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For other persons with this name, see John Conway.
John Conway
John H Conway 2005 (cropped).jpg
Born John Horton Conway
(1937-12-26) 26 December 1937 (age 78)[1]
Liverpool, Lancashire, England
Residence United States
Nationality British
Fields Mathematics
Institutions Princeton University
Alma mater Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (BA, MA, PhD)
Thesis Homogeneous ordered sets (1964)
Doctoral advisor Harold Davenport[2]
Doctoral students
Known for
Notable awards

John Horton Conway FRS[3] (/ˈkɒnw/; born 26 December 1937) is an English mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory. He has also contributed to many branches of recreational mathematics, notably the invention of the cellular automaton called the Game of Life. Conway is currently Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Princeton University in New Jersey.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]


Conway was born in Liverpool,[11] the son of Cyril Horton Conway and Agnes Boyce.[10] He became interested in mathematics at a very early age; his mother has recalled that he could recite the powers of two when he was four years old. By the age of eleven his ambition was to become a mathematician.

After leaving secondary school, Conway entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge[1][12] to study mathematics. Conway who was a "terribly introverted adolescent" in school interpreted his admission to Cambridge as an opportunity to transform himself into a new person: an "extrovert".[13][14]

He was awarded his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1959 and began to undertake research in number theory supervised by Harold Davenport. Having solved the open problem posed by Davenport on writing numbers as the sums of fifth powers, Conway began to become interested in infinite ordinals. It appears that his interest in games began during his years studying the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos, where he became an avid backgammon player, spending hours playing the game in the common room. He was awarded his doctorate in 1964 and was appointed as College Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics at Cambridge University.

He left Cambridge in 1986 to take up the appointment to the John von Neumann Chair of Mathematics at Princeton University.

According to a 2015 biography, Conway has been thrice married and twice divorced, and has suffered two heart attacks, two strokes, and depression.[15] He resides with his current wife, Diana, in Princeton.


Combinatorial game theory[edit]

Among amateur mathematicians, he is perhaps most widely known for his contributions to combinatorial game theory (CGT), a theory of partisan games. This he developed with Elwyn Berlekamp and Richard Guy, and with them also co-authored the book Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays. He also wrote the book On Numbers and Games (ONAG) which lays out the mathematical foundations of CGT.

He is also one of the inventors of sprouts, as well as philosopher's football. He developed detailed analyses of many other games and puzzles, such as the Soma cube, peg solitaire, and Conway's soldiers. He came up with the angel problem, which was solved in 2006.

He invented a new system of numbers, the surreal numbers, which are closely related to certain games and have been the subject of a mathematical novel by Donald Knuth. He also invented a nomenclature for exceedingly large numbers, the Conway chained arrow notation. Much of this is discussed in the 0th part of ONAG.

He is also known for the invention of Conway's Game of Life, one of the early and still celebrated examples of a cellular automaton. His early experiments in that field were done with pen and paper, long before personal computers existed.


In the mid-1960s with Michael Guy, son of Richard Guy, he established that there are sixty-four convex uniform polychora excluding two infinite sets of prismatic forms. They discovered the grand antiprism in the process, the only non-Wythoffian uniform polychoron. Conway has also suggested a system of notation dedicated to describing polyhedra called Conway polyhedron notation.

He extensively investigated lattices in higher dimensions, and determined the symmetry group of the Leech lattice.

Geometric topology[edit]

Conway's approach to computing the Alexander polynomial of knot theory involved skein relations, by a variant now called the Alexander-Conway polynomial. After lying dormant for more than a decade, this concept became central to work in the 1980s on the novel knot polynomials. Conway further developed tangle theory and invented a system of notation for tabulating knots, nowadays known as Conway notation, while correcting a number of errors in the 19th century knot tables and extending them to include all but four of the non-alternating primes with 11 crossings [Topology Proceedings 7 (1982) 118].

Group theory[edit]

He worked on the classification of finite simple groups and discovered the Conway groups. He was the primary author of the ATLAS of Finite Groups giving properties of many finite simple groups. He, along with collaborators, constructed the first concrete representations of some of the sporadic groups. More specifically, he discovered three sporadic groups based on the symmetry of the Leech lattice, which have been designated the Conway groups.

With Simon P. Norton he formulated the complex of conjectures relating the monster group with modular functions, which was named monstrous moonshine by them.

He introduced the Mathieu groupoid, an extension of the Mathieu group M12 to 13 points.

Number theory[edit]

As a graduate student, he proved the conjecture by Edward Waring that every integer could be written as the sum of 37 numbers, each raised to the fifth power, though Chen Jingrun solved the problem independently before the work could be published.[16]


He has also done work in algebra, particularly with quaternions. Together with Neil Sloane, he invented the icosians.[17]


For calculating the day of the week, he invented the Doomsday algorithm. The algorithm is simple enough for anyone with basic arithmetic ability to do the calculations mentally. Conway can usually give the correct answer in under two seconds. To improve his speed, he practices his calendrical calculations on his computer, which is programmed to quiz him with random dates every time he logs on. One of his early books was on finite state machines.

Theoretical physics[edit]

In 2004, Conway and Simon B. Kochen, another Princeton mathematician, proved the free will theorem, a startling version of the 'no hidden variables' principle of quantum mechanics. It states that given certain conditions, if an experimenter can freely decide what quantities to measure in a particular experiment, then elementary particles must be free to choose their spins to make the measurements consistent with physical law. In Conway's provocative wording: "if experimenters have free will, then so do elementary particles."


He has (co-)written several books including the ATLAS of Finite Groups, Regular Algebra and Finite Machines, Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups,[18] The Sensual (Quadratic) Form, On Numbers and Games, Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays, The Book of Numbers, On Quaternions and Octonions,[19] The Triangle Book (written with Steve Sigur)[20] and in summer 2008 published The Symmetries of Things with Chaim Goodman-Strauss and Heidi Burgiel.

Awards and honours[edit]

Conway received the Berwick Prize (1971),[21] was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (1981),[3] was the first recipient of the Pólya Prize (LMS) (1987),[21] won the Nemmers Prize in Mathematics (1998) and received the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Mathematical Exposition (2000) of the American Mathematical Society.

His nomination reads:

A versatile mathematician who combines a deep combinatorial insight with algebraic virtuosity, particularly in the construction and manipulation of "off-beat" algebraic structures which illuminate a wide variety of problems in completely unexpected ways. He has made distinguished contributions to the theory of finite groups, to the theory of knots, to mathematical logic (both set theory and automata theory) and to the theory of games (as also to its practice).[3]


  1. ^ a b "CONWAY, Prof. John Horton". Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b John Horton Conway at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. ^ a b c d "EC/1981/11: Conway, John Horton". London: The Royal Society. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Conway, J. H.; Hardin, R. H.; Sloane, N. J. A. (1996). "Packing Lines, Planes, etc.: Packings in Grassmannian Spaces". Experimental Mathematics 5 (2): 139. doi:10.1080/10586458.1996.10504585. 
  5. ^ John Horton Conway's publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database, a service provided by Elsevier.
  6. ^ Conway, J. H.; Sloane, N. J. A. (1990). "A new upper bound on the minimal distance of self-dual codes". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 36 (6): 1319. doi:10.1109/18.59931. 
  7. ^ Conway, J. H.; Sloane, N. J. A. (1993). "Self-dual codes over the integers modulo 4". Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A 62: 30. doi:10.1016/0097-3165(93)90070-O. 
  8. ^ Conway, J.; Sloane, N. (1982). "Fast quantizing and decoding and algorithms for lattice quantizers and codes". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 28 (2): 227. doi:10.1109/TIT.1982.1056484. 
  9. ^ Conway, J. H.; Lagarias, J. C. (1990). "Tiling with polyominoes and combinatorial group theory". Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series A 53 (2): 183. doi:10.1016/0097-3165(90)90057-4. 
  10. ^ a b O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "John Horton Conway", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews .
  11. ^ "John Conway". www.nndb.com. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  12. ^ Professor John Conway MA PhD FRS
  13. ^ Roberts, Siobhan (23 July 2015). "John Horton Conway: the world’s most charismatic mathematician". The Guardian. 
  14. ^ Mark Ronan (18 May 2006). Symmetry and the Monster: One of the greatest quests of mathematics. Oxford University Press, UK. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-19-157938-7. 
  15. ^ Review of Genius At Play: The Curious Mind of John Horton Conway (Siobhan Roberts Bloomsbury: 2015) by Michael Harris in Nature 523, 406–407 (23 July 2015) doi:10.1038/523406a
  16. ^ Breakfast with John Horton Conway
  17. ^ This Week's Finds in Mathematical Physics (Week 20)
  18. ^ Guy, Richard K. (1989). "Review: Sphere packings, lattices and groups, by J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 21 (1): 142–147. doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-1989-15795-9. 
  19. ^ Baez, John C. (2005). "Review: On quaternions and octonions: Their geometry, arithmetic, and symmetry, by John H. Conway and Derek A. Smith" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 42 (2): 229–243. doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-05-01043-8. 
  20. ^ http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/1391661.The_Triangle_Book
  21. ^ a b LMS Prizewinners

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Horton_Conway — Please support Wikipedia.
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240 news items


Sun, 13 Dec 2015 21:10:48 -0800

Siobhan Roberts, author of the new biography “Genius At Play, The Curious Mind of John Horton Conway,” introduces us to the infatuating Princeton mathematician who one reviewer called “perhaps the greatest living genius unknown to the general public.”.

New York Times (blog)

New York Times (blog)
Mon, 03 Aug 2015 09:00:42 -0700

This week we feature the recently released biography of John Horton Conway, the unpredictable, unmanageable, impossibly brilliant British mathematician and professor emeritus at Princeton. Mr. Conway is “Archimedes, Mick Jagger, Salvador Dali and ...

Toronto Star

Toronto Star
Sun, 23 Aug 2015 09:01:41 -0700

Born in Liverpool in 1937, John Horton Conway studied mathematics at Cambridge, where he later taught before moving to Princeton in 1987. A fellow of the Royal Society of London, Conway has made important contributions to geometry and game theory, ...

Buffalo News

Buffalo News
Sat, 11 Jul 2015 21:18:45 -0700

“Genius” is the biography of another mathematical genius, John Horton Conway. Conway was educated at Cambridge and taught there, sometimes barefoot, inventing “The Game of Life” in 1970, which involved “exploring the possibilities of simulating human ...


Tue, 11 Aug 2015 20:17:04 -0700

John Horton Conway has lived his life on the knife's edge between genius and madness. The 77-year-old British mathematician and polymath is profiled at incredible length, mostly in his own words, in an expansive new biography by Roberts, a science ...


Sat, 05 Sep 2015 04:01:53 -0700

Gnawing on his left index finger with his chipped old British teeth, temporal veins bulging and brow pensively squinched beneath the day-before-yesterday's hair, the mathematician John Horton Conway unapologetically whiles away his hours tinkering and ...
Mon, 01 Feb 2016 15:24:15 -0800

In 1970, John Horton Conway, a British mathematician, developed the Game of Life. It's a simulation of population growth that takes place on a two-dimensional grid and runs on its own. To start your own simulation, type "conway's game of life" into ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Thu, 21 Jan 2016 02:07:56 -0800

British mathematician John Horton Conway devised the Game of Life as a cellular automation, where the player sets the starting parameter and then watches as evolution takes over. Typing “conway's game of life” into Google and hitting enter spawns a ...

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