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|Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve|
|— habitat/species management area —|
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
|Nearest city||Tirunelveli 40 km|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
||895 square kilometres (346 sq mi)
• 1,800 metres (5,900 ft)
• 3,500 mm (140 in)
|Governing body||Tamil Nadu Forest Dept.|
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR),(Tamil:களக்காடு முண்டந்துறை புலிகள் சரணாலயம்) situated in the Southern Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district and Kanyakumari District, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is the second largest protected area in Tamil Nadu State.
This reserve was created in 1988 by combining Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary (251 km²) and Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary (567 km²), both established in 1962. Notification of 77 km² of parts of Veerapuli and Kilamalai Reserve Forests in adjacent Kanyakumari district, added to the reserve in April 1996, is pending. A 400 km2 (150 sq mi) core area of this reserve has been proposed as a National Park
Location is between latitude 8° 25’ and 8° 53’ N and longitude 77° 10’ and 77° 35’ E. This is about 45 km west of Tirunelveli Town.
The Reserve forms the catchment area for 14 rivers and streams. Among them the Ganga, Tambraparani, Ramanadi, Karayar, Servalar, Manimuthar, Pachayar, Kodaiyar, Kadnar, Kallar form the back-bone of the irrigation network and drinking water for people of Tirunelveli, Turicorin and part of Kanyakumari district. Seven major dams - Karaiyar, Lower Dam, Servalar, Manimuthar, Ramanadi, Kadnanadi and Kodaiyar - owe their existence to these rivers.
KMTR forms part of the inter-state (Kerala and Tamil Nadu) Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve. This part of Agastya Malai hills in the core of KMTR is considered one of the five centres of biodiversity and endemism in India IUCN. The Western Ghats, Agasthyamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.
The Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE) has developed and implemented a conservation intervention program in KMTR to decrease local villagers' dependency on the forests for fuel and build community awareness about the value of biodiversity in the area.
"Agasthya" is the KMTR newsletter including updates on research projects and staff activities at KMTR. Contents of the first issue include: A Sanctuary for Cycas circinalis, Tiger Almost, Round in Agasthyamalai in Fourteen Days, Corridors - It is Just Not for the Four Legged Furry Creatures, Behaviour and Movement of Nilgiri Langur in the Upper Kodayar Range — KMTR, Canopy News, Agasthya Village commons and backyards to meet the biomass requirements: An Experiment with Panchayat Raj and Women Collectives, Bi-Lingual Field Guide Test Run, Snippets from the Field, Cullenia exarillata: A Keystone Species for Birds?, Tea, Tiger and Oranges .
Tigers are also protected in Tamil Nadu at: Mudumalai National Park, Indira Gandhi National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary, Mukurthi National Park and Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary.
Flora & fauna
KMTR has at least 150 endemic plants, 33 fish, 37 amphibian, 81 reptile, 273 bird and 77 mammal species. A 1997 Census by Project Tiger counted the following wildlife: Tigers 73, Leopards 79, Jungle Cats 1755, Wild Dogs 1718, Elephants N.A, Gaur 232, Sambar 1302, Chital 1966, Nilgiri Tahr 8780, Wild Pigs 187, Mouse Deer 172, Sloth Bears 123, Lion-tailed Macaque 37, Bonnet Macaque 61, Nilgiri langur 61, Common langur 61, Slender loris 61, Giant Squirrel 61, Crocodile 61
A comprehensive report on the history, flora & fauna, ecology and future of the reserve: "The Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve: A global heritage of biological diversity" by A. J. T. Johnsingh, Wildlife Institute of India (2001) is available.
The Tiger Reserve has a large number of employees of the Electricity Board and Public Works Department who stay in three colonies and work at Karayar, Upper dam, Servalar and Upper Kodayar reservoirs within the Reserve. Bombay Burmah Trading Company has 33.88 km² land lease valid till 2028 in the core area of the Reserve. The Company has tea and coffee plantations, three factories and employs about 10,000 workers in the reserve. There are several small estates and five Kani Tribal habitations consisting of about 102 families. About 145 hamlets situated within 5 km of the 110 km eastern boundary of the Reserve are inhabited by 100,000 people. There are about 50,000 cattle grazing out of these fringe villages. there are a small number of cattle owned by the tea estate workers and residents of the electricity board colonies.
The Kalakkadu Mundanthurai Sanctuary forest department building and the rangers office with some bungalows for VIPs and travellers is located at:. The Tiger Cottage at is a dormitory style cottage maintained by the Forest Department. It has a rest room and a few double-deckered beds. The route to the cottage is very good with trees on both the sides and there is ample parking space. There is access to the river from the rear of the building and staying here at night is quite an experience. There is a kitchen where you get decent food while visiting the area. There are friendly people and guides to some of the places nearby.
Located between elevations ranging from 1000 to 1500 Metres, the Manjolai area is set deep within the Western Ghats within the Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in the Tirunelveli District. Located on top of the Manimuthar Dam & the Manimuthar Water Falls, the Manjolai area comprises Tea Plantations, Small settlements around the tea plantations; Upper Kodaiyar Dam and a windy view point called Kuthiravetti
The Tea Plantations and the whole of Manjolai Estates are tea operated by The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Ltd on Forest Lands leased by the Government of Tamil Nadu. There are 3 Tea Estates within the Manjolai area - Manjolai Estate, Manimutharu Estate & Oothu Estate. The Estates are located on elevations ranging between 2300 Feet to 4200 Feet. The estates, road & the settlements in the Manjolai area are managed by The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Ltd. Images of Manjolai Hills can be viewed at http://www.flickr.com/photos/59865572@N00/sets/72157627351253129/
- Dutt Sugato, Mukherjee S.K. : An ecology study of Kalakkad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve - An eco-development approach - FREEP
Table of Contents & Summary, pp. VI
- Study on Revision and Upgradation of the Management plan, KMTR, Table of Contents & Summary, pp VI
- BirdLife International, Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, 2008
- ENVIS List of Proposed National Parks in India, 2006
- S.P. Yadav, Deputy Inspector General of Forests (PT) (2010-08-28), "Centrally Sponsored Plan Scheme ‘Project Tiger’ Administrative Approval for funds release to Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu during 2010-11.", No. 4-1(32)/2010-PT (New Delhi: National Tiger Conservation Authority), retrieved 2011-02-02
- Tamil Nadu Forest Dept. Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, 2007
- Samrakshan, PEACE–ELDF, "Lessons Learned from Eco-Development Experiences in India", June 2004, pp 255-275.
- UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Agasthyamalai. retrieved 4/20/2007 World Heritage sites, Tentative lists
- Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment ATREE
- Ganesh T. (Marcvh 2007) "Agasthya" ATREE, Bangalore, retrieved 4/3/2007 "Agasthya"
- Wildlife Institute of India, Species Database, National Wildlife Database, Status and Distribution of Tiger (Panthera tigris).National Wildlife Database.
- Sathyakumar, S (2006) Habitat use by Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii Temminck at Mundanthurai Plateau, Tamil Nadu. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 103(1):57-61
- Johnsingh, A. J. T., Wildlife Institute of India, "The Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve: A global heritage of biological diversity",
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 80, NO. 3, 10 FEBRUARY 2001.Flora and Fauna of KMTR also in PDF
- Project Tiger, Reserve Guide: Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, retrieved 5/13/2007 Kalakad–Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve
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