A Stanza from Kavirajamarga which praises the people for their literary skills
Kavirajamarga (Kannada: ಕವಿರಾಜಮಾರ್ಗ) (850 C.E.) is the earliest available work on rhetoric, poetics and grammar in the Kannada language. It was written by the famous Rashtrakuta King "Nrupatunga" Amoghavarsha I, and some historians claim it is based partly on an earlier Sanskrit writing called Kavyadarsa. Some historians believe Kavirajamarga may have been co-authored by a poet in the king's court, the Kannada language theorist Sri Vijaya.
The name literally means "Royal Path for Poets" and was as a guide book for poets and scholars (Kavishiksha). From references made in this writing to earlier Kannada poetry and literature it is clear that a considerable body of work in prose and poetry must have existed in the preceding centuries.
The pre-coronation name of Amoghavarsha I was Sharva. He was born in Sribhavan in 800 to Rashtrakuta King Govinda III during the king's return from his successful northern campaigns in Kanauj. This is known from the Manne records (803), Sirur plates and Sanjan records (871) of Amoghavarsha I. Amoghavarsha I came to the throne in 814 at the age of 14 and took great interest in the Kannada language, culture, country and its people, and his writing Kavirajamarga goes into these details as well. The work describes the entire region between the Godavari river in the north and Kaveri river in the south as "Kannada country", which includes large territories north of modern Karnataka where Kannada is now not spoken. An English translation of a quote from the writing goes as follows,
In all the circle of earth
No fairer land you'll find
Than that were rich sweet Kannada
Voices the people's mind
'Twixt sacred river twain it lies-
From famed Godavari
To where the pilgrim rests his eyes
Only holy Kaveri...
The people of that land are skilled
To speak in rhythmic tone,
And quick to grasp a poet's thought,
So kindred to their own
Not students only, but the folk
untutored in the school,
By instinct use and understand
The strict poetic rules.
Early writers and literary styles
Kavirajamarga makes important references not only to earlier Kannada writers and poets but also to early literary styles that were in vogue in the various written dialects of Kannada language. The aim of this writing was to standardize these written styles. The book dwells on earlier styles of composition; the Bedande, the Chattana, and the Gadyakatha, and indicates that these styles were recognised by puratana kavi (lit, "earlier poets"). The term pruvacharyar (lit, earlier grammarians or rhetoricians) has also been used. The book mentions several early Kannada writers who preceded Amoghavarsha I: Vimalachandra (777), Udaya, Nagarjuna, Jayabhandu and 6th century King Durvinita of the Western Ganga Dynasty as the best writers of Kannada prose; Srivijaya, Kavisvara, Pandita, Chandra and Lokapala as the best writers of Kannada poetry. But the works and compositions of these early authors are yet to be discovered. Kavirajamarga was formative in the literary growth of Kannada and is a guide book to the Kannada grammar that existed in that period. It laid the "royal path" for guiding many aspiring writers.
In his criticism, Amoghavarsha I writes that old Kannada is appropriate in "ancient poems" but is insipid in works of the present time, like an "association with an old woman". According to him, a mixture of Kannada with Sanskrit is "harsh to the ear" but a mixture of Kannada and Sama-Samskrita is pleasant to the ear like "music", while a mixture of Kannada and Sanskrit in compounds is disagreeable "like mixing drops of buttermilk (curdled milk) and boiling milk". He also condemned the usage of expletives such as ante, matte, and gadam,.
- ^ Times of India - 8th-century book delights Sudha Murthy
- ^ a b Kamath (2001), p 90
- ^ a b Narasimhacharya (1988), p 2
- ^ Sastri (1955), pp 355-356
- ^ a b Sastri (1955), p 355
- ^ Kamath (2001), p 77
- ^ Reu (1933), p 67
- ^ Narasimhacharya (1988), p 17
- ^ E.P Rice in Das (2005), p 141
- ^ a b c Narasimhacharya (1988), p 12, p 17
- ^ a b Mugali R.S. (2006), pp 173-175
- ^ Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1474–1475
- Das, Sisir Kumar (2005) . History of Indian literature, 500-1399: from Courtly to the Popular. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-2171-3.
- Various (1988) . Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 2. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1194-7.
- Reu, Pandit Bisheshwar Nath (1997) . History of the Rashtrakutas (Rathodas). Jaipur: Publication Scheme. ISBN 81-86782-12-5.
- Kamat, Jyotsna. "The Rashtrakutas". Dynasties of the Deccan. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
- Kamat, Jyotsna. "Kannada Literature under the Rashtrakutas". The Rashtrakutas. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
Huffington Post India
Sun, 15 Feb 2015 19:45:00 -0800
Kannada's grammatical tradition, right from Kavirajamarga (850 CE) up until a decade or so ago, has essentially followed Sanskrit's, basically because of the huge influence of Sanskrit on the initial grammarians and the fact that Kannada literature was ...
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 13:03:45 -0700
... Malkhed) on the banks of river Kagina in Sedam taluk in Gulbarga district. 'Kavirajamarga', a guide book on earlier poets whose works are yet to be found, played a crucial role in getting the classical language status for Kannada from the Union ...
Mon, 02 Jun 2014 21:46:44 -0700
850 CE: Amoghavarsha's Kavirajamarga calls land between Kaveri and Godavari as 'Karnata.' * 10th Century CE: Rajashekara's Kavyamimase: Karnataka * 14-16 Centuries: Vijayanagara Empire referred to as Karnata Empire by its people. * After Talikota ...
Tue, 04 Mar 2014 23:13:15 -0800
Indian poetics has often been identified with Sanskrit poetics though there is a whole parallel tradition in Tamil and in Urdu, derived from the Persian tradition, not to speak of individual texts, like Kavirajamarga in Kannada, available in the ...
Mon, 29 Oct 2012 12:49:43 -0700
It is the cradle of Kannada language and literature; the first Kannada literary work 'Kavirajamarga' dating back to 850 AD was found here, proving Kannada's antiquity. The region has seen three mighty kingdoms, the Rashtrakutas of the seventh century ...
Mon, 14 Nov 2011 01:33:17 -0800
Similarly, the Kannada land whose borders the ninth century Kavirajamarga sets between the Kaveri and the Godavari then contained many areas that are now Marathi-speaking. The literary out put of Vijayanagar Empire was bilingual: it enriched both ...
Sun, 19 Jun 2011 02:10:48 -0700
Malkhed had a glorious past under the Rashtrakuta dynasty, particularly under the emperor Amoghavarsha Nrupatunga, who ruled for 64 years and penned the first classical Kannada work, Kavirajamarga. Malkhed was the capital of the Rashtrakuta Empire ...
Fri, 28 Nov 2008 11:11:14 -0800
Noting relevance of Kannada epic Kavirajamarga, he recalled the contributions made by Kannada writers to the language. He asked the speakers to use the language in a simple way without interpreting the intensity of the matter being discussed, keeping ...
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