 1979, p. 54
  27. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 267, 268
  28. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 268–270
  29. ^ Ives 2009, pp. 274–275
  30. ^ a b Anonymous (1997) [1850]. "1554, The Execution of Lady Jane Grey and Lord Guildford Dudley". In Nichols, John Gough. Chronicle of Queen Jane and of Two Years of Queen Mary. The Camden Society; Marilee Hanson 
  31. ^ Cokayne, George (1982). The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant 2. Gloucester: A. Sutton. p. 421. ISBN 0904387828. 
  32. ^ Ives 2009, p. 38
  33. ^ Pollard, Albert J. (1911). The History of England. London: Longmans, Green. p. 111. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Lady Jane Grey
Born: 1537 Died: 12 February 1554
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edward VI
— TITULAR —
Queen of England
10–19 July 1553
Succeeded by
Mary I


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Jane_Grey — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
159407 videos foundNext > 

Lady Jane (1986) Part 1/14

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Lady Jane Grey - Historical Controversy

A short video regarding the Execution of Lady Jane Grey on 12th February 1554, and the historical controversy that has surrounded it. 'The Tower of London, a...

Wardrum - Lady Jane Grey

Απ τα κομμάτα που μου έκαναν την μεγαλύτερη αίσθηση..εκπληκτικό.

Lady Jane (1986) - Execution

"Where is it? Where is it? What do I do?" Taken from the film Lady Jane (1986) starring Helena Bonham Carter. No copyright infringement intended.

Lady Jane (1986) Part 6/14

The death of King Henry VIII throws his kingdom into chaos because of succession disputes. His weak son Edward, is on his deathbed. Anxious to keep England t...

Paul Delaroche: Lady Jane Grey | Exhibitions | The National Gallery, London

Introduction to the major National Gallery exhibition, featuring commentary from historian John Guy, costume maker Eileen Read and art historian Stephen Bann...

King Edward and Lady Jane Grey-Clip

Edward comforts and cheers up Jane after being beaten.

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Lady Jane Grey receives an e-mail, which appears to inform her that she has become Queen of England but the truth is very different. Sorry for bad quality.

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La Reina de Inglaterra Jane Grey que solo reino por nueve dias,acusada de alta traicion fue decapitada en la torre de Londres a los 16 años en 1554- El video...

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7 news items

 
Leicester Mercury
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 01:55:28 -0700

A correspondent suggested that a statue of Lady Jane Grey should be erected in the Cathedral Gardens where the King Richard III statue is sited ("Queen Jane, the forgotten monarch", Mailbox, July 21) . Both Richard and Lady Jane were not rightful heirs ...
 
Cornishman
Wed, 06 Aug 2014 23:22:30 -0700

Or the story of Lady Jane Grey retold as a puppet show? Perhaps you have always hankered to see the tale of the Spanish Armada as a musical? Well, look no further as The Pantaloons' History of Britain realises all of these dreams and more. This ...

Your Local Guardian

Your Local Guardian
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 23:50:33 -0700

The story of Henry VIII is told as a romcom, Lady Jane Grey's history is told in a puppet show and the Spanish Armada is a Gilbert and Sullivan parody. LCS: You co-wrote the show. Where did the idea come from? MH: We have been doing open air theatre ...

Leicester Mercury

Leicester Mercury
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 04:15:00 -0700

It has bought for its people the great park of Bradgate with Lady Jane Grey's tower still standing, and has a thousand acres of green space. "It threw the worthless dust of a king into its river (sic), and nobly guards the dust of Cardinal Wolsey. "It ...

Leicester Mercury

Leicester Mercury
Thu, 07 Aug 2014 23:56:15 -0700

Leicester has also had its share of talented people such as the Attenborough brothers, Lady Jane Grey (Queen of England), Sir Alec Jeffreys, Sue Townsend, Gok Wan, C P Snow and Graham Chapman. So you see Leicester has a lot to be proud of. I rest my ...
 
Anglotopia.net
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 10:56:00 -0700

England happens to have one of the oldest histories in the world making it one of the most popular tourist destinations. In fact, London is one of the world's most visited cities and with hotels such as The Berkeley,Holiday Inn London – Kensington ...
 
Página 12
Thu, 31 Jul 2014 21:02:42 -0700

Brujas danesas como Anne Palles; envenenadoras seriales como la marquesa de Brinvilliers; históricas regentes como María Antonieta, María Estuardo, Ana Bolena o Lady Jane Grey –reina de Inglaterra durante nueve días–, o activistas anti-nazismo del ...
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