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A sketch of the Pacco Qillo (c. 1845) drawn by Lieutenant Edwards
|100,000 - 200,000|
|Regions with significant populations|
50,000 - 100,000
|Islam - Sunni|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Kalhora (ڪلهوڙا) of the Abbasi clan are people of Arabic origin who are descended from Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (العباس بن عبد المطلب), (born about 566 – died about 653 CE). Abbas was a paternal uncle and Sahabi (companion) of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. He was the progenitor of the Abbasi Khalifa of Baghdad, Iraq and Qahira (now, Cairo, Egypt). The Kalhora reside in Sindh, a province of Pakistan.
The dynasty of religious and political rulers, the Abbasid caliphs, built capitals rich in science and the arts at Baghdad and Cairo in the 8th century CE. The scientists of the dynasty included Al-Biruni, Abu Nasr Mansur, and Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī.
A caliph of the dynasty in Cairo, Al-Mustansir II (1261 - 1262) was the first of the Abbasid leaders to arrive in Sindh province. His objective was to enforce the law of the caliphate and to work with the rulers of the local tribe, the Samma.
A century later, two Abbasi leaders, Qaim and his brother Ahmed, arrived in 1366 CE and 1370 CE respectively. Ahmed married Dohrang Sahta, the daughter of Rai, the local raja (king). He received one third of the province in dowry.
Ahmed's great great grandson, Fathu'llah, took the Bhangar territory from king Dallu of Alor and Bhamanabad. He renamed the territory, Qahir Bela. In 1583, Fathu'llah's son, Mohammed Chenai, entered service as a panchhazari in the Mughal forces. When Chenai died, succession was contested by his two sons, representing the Kalhora clan and the Daudpota clan.
The two sons were Mohammed Khan Abbasi (founder of the Kalhora clan) and Daud Khan Abbasi (founder of the Daupota clan). Mohammed was given his father’s sword and the tribe’s leadership. Daud inherited the legacy of Chenai's spiritual leadership, the musallah (the place of worship), the tasbeeh (the sacred chants) and the role of murshid (religious leader).
Mohammed died shortly after. His son, Ibrahim, succeeded him. However, he abdicated his role shortly after in order to pursue a simple spiritual life at Mount Kalho (ڪلهو), near Hyderabad. He is remembered as Kalhoro Khan (ڪلهوڙو خان), one who lives a spiritual life alone.
The descendants of Mohammed Khan Abbasi use Kalhora as their surname.
Religious leaders (Pir)
Adam Kalhora was seventh in the line of descendants of Ibrahim. Adam Kalhora's father was Chenai. Although he was born in a small village, Adam Kalhora rose to prominence through the patronage of Sardar Khabar Abro. The small village of his birth became a centre of spiritual learning.
A princely ruler, the Nawáb Khan Khánán of the Wadera Kabar Abro (the Zamindar of Chándúkah), visited Adam Kalhora to ask for his blessing. Then, Adam Kalhora went to visit Lál l’san, the spiritual descendant of Baháuddín Multání of Multán. His travel through the land of the local rulers and the presence of his large entourage caused upset and Adam Kalhora was killed. He became a martyr among Kalhora. Adam Kalhora has followers in a number of clans including: the Abro, Bhatti, Jokhiyo, Junejo, Sial, Sahta, Rajputs, Kalwar, Jatoi, Khosa, Chandio, Leghari and, Talpurs.
Battle of Halani
At the battle of Halani, the Balouchs fought a religious war against the Jatoi, Chandio, and the Khosa tribes. In Mehrabpur, Khairpur, there is a memorial to Mehrab Khan Jatoi, a soldier of the Abassi army who helped defeat the enemy, Shahadat.
After the end of Abbasi Dynasty in Sindh, Abbasi's take their Loyal Army with themselves and settle in Khanpur Shikarpur. So on Today The Chief Sardar of Abbasi Tribe and Jatoi Tribe are Still live together and enjoy great Relationship with each other.
This Imara(rule) was in the Hameer meaning non Quraish then Allah snatched it from them and gave it to the Quraish and soon it will return to the Non Quraish."
|“||"Meaning Clearly Reflect in Hadith Above , Rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling”||”|
Kalhora Dynasty or Kalhoro Dynasty (Urdu: سلسله کلہوڑا) (Sindhi: ڪلهوڙا راڄ ) ruled over Sindh and other parts of present day Pakistan for over century(1701-1783)|(1681-1783)|. This dynasty was founded by Kalhora chief Mian Nasir Muammad Kalhoro (1657-1692).
Mian Nasir Muhammad was succeeded by his elder son Mian Deen Muhammad who fought against mughals to consolidate his power. After his death Mian Yar Muahmmad became new ruler of Sindh in 1701 AD. He was conferred a prestigious title of Khudayar Khan by Prince Auranzeb. In the year 1736, Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro was officially entitled as the Kalhora Nawab of Sindh by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
The Kalhora Dynasty declined later when Mian Abdul Nabi lost control of Sindh in 1783 and was defeated by his own disciples Talpur Amirs in the Battle of Halani. Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro] was the last Kalhoro Nawab.
The Kalhoro period is most important for the development of Sindhi literature, arts and crafts, Irrigation. Kalhoras are believed to have dug several channels in every part of Sindh to irrigate the uncultivated land. Historian(s) entitled Kalhora reign as “Golden Times of Sindh”
Being Successful Religious Leaders of Sindh, they were having immense sympathy for the people of Sindh, It Compelled them to Join Politics and run campaign against the cruel rule of Mughal Rulers, they were the first local representatives to run politicking, and vocally protested against Injustice of Mughal Empire.
They were forced to came into Politics otherwise they were never interested in Politics they were having Sufi soul, and want to live peaceful and simple life. This Quality can be found in their Descendants as well.
Kalhora Dynasty Produced Great Rulers of its time to Flourish Sindh.
Accordingly, the natives of the place came and incited the Mughals of Bakhar to harass and trouble him. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro was therefore obliged to leave the place and go to a sandy desert near Shahdadkot. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro lived much time in Punjab in this way. After some days of hardship and want, he left Larkana and settled in the plains of Kachho where he established his capital. Seeing this Mír Panhwar, the chief of the Panhwars, taking an army from the Governor of Bakhar, commanded among other leaders by Mirza Khan Pini, the Governor of Siwi came and fought with Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, but soon a truce was made and Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro was sent to the Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir, who kept him in confinement at Gawaliyar for some time. During this period, fighting went on with the Mian’s followers, until Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro managed to escape and returned to his native place with the help of Amir Muhammad Bahadur Khan Daudpota of Shikarpur who did his arrangements in Chandookha Purgannah or Larkana area. Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro spearheaded the Mianwal Movement from 1657 to 1692 AD, leaving behind a legacy in the form of the shrines of his disciples. The leaders of Mianwal Movement struggled against the foreign rule of the Mughals and eventually succeeded in overthrown them. After a successful reign of 35 years in 1692 A.D Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro died and was buried in Gaarhi near Kakar taluka Khairpur Nathan Shah District Dadu Sindh. His tomb was built by his son Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro in 1708 AD.
|“||Abu Bakr (RadiAllahu Tala Anho) said: This rule will remain in Quraish till they keep obeying Allah and stay on His ruling.[Fath ul Bari 13/116, Sanad: Sahih]||”|
The Sindhi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai also emerged in Kalhora's Era. The Kalhora's Era was a golden age for Sindh & Sindhi Culture. They created an irrigation system to irrigate their lands to enlarge production, they had a tax system which could be paid by all level of people regardless of income. They were lenient to those who wished to pay and no force was used to collect taxes.
The Royal Kalhora of Sindh family tree, is clearly visible in diagram(s) given below. The Abbasid Caliphs from Abu Al-Abbas Al Saffah till the Last Caliph of Egypt, is mentioned in diagram, furthermore, diagram mention their lieange line from Caliph Al-Muntasir II to Saint Main Adam Shah Abbassi, and Their Cousin(s), Amir Sadiq Mohammed Khan Abbasi I. The Caliphs of Baghdad are in Green, and in Yellow, The Caliphs of Cairo, Mohammed is also Cited here, to show the Kinship of Abbasids with him.
Head of the Tribe
Sardar Ali Murad Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1880 -1925) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Ali Nawaz Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1925-1970) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Haji Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar 1970-2006) (Shikarpur)
Sardar Ali Akbar Khan Kalhoro (Chief Sardar) 2006-To Present) (Shikarpur)
Nawab Amir Khan Kalhoro (Late)(Amir)(Shikarpur)
Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi (Amir) (Larkana)
Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
Main Yar Mouhammed Kalhoro (Khudabad), Amir
Main Noor Mohammad Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Amir
Muhammad Muradyab Khan (Nawab Sarbuland Khan), Amir
Mian Nasir Muhammad Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Shahul Mouhammed Kalhoro, Amir
Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro (Khudayar Khan), Amir
Dr. Ashraf Abbasi, Deputy Speaker National Assembly of Pakistan
Senator Dr. Safdar Ali Abbasi, PPP
Sardar Munawar Ali Abbasi, MPA - PPP
- History of Daudpota By "Altaf Daudpoto" (Urdu: الطاف حسین داؤد پوٹو)
- History of Kalhora's
- Fall of Kalhora's
- Ghulam Rasool Mahar (1963). Tareekh-e-Sindh Kalhora Daur. Hyderabad Sindh: Sindh Aadabi Board, Hyderabad, Sindh. p. 2000.
- Tareekh-e-Sindh, Kalhora Daur, Book 6 Part I & II (Author: Ghulam Sarwar Mahar)