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The Kalhora (ڪلهوڙا) Abbasi's are of Arab origin and descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566 – 662) (العباس بن عبد المطلب), (c. 566 – c. 653), who was a paternal uncle and Sahabi (companion) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and progenitor of the Abbasi Khalifa of Baghdad, Iraq and Qahira (better known nowadays as Cairo Egypt).
The Kalhora are one of the most Prominent and Powerful tribe of Sindh.
A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieutenant Edwards
|100,000 - 200,000|
|Regions with significant populations|
50,000 - 100,000
|Islam - Sunni|
|Related ethnic groups|
Arrival In Sindh
It was a reign of Abbasid Caliphate, which was ruled by Abbasid Dynasty of Caliphs who built their Capital in Baghdad and Cairo. They were the religious and political leaders, and claimed to be the true successors of Mohammed because of kinship with him. It was an era of intellectual rebirth in Abbasid Domain. In many aspects they reached extreme advancement in science, literature, arts, and many others sectors. The caliphate produced prominent scientists like Al-Biruni, Abu Nasr Mansur, and Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. Even today, this caliphate is prominent for “golden age” in history.
The descendant of Caliph Al-Mustansir II (1261–1262)of Cairo, Egypt, was the first to arrive in Sindh with a large number of followers. He came to Sindh as an official high-ranked officer to manage Caliphate rules and work jointly with Sindh Local Authorities. “Samma“ were Local Representatives of Sindh in that Era.
Qaim was first to arrive in Sindh from Ancestors of Abbasid, ca 1366. Then few years later his brother Ahmed came into Sindh with a large following of Arabs in c 1370. He married a daughter of Raja Rai, Dohrang Sahta, receiving a third of the country in dowry. 4th of Ahmed’s descendant Amir Fathu'llah Khan Abbasi, conquered the Bhangar territory from Raja Dallu, of Alor and Bhamanabad, and renamed it Qahir Bela. His son Amir Mohammed Chenai Khan Abbasi entered the imperial service and gained appointment as a Panchhazari in 1583 in the Reign of Mughal Dynasty.
At his death, the leadership of the tribe was contested between two branches of the family, the Kalhora and the Daudpota.
After the Death of Jaam Chenai (sometimes known merely Amir Chenai Khan Abbasi), the leadership of the tribe was contested by his two sons, Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi and Amir Daud Khan Abbasi. Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi was given his father’s sword and the tribe’s leadership, while Amir Daud Khan Abbasi became heir of his Musallah and Tasbeeh in simple Murshid or Religious Leader.
A short time after his father's death, Amir Mohammed Khan Abbasi died and his son Amir Ibrahim Khan Abbasi came into power and became the tribe's leader, but soon he abandoned this leadership in order to live the rest of his life in simplicity and loneliness on a mountain Named ”Kalho” (ڪلهو)) (near Hyderabad) for the sake of Allah. As a result, he is remembered as Kalhoro Khan (ڪلهوڙو خان)(which means to live alone and make religious practices), and he followed his family tradition and became a Religious Leader.
The Family of Amir Daud Khan Abbasi Known as Daudpota & Family of Amir Muhammed Khan Abbasi Known as Kalhora.
Today his descendents are proud to write Kalhoro as their surname.
'Kalhora' Claims to be the First Pir (Spiritual Leader) of Sindh.
After the death of Ibrahim Khan, Kalhora family distinguished for centuries, none of his descendants rose to be of importance, except Amir Adam Shah Kalhoro, who was 7th of his descendant. Who rose to occupy the holy seat vacated by the celebrated saint (Amir Chenai Khan Abbasi) of the time, Amir Adam Shah Kalhoro started his career from small village with the support of the Abro who remained a powerful force behind him. Sardar Khabar Abro was the first person to enroll as his follower. That small village became the centre for learning for the Mehdvis.
At that time Nawáb Khán Khánán having come to pay respects to Amir Ádam Sháh and to ask his blessings, at the request of Wadera Kabar abro, granted to him the zamindarí of Chándúkah,. After some time Ádam Sháh went over to Multán, to pay a visit to Lál l’san the celebrated living saint of the time, and a descendent of Shekh Baháuddín Multání.* A large number of disciples joined him here and he was obliged to occupy a spacious tract of country. This excited the jealousy of the landowners of the place, at whose instigation the ruler of Multán had him killed and thus he became a martyr.
Later on, his descendant visited many area of Sindh, many people join them gradually Kalhoras arosed and Flourished in Sindh for over centuries as Religious and Political leaders. Many Communities of Sindh Enrolled as their followers Abro, Bhatti, Jokhiyo, Junejo, Sial, Sahta, Rajputs, Kalwar, Jatoi, Khosa, Chandio, Leghari, Talpurs.. and many others.
In History,it is reported that in the battle of Halani Majority of Balouchs stand against their Murshid, the some of the Followers never go astray to them and remained Loyal till their Death, those were Jatoi, Chandio, & Khosa Tribesmen who Fight in the first row at their last gasp in the Battle of Halani.
The Mehrabpur City in Khairpur District is stil on the name of Abbasi Army's Soldier Mehrab Khan Jatoi, who fight for the dignity of his Spiritual Leaders and thus Embarrassed Shahadat in the Battle of Halani.
After the end of Abbasi Dynasty in Sindh, Abbasi's take their Loyal Army with themselves and settle in Khanpur Shikarpur. So on Today The Chief Sardar of Abbasi Tribe and Jatoi Tribe are Still live together and enjoy great Relationship with each other.
'Kalhora' Dynasty is known as the "GOLDEN TIMES" for Sindh in the History.
This Imara(rule) was in the Hameer meaning non Quraish then Allah snatched it from them and gave it to the Quraish and soon it will return to the Non Quraish."
|“||"Meaning Clearly Reflect in Hadith Above , Rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling”||”|
Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله کلہوڑا) (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ ) ruled over Sindh and other parts of present day Pakistan for over century(1701-1783)|(1681-1783)|. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora chief Mian Nasir Muammad Kalhoro (1657-1692).
Mian Nasir Muhammad was succeeded by his elder son Mian Deen Muhammad who fought against mughals to consolidate his power. After his death Mian Yar Muahmmad became new ruler of Sindh in 1701 AD. He was conferred a prestigious title of Khudayar Khan by Prince Auranzeb. In the year 1736, Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro was officially entitled as the Kalhora Nawab of Sindh by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
The Kalhora Dynasty declined later when Mian Abdul Nabi lost control of Sindh in 1783 and was defeated by his own disciples Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Halani. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro] was the last Kalhoro Nawab.
The Kalhoro period is most important for the development of Sindhi literature, arts and crafts, Irrigation. Kalhoras are believed to have dug several channels in every part of Sindh to irrigate the uncultivated land. Historian(s) entitled Kalhora reign as “Golden Times of Sindh”
Being Successful Religious Leaders of Sindh, they were having immense sympathy for the people of Sindh, It Compelled them to Join Politics and run campaign against the cruel rule of Mughal Rulers, they were the first local representatives to run politicking, and vocally protested against Injustice of Mughal Empire.
They were forced to came into Politics otherwise they were never interested in Politics they were having Sufi soul, and want to live peaceful and simple life. This Quality can be found in their Descendants as well.
Kalhora Dynasty Produced Great Rulers of its time to Flourish Sindh.
Accordingly, the natives of the place came and incited the Mughals of Bakhar to harass and trouble him. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro was therefore obliged to leave the place and go to a sandy desert near Shahdadkot. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro lived much time in Punjab in this way. After some days of hardship and want, he left Larkana and settled in the plains of Kachho where he established his capital. Seeing this Mír Panhwar, the chief of the Panhwars, taking an army from the Governor of Bakhar, commanded among other leaders by Mirza Khan Pini, the Governor of Siwi came and fought with Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, but soon a truce was made and Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro was sent to the Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, who kept him in confinement at Gawaliyar for some time. During this period, fighting went on with the Mian’s followers, until Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro managed to escape and returned to his native place with the help of Amir Muhammad Bahadur Khan Daudpota of Shikarpur who did his arrangements in Chandookha Purgannah or Larkana area. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro spearheaded the Mianwal Movement from 1657 to 1692 AD, leaving behind a legacy in the form of the shrines of his disciples. The leaders of Mianwal Movement struggled against the foreign rule of the Mughals and eventually succeeded in overthrown them. After a successful reign of 35 years in 1692 A.D Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro died and was buried in Gaarhi near Kakar taluka Khairpur Nathan Shah District Dadu Sindh. His tomb was built by his son Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro in 1708 AD.
|“||Abu Bakr (RadiAllahu Tala Anho) said: This rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling.[Fath ul Bari 13/116, Sanad: Sahih]||”|
The Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai also emerged in Kalhora's Era. The Kalhora's Era was a golden age for Sindh & Sindhi Culture. They created an irrigation system to irrigate their lands to enlarge production, they had a tax system which could be paid by all level of people regardless of income. They were lenient to those who wished to pay and no force was used to collect taxes.
Sub-Tribe of Kalhora
Kalhora has no sub-tribe(s)...
The Royal Kalhora of Sindh family tree, is clearly visible in diagram(s) given below. The Abbasid Caliphs from Abu Al-Abbas Al Saffah till the Last Caliph of Egypt, is mentioned in diagram, furthermore, diagram mention their lieange line from Caliph Al-Muntasir II to Saint Main Adam Shah Abbassi, and Their Cousin(s), Amir Sadiq Mohammed Khan Abbasi I. The Caliphs of Baghdad are in Green, and in Yellow, The Caliphs of Cairo, Mohammed is also Cited here, to show the Kinship of Abbasids with him.
Head of the Tribe
Sardar Ali Murad Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1880 -1925) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Ali Nawaz Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1925-1970) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Haji Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1970-2006) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Ali Akbar Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar) 2006-To Present) (Shikarpur)
Nawab Amir Khan Kalhoro (Late)(Amir)(Shikarpur)
Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi (Amir) (Larkana)
Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
Main Yar Mouhammed Kalhoro (Khudabad), Amir
Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
Muhammad Muradyab Khan (Nawab Sarbuland Khan), Amir
Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Shahul Mouhammed Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro (Khudayar Khan), Amir
Dr. Ashraf Abbasi, Deputy Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan
Senator Dr. Safdar Ali Abbasi, PPP
Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi, MPA - PPP
- History of Daudpota By "Altaf Daudpoto" (Urdu: الطاف حسین داؤد پوٹو)
- History of Kalhora's
- Fall of Kalhora's
- Ghulam Rasool Mahar (1963). Tareekh-e-Sindh Kalhora Daur. Hyderabad Sindh: Sindh Aadabi Board, Hyderabad, Sindh. p. 2000.
- Tareekh-e-Sindh, Kalhora Daur, Book 6 Part I & II (Author: Ghulam Sarwar Mahar)