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Landscape of Kottakkal
|• Chairperson||Bushra Shabeer|
|• Official||Malayalam, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Kottakkal (Malayalam: കോട്ടക്കല്, literally Land of the Fort) is a municipal town in Malappuram district in Kerala, southern India having 32 wards. It is located 12 km south-west of Malappuram, the district headquarters, and 12 km from Tirur Railway Station.
The National Highway 66 separates the municipality from Edarikkodu gram panchayat on some parts in the west. However, the fast developing Kottakkal urban area is now spread up to different parts of neighboring panchayats such as Edarikkodu.
Kottakkal, formerly known as "Sweta Durgam" (the White Fort) in Sanskrit, "Venkalikotta" and "Venkitta Kotta" in Malayalam, was a military base of the Kingdom of Valluvanadu in the medieval period. It was under the control of the Karuvayoor Moosad, the chief marshal and preacher of the Moopil Nairs. It may be the forts and castles constructed by the Karuvayoor Moosad that were the origin of the name "Kottakkal". The suburbs of Kottakkal were known as Changuvettikkadu and Eyyakkadu (now Changuvetti is developing as a twin town to Kottakkal).
In the first half of 15th century, Karuvayoor Moosad assassinated Thinayancherry Elayath, one of the ministers of the Zamorin of Calicut. Then Moonnarpadu Thampuran, the cousin of the Zamorin, killed Karuvayoor Moosad in combat and occupied the fort. The descendants of Moonnarpadu Thampuran dwelt in Kottakkal thereafter and the area came under the rule of the Zamorin of Calicut.
The invasion of the de facto ruler of the kingdom of Mysore, Tippu Sultan, altered the course of Kottakkal's history. A kinsman of the Zamorin of Kozhikode who had been sheltered in Travancore, fearing the Mysore invasion, later settled in Kottakkal after the death of Tippu in 1799. Among them was Manorama Thampuratty, a female scholar, from whom the Kottakkal branch of the Zamorin dynasty grew.
Kottakkal challenged the British occupation by cultural confrontation. Probably this started with Kunhikuttan Thampuran, who translated the epic Mahabharata, inspired by the socio-religious reformation movement of the 19th century.
After this expression of the elegance of language, P. S. Varier carried on the tradition. His attempts were closely related to the cultural resurrection of Kerala during the colonial period. He gave the local practice of medicine a new shape and dimension. He established a school of medicine in 1917 at Calicut with the idea of education and practice to the Arya Vaidya doctors, and later transferred this institution to Kottakkal. Many cultural, intellectual and other activities were centered in this institution, including Kavana Kaumudi edited by Kavikula Guru P. V. Krishna Varier, Parama Valsam Theatre, Dhanwanthary Magazine, and a Kathakali troupe. Even though the perception of "Kerala unity" was visible in the works of Kunhikuttan Thampuran, the conception of a united Kerala materialized mostly through the Arya Vaidya Samajam founded by P. S. Varier in 1902. The Samajam was organized and operated on the political fields of Travancore, Cochin and Malabar.
All Indian villages were the focus of sudden agricultural developments in the beginning of the 20th century. However, such events did not affect Kottakkal due to the compassionate attitude of the landowners of Kizhake kovilakam. They were strict in matters of lease and they never tortured farmers. The general state of Hindu–Muslim landowner–tenant setup common to the Malabar area was prevalent in Kottakkal also. Kottakkal has had a history of profound religious harmony for centuries. The Moplah Rebellion of 1921, despite widespread riots, did not disturb the peace of this small village. The intervention of P. S. Varier and the forbearance of the kovilakam helped the situation not getting violent. Muslims under the leadership of Odayappurath Chekkutti from the nearby village Kalpakancheri guarded Kizhake kovilakam and Arya Vaidya Sala.
The Mappila Outrageous Act, passed as a result of the 1921 revolt, slowed down the political activities of Malabar generally. Kottakkal however, was little affected, and during this period the political activities were led by students of the Ayurveda College. Their attempt to celebrate National Day in 1937 was a declaration of solidarity with the Youth Leadership of Congress. Greater awareness of social justice and equality led to the establishment of the Navajeevan Yuva Jana Samajam, under the leadership of P. V. Krishna Varier, P. Sankara Varier, Pulickal Sooppi Kuttykakka and C. R. Varier. The principal aim of this organization was the eradication of untouchability and awareness against malign influences. This was the indication that the political activities of Kottakkal had transcended from intellectual exercises to new horizons of creativity. The political support of P. M. Krishna Menon from Ramanattukara and K. C. K. Raja expedited it. Kottakkal was brought to national attention when it staged the 1939 Parappur Kerala State Congress meeting. The slogan "Enemy of Unity, Enemy of Strike" was approved at this meeting. Farmers began to work as a part of National movement after this meeting, and many agricultural movements began in Kottakkal, Amariyil Kunhikomu being a leader. Many other societies were also formed in Mannazhi, Chengottur and Kottakkal-Kuttippuram and they struggled against agricultural debts.
In 1943, during attempts to eradicate cholera, a relief committee and an orphanage were set up in Kottakkal with the help of the Servants of India Society, to help the orphans left by cholera. This was achieved even while the country was suffering from the effects of World War II and famine. A Co-operative society was also established under the Presidency of P. K. Varier.
The development activities of women included modern publications such as Amritha Bhashini and Bala Chandrika, published by Kovilakam. Independence and socialism were discussed in these publications. The earlier women's movement was started by Vallikad Kamalakshi, Kunhanujatti Thampuratti, Madhavikutti Varier, V. P. Kalyani, and others.
Cherukunnu is a small town 4 km from Kottakkal having scenic beauty, where a temple situate, Annapoorneshwari. On the way you have to face two hair pin turns while driving. Many accidents have occurred there. Balaprobhodini school is the famous school more over madrassa also exist behind the school. Society of the area are well behaving to others. From cherukunnu to arichol a read has been opened recently by this route you more easy to go to perintalmanna
The United Democratic Front won the first elections (held in October 2010) to the Kottakkal municipality. T.V SULAIKHABI and Paroli Moosakutty Haji of Indian Union Muslim League were elected as the Chairperson and Vice-Chairman respectively of the municipality.
Kottakkal Chanda (also known as Puthur Chanda) is the local fair and market held at Kottakkal on every Saturday. Local merchants from different parts of Malappuram district gathers in the market.
In first half of 20th century, Kottakkal Chanda was one of the most dependable cattle fairs in Malabar and betal leaves and vegetables were the most important commodities in market. During that period, economical stability of region fully depended upon the Kottakkal Chanda. Initially it was held in present day Kottakkal Bus Stand. The land to held the market was donated by the Kizhakke Kovilakam to the Muslims of Parappanangadi and Tirurangadi. During the Moplah Revolts of 1921, traders from Tirurangadi were the first informants of the uprising in the Kottakkal area.
Places of worship
The important Hindu temples and mosques at Kottakkal are,
- Venkatta Tevar Siva Temple, Kottappati
- Sreekrishna Temple, Pandamangalam
- Vettekkaran Temple, Kottappati
- Sree Viswambara Temple, within Arya Vaidya Sala Complex, known for Kottakkal pooram
- Sree Kurumpa Temple, Parappur
- Sree Ganapati Temple, Indiannur
- Kuttippurath Kavu, Kuttippuram
- Annapoorneswari Temple, Cherukunnu
- Palappura Juma Masjid
- Indianoor Juma Masjid
- Kolathuparamba Juma Masjid
- Othukkungal Juma Masjid
- Puthur Juma Masjid
- Cherukunnu Masjid
- Atteeri Juma Masjid
The important institutions at Kottakkal include,
- Arya Vaidya Sala
- Centre for Medicinal Plants Research (CMPR),AVS,Kottakkal
- Oushdodyanam and Botanical Research Institute
- Ayurveda College
- P. S. V. Natyasangham, the School of Kathakali
- Government Raja's High School and Higher Secondary School
- K C Manorama Thampuratti (eminent Sanskrit poetess)
- K. C. Manavedan Raja (founder of Raja's High School, Zamorin of Calicut during 1932-1937)
- M. K. Vellodi (Indian civil servant, diplomat)
- Appu Varier
- U. A. Beeran
- P.S.Varier (founder of Kottakkal Arya Vaidya Sala)
- Kottakkal Sivaraman (eminent Kathakali artist)
- Kottakkal Madhu (Kathakali singer)
- M. P. Abdussamad Samadani (politician, MLA, former Member of Parliament)
- Kottakkal Chandrasekharan (Kathakali artist)
- Kottakkal Ranjith Varier (Carnatic Music singer)
- Ootupulackal Velukkuty Vijayan (Malayalam literature writer)
- Kottakkal Kuttan Maaraar (Kathakali Chenda Artist)
Panoramic View of Kottakkal Town
Basic Information of Kottakkal Municipality
|Vehicle Registration No.||KL-55, KL-10 & KL-65|
|Neighbouring Panchayaths||Edarikode, Parappur, Othukkungal, Ponmala and Marakkara|
|Post Offices||Kottakkal, Puthoor, Indianoor, Pathayakkallu, Kuttippuram, Pandamangalam, Cherushola|
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