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In Indian literature, Kāmashastra refers to the tradition of works on Kāma: Desire (love, erotic, sensual and sexual desire in this case). It therefore has a practical orientation, similar to that of Arthashastra, the tradition of texts on politics and government. Just as the former instructs kings and ministers about government, Kāmashastra aims to instruct the townsman (nāgarika) in the way to attain enjoyment and fulfillment.

During the 8th century BC, Shvetaketu, son of Uddalaka, produced a work too vast to be accessible. A scholar called Babhravya, together with a group of his disciples, produced a summary of Shvetaketu's summary, which nonetheless remained a huge and encyclopaedic tome. Between the 3rd and 1st centuries BC, several authors reproduced different parts of the Babhravya group's work in various specialist treatises. Among the authors, those whose names are known are Charayana, Ghotakamukha, Gonardiya, Gonikaputra, Suvarnanabha, and Dattaka.

However, the oldest available text on this subject is the Kama Sutra ascribed to Vātsyāyana who is often erroneously called "Mallanaga Vātsyāyana". Yashodhara, in his commentary on the Kama Sutra, attributes the origin of erotic science to Mallanaga, the "prophet of the Asuras", implying that the Kama Sutra originated in prehistoric times. The attribution of the name "Mallanaga" to Vātsyāyana is due to the confusion of his role as editor of the Kama Sutra with the role of the mythical creator of erotic science. Vātsyāyana's birth date is not accurately known, but he must have lived earlier than the 7th century since he is referred to by Subandhu in his poem Vāsavadattā. On the other hand Vātsyāyana must have been familiar with the Arthashastra of Kautilya. Vātsyāyana refers to and quotes a number of texts on this subject, which unfortunately have been lost.

Following Vātsyāyana, a number of authors wrote on Kāmashastra, some writing independent manuals of erotics, while others commented on Vātsyāyana. Later well-known works include Kokkaka's Ratirahasya (13th century) and Anangaranga of Kalyanamalla (16th century). The most well-known commentator on Vātsyāyana is Jayamangala (13th century).


Kaama (काम kāma) is a Sanskrit word that has the general meanings of "wish", "desire", and "intention" in addition to the specific meanings of "pleasure" and "(sexual) love".[1] Used as a proper name it refers to Kamadeva, the Hindu god of Love.

List of Kamashastra works[edit]

Lost works[edit]

  • Kâmashâstra of Nandi or Nandikeshvara. (1000)
  • Vâtsyâyanasûtrasara, by the Kashmiri Kshemendra: eleventh-century commentary on the Kama Sutra


  • Kâmashâstra, by Auddalaki Shvetaketu (500 chapters)
  • Kâmashâstra or Bâbhravyakârikâ
  • Kâmashâstra, by Chârâyana
  • Kâmashâstra, by Gonikâputra
  • Kâmashâstra, by Dattaka (according to legend, the author was transformed to a woman during a certain time)
  • Kâmashâstra or Ratinirnaya, by Suvarnanâb

Medieval and modern texts[edit]

  • Anangaranga, by Kalyanmalla
  • Dattakasûtra, by King Mâdhava II of the Ganga dynasty of Mysore
  • Janavashya by Kallarasa: based on Kakkoka's Ratirahasya
  • Jayamangala or Jayamangla, by Yashodhara: important commentary on the Kama Sutra
  • Jaya, by Devadatta Shâstrî: a twentieth-century Hindi commentary on the Kama Sutra
  • Kâmasamuha, by Ananta (fifteenth century)
  • Kama Sutra
  • Kandarpacudamani
  • Kuchopanishad or Kuchumâra Tantra, by Kuchumâra
  • Kuchopanisad, by Kuchumara (tenth century)
  • Kuttanimata, by the eighth-century Kashmiri poet Damodaragupta (Dāmodaragupta's Kuṭṭanīmata, though often included in lists of this sort, is really a novel written in Sanskrit verse, in which an aged bawd [kuṭṭanī] named Vikarālā gives advice to a young, beautiful, but as yet unsuccessful courtesan of Benares; most of the advice comes in the form of two long moral tales, one about a heartless and therefore successful courtesan, Mañjarī, and the other about a tender-hearted and therefore foolish girl, Hāralatā, who makes the mistake of falling in love with a client and eventually dies of a broken heart.)
  • Mânasollâsa or Abhilashitartha Chintâmani by King Someshvara or Somadeva III of the Châlukya dynasty by Kalyâni A part of this encyclopedia, the Yoshidupabhoga, is devoted to the Kamashastra. (Manasolasa or Abhilashitachintamani)[2][3]
  • Nagarasarvasva or Nagarsarvasva, by Bhikshu Padmashrî, a tenth- or eleventh-century Buddhist
  • Panchashâyaka, Panchasakya, or Panchsayaka, by Jyotirîshvara Kavishekhara (fourteenth century)
  • Rasamanjari or Rasmanjari, by the poet Bhânudatta
  • Ratikallolini, by Dikshita Samaraja
  • Ratirahasya, by Kokkoka
  • Ratimanjari, by the poet Jayadeva: a synthesis of the Smaradîpika by Minanatha
  • Ratiratnapradîpika, by Praudha Devarâja, fifteenth-century Maharaja of Vijayanagara
  • Shringararasaprabandhadîpika, by Kumara Harihara
  • Smaradîpika, by Minanatha.
  • Samayamatrka, by Ksemendra.
  • Shrngaradipika, by Harihar.
  • Smarapradîpika or Smara Pradipa, by Gunâkara (son of Vachaspati)
  • Sûtravritti, by Naringha Shastri: eighteenth-century commentary on the Kama Sutra

Kamashastra and Kāvya poetry[edit]

One of the reasons for interest in these ancient manuals is their intimate connection with Sanskrit ornate poetry (Kāvya). The poets were supposed to be proficient in the Kamashastra. The entire approach to love and sex in Kāvya poetry is governed by the Kamashastra.


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43 news items

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 02:32:20 -0800

"Kamasutra" was written by Brit faggot Richard burton it was originally kamashastra the study & discipline of self control. Invading perverted brit$hits perverted the whole text & disfigured the original sculptures. What you see & read today is fake ...


Wed, 29 Jul 2015 04:58:18 -0700

My point is - You commented for Kamashastra but you didn't give me any answer on why only projecting male characters as villains, gangsters, rapists?? does that mean all were goons, rowdies, smugglers??? Most of the films show body builders in villain ...

Deccan Chronicle

Deccan Chronicle
Mon, 22 Jun 2015 21:13:01 -0700

Not many know, but Chauhan played a role in the Sheryln Chopra film 'Kamastura 3D'. The actor was seen as Kamashastra Guru in the film. The actor has also been a part of several controversial films and television series some of which were never released.

Andhra Wishesh

Andhra Wishesh
Fri, 31 Jul 2015 01:48:45 -0700

Apart from spiritual works Guru's sphere of instruction includes the subjects like Dhanurvidya (archery), Arthashastra (economics) and even Natyashastra (dramatics) and Kamashastra (sexology). All pervading intellect of the ancient Acharyas had ...

The Hindu

The Hindu
Sat, 05 Jul 2014 04:47:40 -0700

And with enough attention on his love life to make one wonder whether he wrote Arthashastra or was he toying with the idea of penning Kamashastra too? “Chanakya had many layers, many facets. He was an ugly man, as I say in the book. But like any other ...
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Thu, 08 May 2014 11:45:00 -0700

The subjects of these scripts include Kamashastra, Indian philosophy, justice, yoga and meditation, Buddhist philosophy, Sanskrit grammar and composition, Vedic literature and medicine, decorative art, sculpture and astronomy. The over 90-year-old ...

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