digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















For other uses, see Kanada (disambiguation).
Born est. 6th century BCE or est. 8th century BCE
Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in present-day Gujarat, India
Philosophy Vaisheshika
Hindu sage and philosopher

Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद) was a Hindu sage and philosopher who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika and authored the text Vaisheshika Sutra.[1][2] He probably lived around the 2nd century BCE,[3] while other sources claim he lived in the 6th Century BCE.[4][5] It is believed that he was born in Prabhas Kshetra (near Dwaraka) in Gujarat, India.

His primary area of study was Rasavādam, considered to be a type of alchemy. He is said to have believed that all living beings are composed of five elements: water, fire, earth, air, Aether (classical element). Vegetables have only water, insects have water and fire, birds have water, fire, earth and air, and Humans, the top of the creation, have ether—the sense of discrimination (time, space, mind) are one.

The concept of anu (atom)[edit]

It was Kanada who originated the idea that anu (atom) was an indestructible particle of matter.[6] An interesting story states that this theory occurred to him while he was walking with food in his hand. As he nibbled at the food in his hand, throwing away the small particles, it occurred to him that he could not divide the food into further parts and thus the idea of a matter which cannot be divided further came into existence. He called that indivisible matter anu, i.e. molecule, which was misinterpreted as atom. He also stated that anu can have two states — Absolute rest and a State of motion.[7]

Adherents of the school of philosophy founded by Kanada, considered the atom to be indestructible, and hence eternal. They believed atoms to be minute objects invisible to the naked eye which come into being and vanish in an instant. Vaiseshikas further held that atoms of same substance combined with each other to produce dvyanuka (biatomic molecules) and tryanuka (triatomic molecules). Kanada also put forward the idea that atoms could be combined in various ways to produce chemical changes in presence of other factors such as heat. He gave blackening of earthen pot and ripening of fruit as examples of this phenomenon.[1]

This Indian conception of the atom was developed independently[8] and possibly prior[1] (depending on which dates one accepts for the life of Kanada) to the development of the idea in the Greco-Roman world. Indian theories about the atom are grebghjm,atly abstract and enmeshed in philosophy as they were based on logic and not on personal experience or experimentation. Thus the Indian theories lacked an empirical base, but in the words of A.L. Basham, the veteran Australian Indologist “they were brilliant imaginative explanations of the physical structure of the world, and in a large measure, agreed with the discoveries of modern physics.”[8]

According to author Dilip M. Salwi, "if Kanada’s sutras are analysed, one would find that his atomic theory was far more advanced than those forwarded later by the Greek philosophers, Leucippus and Democritus."[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Kapoor, Subodh. The Indian Encyclopaedia, Volume 1. Cosmo Publications. P. 5643. ISBN 8177552570.
  2. ^ Full Text at archive.org of "The Vaisesika sutras of Kanada. Translated by Nandalal Sinha", http://archive.org/stream/thevaiasesikasut00kanauoft/thevaiasesikasut00kanauoft_djvu.txt
  3. ^ Oliver Leaman, Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. Routledge, 1999, page 269.
  4. ^ Anu and Parmanu—Indian ideas about Atomic physics, http://www.newsinder.org/site/more/anu_and_parmanu_indian_ideas_about_atomic_physics/
  5. ^ a b "Kanada," Dilip M. Salwi, http://www.4to40.com/legends/index.asp?p=Kanada&k=kanada
  6. ^ Bal Ram Singh (2003). "Use of Chemistry to Understand Vedic Knowledge". Center for Indic studies, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  7. ^ Roopa Narayan. "Space, Time and Anu in Vaisheshika". Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Anu and Parmanu—Indian ideas about Atomic physics, http://www.newsfinder.org/site/more/anu_and_parmanu_indian_ideas_about_atomic_physics/

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanada — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

450299 news items


Mon, 13 Oct 2014 04:01:17 -0700

In the past month, two new ramen restaurants have opened up in London. Both are outposts of popular Japanese eateries, both specialise in tonkotsu ramen, and both have their roots in the Fukuoka region of southern Japan, on the island of Kyushu. Oh ...

Business of Cinema

Business of Cinema
Sat, 04 Oct 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Akul-Srujan The Bigg Boss Kannada Season 2 has reached the final week.We at businessofcinema.com are proud to announce to you first that Akul Balaji is the winner of this years Bigg Boss Kanada house. Earlier we had reported that Srujan was in the lead ...
FinanzNachrichten.de (Pressemitteilung)
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 03:30:00 -0700

Berlin (ots) - Die Europäische Kommission weist den Vorwurf zurück, das mit Kanada ausgehandelte Wirtschafts- und Handelsabkommen CETA sei verfassungsrechtlich bedenklich. In einem gestern (Donnerstag) von Attac München veröffentlichten ...

Neue Zürcher Zeitung

Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:42:33 -0700

Auch wenn der islamistische Hintergrund bisher nur in einem Fall bestätigt ist: Die Vorfälle richten das Augenmerk auf die Tatsache, dass auch Kanada mit der Problematik zumeist junger einheimischer Muslime konfrontiert ist, die in den Nahen Osten ...

Neue Zürcher Zeitung

Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:45:40 -0700

Das Chaos im und um das Regierungsviertel ist am Donnerstag zwar einer ruhigeren Gangart gewichen, doch haben die Ereignisse seit Wochenbeginn gezeigt, dass auch Kanada nicht gegen terroristische Aktionen aus den eigenen Reihen gefeit ist.

FAZ - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

FAZ - Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 20:00:27 -0700

Kanada ist stolz darauf, dass seine Institutionen nicht zu Festungen ausgebaut sind wie beim Nachbarn Amerika. So soll es auch bleiben, versicherten Politiker. Und Premier Harper beteuerte, dass sich Kanada nicht einschüchtern lasse. Kanada ist an den ...

Spiegel Online

Spiegel Online
Sun, 26 Oct 2014 21:59:10 -0700

Das Thema Wasser drängt sich also auf, wenn man Kanada fotografisch porträtieren möchte. Der deutsche Fotograf Berthold Steinhilber, 46, ist in die kanadischen Nationalparks gereist - Banff, Jasper und Yoho - und an den Pazifik. Seine Bilder erhalten ...
World Socialist Website
Tue, 28 Oct 2014 17:11:15 -0700

In einer landesweit übertragenen Fernsehansprache am Mittwochabend sprach der konservative Premierminister Stephen Harper wiederholt von „Terrorismus“ und „terroristischen Angriffen“ und behauptete, Kanada und die kanadische Demokratie seien ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight