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Koeberg
Koebergnps.jpg
Country South Africa
Location Western Cape
Coordinates 33°40′35.2″S 18°25′55.37″E / 33.676444°S 18.4320472°E / -33.676444; 18.4320472Coordinates: 33°40′35.2″S 18°25′55.37″E / 33.676444°S 18.4320472°E / -33.676444; 18.4320472
Status Operational
Construction began 1976
Commission date 1984
Owner(s) Eskom
Operator(s) Eskom
Nuclear power station
Reactor type Pressurized water reactor
Reactor supplier Framatome
Power generation
Units operational 2 x 900 MW
Annual generation 13668
Koeberg in red with the other potential nuclear sites in blue

Koeberg nuclear power station is a nuclear power station in South Africa. It is currently the only commercial one in the country, and the sole commercial one in the entire African continent. It is located 30 km north of Cape Town, near Melkbosstrand on the west coast of South Africa. Koeberg is owned and operated by the country's only national electricity supplier, Eskom. The two reactors at the station form the cornerstone of the South African nuclear program.

Current anti-nuclear campaigns against Koeberg are being run by Earthlife Africa and Koeberg Alert.

Design[edit]

Koeberg contains two uranium pressurised water reactors based on a design by Framatome of France. Koeberg supplies power to the national grid so that over-capacity can be redistributed to the rest of the country on an as-needed basis. Koeberg is rated at 1,800 MW, its average annual production is 13,668 GWh and it has two large turbine generators (2 × 900 MW).[1]

The plant was constructed near Cape Town to be the sole provider of power in the Western Cape after fossil-fuel power stations were deemed too small and too expensive to be viable. Nuclear power was considered because it was more economical than transporting coal to the existing fossil-fuel power stations, and construction of new fossil-fuel power-stations, which would have required 300 m tall chimneys to comply with clean-air legislation.[citation needed] Athlone Power Station in the city was too small to provide Cape Town's needs, and the Paarden Island power station (itself too small) has been demolished.

The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean pumped through an isolated circuit at 80 tons a second.[2] Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. The grounds of the nuclear plant form a 22 km² nature reserve open to the public containing more than 150 species of birds and half a dozen small mammal species.

The power plant was originally located outside the metropolitan area, whose growth has far exceeded expectations in the intervening 20 years, so that the power plant is now close to suburban housing. The plant administration enforces maximum housing density regulations in case of evacuation, which precludes the construction of high rise buildings.

History[edit]

Construction of the plant began in 1976, and Unit 1 was synchronised to the grid on 4 April 1984. Unit 2 followed on 25 July 1985.

On 8 January 1982, the 70th anniversary of the formation of the African National Congress, Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the ANC attacked Koeberg nuclear power plant while it was still under construction.[3] Damage was estimated at R 500 million and the commissioning of the plant was put back by 18 months.[4] In 2010, the bomber was identified as being Rodney Wilkinson.[5]

In August 2002 twelve Greenpeace activists obtained access to the station. Six of them scaled the wall of the plant to hang up an anti-nuclear protest banner. The twelve were arrested and fined.[6]

At the end of 2005, Koeberg started experiencing numerous technical difficulties. On 11 November 2005, a fault on a transmission busbar caused the reactor to go into safe mode, cutting supply to most of the Western Cape for about two hours. On 16 November a fire under a 400kV transmission line caused the line to trip, causing severe voltage dips which resulted in Koeberg once again shutting down. Various parts of the Cape were left without electricity for hours at a time. On the evening of 23 November, a routine inspection of the backup safety system revealed a below-spec concentration of an important chemical, resulting in a controlled shutdown of the reactor. Due to the sufficiency of backup supply, major power cuts were not experienced until Friday 25 November, when the backup capacity began running out. At this point, rotational load shedding was employed, with customers being switched off in stages for most of the day. Koeberg was re-synchronised to the national grid on Saturday 26 November.

On Sunday 25 December 2005, the generator of Unit 1 was damaged. While the generator was being powered up after scheduled refuelling and maintenance, a loose bolt, which was left inside the generator caused severe damage, forcing it to be shut down. Subsequent to the unexpected unavailability of Unit 1, Unit 2 was also brought down for scheduled refuelling, resulting in a severe shortage of supply to the Western Cape. This resulted in widespread load shedding in order to maintain the stability of the network. A replacement rotor for Unit 1 was shipped in from France and the unit was brought back into operation in May 2006.

On 18 and 19 February 2006 large parts of the Western Cape again experienced blackouts due to a controlled shutdown of Koeberg. According to Eskom and the City of Cape Town, power cuts were to continue until 26 February 2006, however power supply problems continued beyond this date.

The estimated economic losses due to the power cuts was over R 500 M as at February 2007, and was estimated to rise to possibly as high as R 2 billion.

On 12 September 2010, 91 members of staff were contaminated with Cobalt-58 dust in an incident that appears confined to the plant.[7]

Opposition to Koeberg[edit]

South Africa's fledgling nuclear industry has seen its fair share of opposition, chiefly from environmentalists concerned about safety issues such as radioactive waste, and anti-war activists concerned about nuclear proliferation and use of atomic weapons. Current campaigns against nuclear energy are being run by Earthlife Africa and Koeberg Alert.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Koeberg Nuclear Power Station". Eskom. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  2. ^ "Generating Electricity At A Nuclear Power Station". Eskom. 
  3. ^ "History of MK". African National Congress. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  4. ^ Helen Bamford (11 March 2006). "Koeberg: SA's ill-starred nuclear power plant". Cape Argus. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  5. ^ Beresford, David (2010). Truth is a Strange Fruit: A Personal Journey Through the Apartheid War. Jacana. ISBN 978-1-77009-902-9. 
  6. ^ Jo-Anne Smetherham (25 August 2002). "Greenpeace in the dock over Koeberg raid". Cape Times. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  7. ^ SAPA (20 September 2010). "Koeberg workers contaminated". News24. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 

References[edit]

  1. Koeberg on the Eskom-Website
  2. Nuclear Tourist. Includes a picture.
  3. Koeberg details
  4. Evacuation modelling for Koeberg
  5. Google Map Satellite Image
  6. January 2006 Eskom media release on Koeberg's problems.

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koeberg_Nuclear_Power_Station — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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257 news items

Independent Online

Independent Online
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 03:03:45 -0800

Cape Town - A “critical milestone” has been reached in South Africa's plans to build new nuclear power stations, the presidency announced on Wednesday. The stage was now set to start the preparatory stage for the procurement process that would be ...

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Mon, 22 Sep 2014 13:01:19 -0700

Russia's state-owned nuclear company Rosatom has signed a historic partnership agreement with South Africa to build a large-scale nuclear power plant in the African state and develop collaboration in other areas of nuclear industry. The deal was signed ...
 
Pittsburgh Post Gazette
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 23:18:45 -0800

All this began in 2010 when Eskom put out a call for bids to replace six aging generators on the continent's only nuclear power plant near Cape Town — the Koeberg nuclear power station. The generators at Koeberg need to be swapped out by 2018, Eskom ...
 
Cape Business News
Mon, 24 Nov 2014 04:44:07 -0800

To date, over 150 different modifications have been completed by Lesedi at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station. Similar work is being carried out at South Africa's other nuclear facility at Pelindaba. In 2013 it formed a strategic consortium with Group ...
 
Mail & Guardian Online
Thu, 27 Nov 2014 13:56:15 -0800

Both of these, with the Acacia power station, which has a capacity of 171MW and is generally used to provide back-up power to the Koeberg nuclear power station, are in the Western Cape. The other is the Port Rex power station in East London, which has ...
 
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Thu, 20 Nov 2014 01:54:18 -0800

... November 2014) – Amec Foster Wheeler today announces the award of a contract from Eskom Limited for the design, installation, procurement and commissioning of a state-of-the-art fire protection system at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Cape Town ...

Yahoo News

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Fri, 07 Nov 2014 07:46:04 -0800

Johannesburg (AFP) - South Africa has signed a nuclear energy cooperation agreement with China as the government looks to expand the critical power supply system, officials said Friday. Pretoria said the agreement was a "preparatory phase for a ...

Deutsche Welle

Yahoo News
Fri, 10 Oct 2014 07:25:59 -0700

Koeberg nuclear power station, about 30 km outside Cape Town, on January 18, . View photo. Koeberg nuclear power station, about 30 km outside Cape Town, on January 18, 2007 (AFP Photo/-) ...
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