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Kingdom of Khotan

56–1006
Portrait of a king of Khotan, Dunhuang Mogao Caves, 10th century
Capital Khotan
Languages Maybe an ancestor of the Tocharian languages, after the 1-2nd century Prakrit in the Brahmi script.

Gandhari language 3-4th century.[web 1] Khotanese, a Sakan dialect in a variant of the Brāhmī script.[web 2]

Religion Buddhism
Government Monarchy
King
 -  c. 56 Yulin: Jianwu period (25–56 CE)
 -  969 Nanzongchang (last)
History
 -  Khotan established c. 300 BCE
 -  Established 56
 -  Yarkand attacks and annexes Khotan. Yulin abdicates and becomes king of Ligui 56
 -  Tibet invades and conquers Khotan 670
 -  Khotan held by the Muslim Yūsuf Qadr Khān 1006
 -  Disestablished 1006
 -  Khotan islamitised

The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim basin. (The area lies in present day Xinjiang, China.) The ancient capital was originally located to the west of modern day Hotan (Chinese: 和田) at Yotkan.[1] [2] From the Han Dynasty until at least the Tang Dynasty it was known in Chinese as Yutian (Chinese: 于闐, 于窴, or 於闐). The kingdom existed for over a thousand years until it was conquered by Muslim invaders in 1006.

Geography[edit]

Tarimbecken

The Khotan oasis geographical position is the main contributing factor to its success and wealth. The oasis of Khotan is situated in one of the most arid and desolate climates on the earth, the Taklamakan Desert. However Khotan is located at the far south of the Taklamakan at the foothills of the Kunlun Mountains, extending along the range for around 40 miles. At all times irrigated from the Yurung-kàsh and Kara-kàsh rivers, which water the Basin. These two rivers produce vast quantities of water which made habitation possible in an otherwise arid climate. The position next to the mountain not only provided irrigation for crops but it also increased the fertility of the land as the rivers reduce the gradient and deposited their sediment, creating a more fertile soil. This therefore increased the productivity of the agricultural industry which has made Khotan famous for its cereal crops and fruits. Therefore Khotan’s lifeline was its vicinity to the Kunlun mountain range and without this Khotan would not have become one of the largest and most successful oasis cities along the Silk Roads.

History[edit]

Coin of Gurgamoya, king of Khotan. Khotan, 1st century CE.
Obv: Kharoshthi legend "Of the great king of kings, king of Khotan, Gurgamoya.
Rev: Chinese legend: "Twenty-four grain copper coin". British Museum

Foundation[edit]

According to legend, the foundation of Khotan occurred when Kushtana, said to be a son of Asoka, the Mauryan emperor,[3] settled there about 224 BCE.[4]

However, it is likely to have existed much earlier than this. As early as 645 BCE, the Yuezhi (known later as the Kushans) were mentioned as suppliers of the famous nephrite jade to China, and the excavations of the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BCE) tomb of Fu Hao showed that all the jade originated from the oasis area of Khotan.[5] The first inhabitants of the region appear to have been Indo-Europeans from the west, and well-preserved mummies of European origin have been found in the Tarim area.[6]

In the second century BCE a Khotanese king helped the famous Kushan Emperor Kanishka to conquer the key town of Saketa in Middle India :[a]

Afterwards king Vijaya Krīti, for whom a manifestation of the Ārya Mañjuśrī, the Arhat called Spyi-pri who was propagating the religion (dharma) in Kam-śeṅ [a district of Khotan] was acting as pious friend, through being inspired with faith, built the vihāra of Sru-ño. Originally, King Kanika, the king of Gu-zar [Kucha] and the Li [Khotanese] ruler, King Vijaya Krīti, and others led an army into India, and when they captured the city called So-ked [Saketa], King Vijaya Krīti obtained many relics and put them in the stūpa of Sru-ño.

—The Prophecy of the Li Country.[7]

According to the Hanshu ('History of the Former Han', covering the period from 125 BCE to 23 CE), Khotan had 3,300 households, 19,300 individuals and 2,400 people able to bear arms.[8]

A daughter of the King of Khotan, married to the ruler of Dunhuang, Cao Yanlu, is here shown wearing elaborate headdress decorated with jade pieces. Mural in Mogao cave 61, Five Dynasties.

Han rule[edit]

The town grew very quickly after local trade developed into the interconnected chain of 'Silk Routes' across Eurasia. By the time of the Han conquest, the population had more than quadrupled. The Hou Hanshu (Book of the Later Han, covering 6 to 189 CE) says:

The main centre of the kingdom of Yutian (Khotan) is the town of Xicheng (‘Western Town’, Yotkan). It is 5,300 li (c.2,204 km) from the residence of the Senior Clerk [in Lukchun], and 11,700 li (c.4,865 km) from Luoyang. It controls 32,000 households, 83,000 individuals, and more than 30,000 men able to bear arms.[9]

Khotan was conquered by the Han Dynasty in 73 CE, but the Han influence on Khotan quickly diminished.[web 3]

During the Yongping period (58-76 CE), in the reign of Emperor Ming, Xiumo Ba, a Khotanese general, rebelled against Suoju (Yarkand), and made himself king of Yutian (in 60 CE). On the death of Xiumo Ba, Guangde, son of his elder brother, assumed power and then (in 61 CE) defeated Suoju (Yarkand). His kingdom became very prosperous after this. From Jingjue (Niya) northwest, as far as Shule (Kashgar), thirteen kingdoms submitted to him. Meanwhile, the king of Shanshan (the Lop Nor region, capital Charklik) had also begun to prosper. From then on, these two kingdoms were the only major ones on the Southern Route in the whole region to the east of the Congling (Pamirs).[9]

Tang Dynasty[edit]

In 640, Emperor Taizong of Tang (Tang Dynasty, 618-907) launched a campaign against the Western Regions, and Khotan submitted to the Tang emperor. The Four Garrisons of Anxi was established, one of them at Khotan.

The Tibetans later defeated the Chinese and took control of the Four Garrisons, and the Khotanese helped the Tibetans to conquer Aksu. Tang China later regained control in 692, but eventually lost control of the entire Western Regions after it was weakened considerably by the An Lushan Rebellion. After the Tang Dynasty, Khotan formed an alliance with the rulers of Dunhuang until the arrival of Muslim invaders.

End of Buddhist Khotan[edit]

During the latter part of the tenth century, Khotan became engaged in a struggle against the Muslim Karakhanids. They briefly took Kashgar from the Karakhanids in 970, and according to Chinese account, the king of Khotan offered to send in tribute to the Chinese court a dancing elephant captured from Kashgar.[10] But in 1006, the Karakhanid Yusuf Kadr Khan of Kashgar conquered Khotan, ending Khotan's existence as an independent state. The Karakhanid writer Mahmud al-Kashgari wrote in a short poem about the conquest:[11][12]

We came down on them like a flood, We went out among their cities, We tore down the idol-temples, We shat on the Buddha's head!

By the time Marco Polo visited Khotan, which was between 1271 and 1275, he reported that "the inhabitants all worship Mahomet."[13][14]

History Timeline[edit]

Gurgamoya coin. Obverse in Kharoshti: "Of the great king king of Khotan Gurgamoya". Reverse in Chinese: "6 grains coin". British Museum.
  • c.84 BC: Buddhism is reportedly introduced to Khotan.[15]
  • c.56: Xian, the powerful and prosperous king of Yarkand, attacked and annexed Khotan. He transferred Yulin, its king, to become the king of Ligui, and set up his younger brother, Weishi, as king of Khotan.
  • 61: Khotan defeats Yarkand. Khotan becomes very powerful after this and 13 kingdoms submitted to Khotan, which now, with Shanshan, became the major power on the southern branch of the Silk Route.
  • 78: Ban Chao, a Chinese General, subdues the kingdom.
  • 105: The 'Western Regions' rebelled, and Khotan regained its independence.
  • 127: The Khotanese king Vijaya Krīti is said to have helped the Kushan Emperor Kanishka in his conquest of Saketa in India.
  • 127: The Chinese general Ban Yong attacked and subdued Karashahr; and then Kucha, Kashgar, Khotan, Yarkand, and other kingdoms, seventeen altogether, who all came to submit to China.
  • 129: Fangqian, the king of Khotan, killed the king of Keriya, Xing. He installed his son as the king of Keriya. Then he sent an envoy to offer tribute to Han. The Emperor pardoned the crime of the king of Khotan), ordering him to hand back the kingdom of Keriya. Fangqian refused.
  • 131: Fangqian, the king of Khotan, sends one of his sons to serve and offer tribute at the Chinese Imperial Palace.
  • 132: The Chinese sent the king of Kashgar, Chenpan, who with 20,000 men, attacked and defeated Khotan. He beheaded several hundred people, and released his soldiers to plunder freely. He replaced the king [of Keriya] by installing Chengguo from the family of [the previous king] Xing, and then he returned.
  • 151: Jian, the king of Khotan, was killed by Han chief clerk Wang Jing, who was in turn killed by Khotanese. Anguo, the son of Jian, was placed on the throne.
  • 175: Anguo, the king of Khotan, attacked Keriya, and defeated it soundly. He killed the king and many others.[16]
  • 399 Chinese pilgrim monk, Faxian, visits and reports on the active Buddhist community there.[17]
  • 632: Khotan pays homage to China, and becomes a vassal state.
  • 644: Chinese pilgrim monk, Xuanzang, stays 7–8 months in Khotan and writes a detailed account of the kingdom.
Ceramic figurine showing Western influences, Yotkan near Khotan, 2-4th century CE.
  • 670: Tibet invades and conquers Khotan (now known as one of the "four garrisons").
  • c.670-673: Khotan governed by Tibetan Mgar minister.
  • 674: King Fudu Xiong (Vijaya Sangrāma IV), his family and followers flee to China after fighting the Tibetans. They are unable to return.
  • c.680 - c.692: 'Amacha Khemeg rules as regent of Khotan.
  • 692: China under Wu Zetian reconquers the Kingdom from Tibet. Khotan is made a protectorate.
  • 725: Yuchi Tiao (Vijaya Dharma III) is beheaded by the Chinese for conspiring with the Turks. Yuchi Fushizhan (Vijaya Sambhava II) is placed on the throne by the Chinese.
  • 728: Yuchi Fushizhan (Vijaya Sambhava II) officially given the title "King of Khotan" by the Chinese emperor.
  • 736: Fudu Da (Vijaya Vāhana the Great) succeeds Yuchi Fushizhan and the Chinese emperor bestows a title on his wife.
  • c. 740: King Yuchi Gui (Btsan-bzang Btsan-la Brtan) succeeds Fudu Da (Vijaya Vāhana) and begins persecution of Buddhists. Khotanese Buddhist Monks flee to Tibet were they are given refuge by the Chinese wife of King Mes-ag-tshoms. Soon after, the Queen died in a smallpox epidemic and the monks had to flee to Gandhara.[18]
  • 740: Chinese emperor bestows a title on wife of Yuchi Gui.
  • 746: The Prophecy of the Li Country is completed and later added to the Tibetan Tanjur.
  • 756: Yuchi Sheng hands over the government to his younger brother, Shihu (Jabgu) Yao.
  • 786 to 788: Yuchi Yao still ruling Khotan at the time of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Wukong's visit to Khotan.[19]
Grotesque face, stucco, found at Khotan, 7th-8th century.
  • 969: son of King lishengtian(vijaya sambhava )named zongchang sends a tribute mission to China.
  • 971: A Buddhist priest (Jixiang) brings a letter from the king of Khotan to the Chinese emperor offering to send a dancing elephant which he had captured from Kashgar.
  • 1006: Khotan held by the Muslim Yūsuf Qadr Khān, a brother or cousin of the Muslim ruler of Kāshgar and Balāsāghūn.[20]
  • Between 1271 and 1275: Marco Polo visits Khotan.[21]

Early names[edit]

Manuscript in Khotanese from Dandan-Uiliq, NE of Khotan. Now held in the British Library.

The name of the kingdom in the region now called Khotan has received many forms. The local people about the third century A.D. wrote Khotana in Kharoşţhī script; and Hvatäna- in Brāhmī in the somewhat later texts, whence as the language developed came Hvamna and Hvam, so that in the latest texts they have Hvam kşīra ‘the land of Khotan’. The name became known to the west while the –t- was still unchanged, and as is frequent in early New Persian. But under different influences the local people wrote also Gaustana, when they felt the prestige of Buddhist Sanskrit, or Kustana[22] and Yūttina, when the prestige of the Chinese kingdom in Śacu was at its height, in the ninth century. To the Tibetans in the seventh and eight centuries the land was Li and the capital city Hu-ten, Hu-den, Hu-then and Yvu-then.[23][24][25]

Buddhism[edit]

Head of Buddha found in Khotan, 3rd-4th century A.D.

The kingdom was one of the major centres of Buddhism. Buddhism was introduced in the first century BCE. Up until the 11th century, the vast majority of the population was Buddhist.[26]

The kingdom is primarily associated with the Mahayana branch.[27] According to the Chinese pilgrim Faxian who passed through Khotan in the fourth century:

The country is prosperous and the people are numerous; without exception they have faith in the Dharma and they entertain one another with religious music. The community of monks numbers several tens of thousands and they belong mostly to the Mahayana.[web 3]

It differed in this respect to Kucha, a Śrāvakayāna-dominated kingdom on the opposite side of the desert. Fa-Hsien account of the city states it had fourteen large and many small Buddhist monasteries.[28] Many foreign languages, including Chinese, Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tibetan were used in cultural exchange.

Social and Economic life[edit]

Despite having scant sources of information on the socio-political structures of Khotan, the shared geographical conditions of the Tarim city-states, as well similarities found in Archaeological findings throughout the Tarim basin enables the drawing of some overall conclusions on Khotanese life.[29] A seventh-century Chinese Pilgrim, Hsüan-tsang describes Khotan as having limited arable land but this seems to have been particularly fertile, being able to support ‘cereals and producing an abundance of fruits.’[30] He goes further by commenting how the city ‘manufactures carpets and fine-felts and silks’ as well as ‘dark and white jade’. In short, the city’s chief economy was based upon using the water from Oasis to irrigate the land as well as the manufacture of crafts which could then be traded on.[31]

Hsüan-tsang also praises the culture of the people of Khotan, commenting on how they ‘love to study literature’ and how ‘Music is much practised in the country, and men love the song and dance.’ The ‘urbanity’ of the Khotan people is also mentioned in their dress, that of ‘light silks and white clothes’ as opposed to the more rural ‘wools and furs.’[32]

Silk[edit]

Painting on wooden panel discovered by Aurel Stein in Dandan Oilik, depicting the legend of the princess who hid silk worm eggs in her headdress to smuggle them out of China to the Kingdom of Khotan.

Khotan was the first place outside of China to begin cultivating silk. The story, repeated in many sources, and illustrated in murals discovered by archaeologists, is that a Chinese princess brought silkworm eggs hidden in her hairdo when she was sent to marry the Khotanese king. This probably took place in the first half of the 1st century CE but is disputed by different scholars.[33]

Bronze coin of Kanishka, found in Khotan.

One version of the story is told by the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang who describes the covert transfer of silkworms to Khotan by a Chinese princess. Xuanzang, on his return from India between 640 and 645, crossed Central Asia passing through the kingdoms of Kashgar and Khotan (or Yutian in Chinese).[34] According the Xuazang the introduction of sericulture to Khotan occurred in the first quarter of the 5th century. The King of Khotan wanted to obtain silkworm eggs, mulberry seeds and Chinese know-how - the three crucial components of silk production. The Chinese court had strict rules on these items leaving China as they were determined to maintain their monopoly on the manufacture of silk. Xuanzang states the King of Khotan asked for the hand of a Chinese princess in marriage as a token of his allegiance to the Chinese emperor. The request was granted and an ambassador was sent to the Chinese court to escort the Chinese princess to Khotan. He advised the princess she would need to bring silkworm and mulberry seeds in order to make herself robes in Khotan and to make the people prosperous. The princess concealed silkworm eggs and mulberry seeds in her headdress and smuggled them through the Chinese frontier. According to his text, silkworm eggs, mulberry trees and weaving techniques passed to Khotan, then to India, and from there eventually reached Europe.[35]

Built on an oasis, its mulberry groves allowed the production and export of silk and silk rugs, in addition to the city's other major products such as its famous nephrite jade and pottery.

Jade[edit]

Khotan, throughout and before the Silk Roads period, was a prominent trading oasis on the southern route of the Tarim Basin – the only major one “on the sole water course to cross the desert from the south”.[36] Aside from the geographical location of the towns of Khotan it was also widely renowned as a significant area of nephrite jade production for export to China. Frances Wood provides a number of examples of Khotan jade trade by referring to: jade on sale there in observations of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang in 645[37] as well as long-established jade sales to Chinese carvers in Xinglongwa and Chahai. She notes that these carvers had been carving ring-shaped pendants "from greenish jade from Khotan as early as 5000 BC".[38] It would seem, from secondary sources, the prevalence of jade from Khotan from east to west is due to the relative lack elsewhere and to its quality. Evidence for the extent of the jade trade can be seen from archaeological remains as “polished and finished jade pieces were far more durable than ceramics and have survived for many millennia” .[39] The jade from the rivers of Khotan continues to be transported along the southern Silk Road route to this day.[40]

Neighbours[edit]

Ceramic figurine with Western influences, Yotkan near Khotan, 2-4th century CE.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ If this is correct, and if modern dating of the beginning of Kanishka's era in 127 CE, this must have happened at about this date - just before Ban Yong reasserted Chinese influence over the region.

References[edit]

Book references[edit]

  1. ^ Stein, M. Aurel (1907). Ancient Khotan. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  2. ^ Charles Higham (2004). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Facts on File. p. 143. ISBN 0-8160-4640-9. 
  3. ^ Sinha 1974.
  4. ^ Mukerjee 1964.
  5. ^ Jan Romgard (2008). "Questions of Ancient Human Settlements in Xinjiang and the Early Silk Road Trade, with an Overview of the Silk Road Research Institutions and Scholars in Beijing, Gansu, and Xinjiang". Sino-Platonic Papers (185): 40. 
  6. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Mair, Victor H. (2000), The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, London: Thames & Hudson 
  7. ^ Mentioned by the 8th-century Tibetan Buddhist history, The Prophecy of the Li Country. Emmerick, R. E. 1967. Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. Oxford University Press, London, p. 47.
  8. ^ Chapter 96A of the Hanshu or 'History of the Former Han' (which covers the period from 125 BCE to 23 CE). Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty, p. 97. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  9. ^ a b Hill 2009, p. 17-19.
  10. ^ E. Yarshater (ed.). "Chapter 7, The Iranian Settlements to the East of the Pamirs". The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 271. ISBN 978-0521200929. 
  11. ^ Valerie Hansen. The Silk Road: A New History. Oxford University Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-0-19-515931-8. 
  12. ^ Johan Elverskog (2010). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9. 
  13. ^ Latham, Ronald (1958). Marco Polo: the travels. p. 80. 
  14. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia. p. 18. 
  15. ^ Emmerick 1979, p.4-5.
  16. ^ Hill (2009), p. 17.
  17. ^ Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1965, pp. 16-20.
  18. ^ Hill (1988), p. 184.
  19. ^ Hill (1988), p. 185.
  20. ^ Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols., p. 180. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [1]
  21. ^ Stein, Aurel M. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols., p. 183. Clarendon Press. Oxford. [2]
  22. ^ 神秘消失的古国(十):于阗
  23. ^ Bailey (1961), p. 1.
  24. ^ H.W. Bailey, Khotanese texts
  25. ^ 藏文文献中“李域”(li-yul,于阗)的不同称谓
  26. ^ Ehsan Yar-Shater, William Bayne Fisher, The Cambridge history of Iran: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian periods. Cambridge University Press, 1983, page 963.
  27. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia. London. p. 95. 
  28. ^ "Travels of Fa-Hsien -- Buddhist Pilgrim of Fifth Century By Irma Marx". Silkroads foundation. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  29. ^ Guang-Dah, Z. (1996). B. A. Litvinsky, ed. The City-States of the Tarim Basin (History of Civilisations of Central Asia: Vol III, The Crossroads of Civilisations: A.D.250-750 ed.). Paris. p. 284. 
  30. ^ Ji Xianlin, ed. (1985). "12". Records of the Western Regions. peking. 
  31. ^ Guang-dah, Z. The City-States of the Tarim Basin. p. 285. 
  32. ^ "12". Records of the Western Regions. 
  33. ^ Hill (2009). "Appendix A: Introduction of Silk Cultivation to Khotan in the 1st Century CE", pp. 466-467.
  34. ^ Boulnois, L (2004). Silk Road: Monks, Warriors and Merchants on the Silk Road. Odyssey. p. 179. 
  35. ^ Boulnois, L (2004). Silk Road: Monks, Warriors and Merchants on the Silk Road. Odyssey. pp. 179–184. 
  36. ^ Whitfield, Susan (1999). Life Along the Silk Road. London. p. 24. 
  37. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road Folio. London. p. 151. 
  38. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road Folio. London. p. 26. 
  39. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road Folio. London. p. 26. 
  40. ^ Wood, Frances (2002). The Silk Road: two thousand years in the heart of Asia. London. p. 27. 

Web-references[edit]

  1. ^ "Archaeological GIS and Oasis Geography in the Tarim Basin". The Silk Road Foundation Newsletter. Retrieved 2007-07-21. 
  2. ^ "The Sakan Language". The Linguist. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  3. ^ a b The Buddhism of Khotan

Sources[edit]

  • Bailey, H. W. (1961). Indo-Scythian Studies being Khotanese Texts. Volume IV. Translated and edited by H. W. Bailey. Indo-Scythian Studies, Cambridge, The University Press. 1961.
  • Bailey, H. W. (1979). Dictionary of Khotan Saka. Cambridge University Press. 1979. 1st Paperback edition 2010. ISBN 978-0-521-14250-2.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Emmerick, R. E. 1967. Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. Oxford University Press, London.
  • Emmerick, R. E. 1979. Guide to the Literature of Khotan. Reiyukai Library, Tokyo.
  • Grousset, Rene. 1970. The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Trans. by Naomi Walford. New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  • Hill, John E. July, 1988. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3. See: [3] for paid copy of original version. Updated version of this article is available for free download (with registration) at: [4]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [5]
  • Hill, John E. (2009), Through the Jade Gate to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the Later Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE, Charleston, South Carolina: BookSurge, ISBN 978-1-4392-2134-1 
  • Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1965.
  • Mukerjee, Radhakamal (1964), The flowering of Indian art: the growth and spread of a civilization, Asia Pub. House 
  • Sinha, Bindeshwari Prasad (1974), Comprehensive history of Bihar, Volume 1, Deel 2, Kashi Prasad Jayaswal Research Institute 
  • Sims-Williams, Ursula. 'The Kingdom of Khotan to AD 1000: A Meeting of Cultres.' Journal of Inner Asian Art and Archaeology 3 (2008).
  • Watters, Thomas (1904–1905). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India. London. Royal Asiatic Society. Reprint: 1973.
  • Whitfield, Susan. The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. London. The British Library 2004.
  • Williams, Joanna. 'Iconography of Khotanese Painting'. East & West (Rome) XXIII (1973), 109-54.
  • R. E. Emmerick. 'Tibetan texts concerning Khotan'. London, New York [etc.] Oxford U.P. 1967.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hill, John E. (2003). Draft version of: "The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. 2nd Edition." "Appendix A: The Introduction of Silk Cultivation to Khotan in the 1st Century CE." [6]
  • Martini, G. (2011). "Mahāmaitrī in a Mahāyāna Sūtra in Khotanese - Continuity and Innovation in Buddhist Meditation", Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 24: 121-194. ISSN: 1017-7132. [7]

External links[edit]


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Altro video dello scultore Alessandro Rocchi http://scultureonline.blogspot.it CONTATTA ALESSANDRO ROCCHI scultureonline@yahoo.it CONTATTO TELEFONICO 328.665...

The Silk Road 05 In Search of the Kingdom of Lou-Lan.

In Search of the Kingdom of Lou-Lan. Introduces the region just east of the Taklamakan Desert--with striking shots of the terrain. Has an interesting segment...

NEL - XXIV

by Nastya Komarova 09-08-2013.

Zambeste Pentru Mine #2

Salut. Acesta este al doilea videoclip dedicat paginii de facebook " Zambeste Pentru Mine" Facebook.com/ZambestePentruMine1 Yahoo : zambestepentrumine99@yaho...

Paimona "Chalice" - Zeb & Haniya (Coke Studio) with Eng Subs

Meditate on His eyes and the divine intoxication of His Presence. All rights to the song belong to Zeb and Haniya and also to the Coke Studio. Continue makin...

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